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ther it was lawful to swear to the queen, as supreme head of the church under Christ. He thought Christ was the sole head of the church, and no such expression of any inferior head was found in the Scripture. He thought, likewise, that the want of discipline made that a bishop could not do his duty. Many temporal pressures lay upon bishops, such as first-fruits and tenths, besides the expense of their equipage and attendance at court: so that liitle was left for the breeding up of youih, for the relief of the poor, and other more necessary occasions, to make their ministry ceptable. The whole method of electing bishops was totally different from the primitive institution. The consent either of the clergy or people was not so much as asked. Their superstitious dress seemed likewise unbecoming. He wrote all this only to him, not that he expected that a bishopric should be ofered him : be praved God that it might never happen. He was resolved to apply himself to preach, but to avoid having any share in the governnient, till he saw a full reformation made in all ecclesiastical functions, both as to doctrine and discipline, and with relation to the goods of the church. He desires his answer as soon as was possible."

Peter Martyr answered his letter on the 1st of November, but what it was can only be gathered from Sampsen's reply to it: he received it on the 3d of January, and answered it on the 6th, 1560. It is in the Collection (No. lxiii). “ They were then under sad apprehensions, for which he desires their prayers in a very solemn manner. They were afraid lest the truth of religion should either be overturned, or very much darkened in England. The bishops of Canterbury, London, Ely, and Worcester, were consecrated : Pilkington was designed for Winchester, Bentham for Coventry and Litchfield, and Peter Martyr's Jewel for Salisbury.

" Things still stuck with him: he could neither have ingress nor egress: God knew how glad he would be to find an egress; let others be bishops, he desired only to be a preacher, but no bishop. There was yet a general prohibition of all preaching; and there was a crucifix on the altar still at court, with lights burning before it: and though, by the queen's order, images were removed out of churches all the kingdom over, yet the people rejoiced to see still kept in the queen's chapel. Three bishops officiated at this altar; one as priest, another as deacon, and a third as sub-deacon, all before this idol, in rich copes : and there was a sacrament without any sermon. He adds, that injunctions were sent to preachers not to use freedom in the

reproving of vice ; so he asks what both Martyr, Bullinger, and Bernardin, thought of this: whether they looked on it as a thing indifferent, and what they would advise him to do, if injunctions should be sent out, requiring the like to be done in all churches; whether they ought to be obeyed, or if the clergy ought not to suffer deprivation rather than obey ? Some among themselves thought that all this was indifferent, and so might be obeyed : le understood that the queen had a great regard to Bernardin Ochino, so he desires that he would write to her to carry on the work of God diligently. He solemnly assures them, that she was truly a child of God. But princes had not so many friends to their souls as they had to their other concerns. He wishes they would all write to her; for she understood both Italian, Latin, and Greek, well. So they might write in any language to her; but if they wrote, they must write as of their own motion, and not as if any complaints had been writ over to them."

On the 13th of May he wrote again, that a bishopric had been offered to him, but that he had refused it: and he desires Peter Martyr, to whom he wrote, not to censure this till he knew the whole state of the matter: but he rejoices that Parkhurst was made bishop of Norwich.” And, by his letter, it seems Norwich was the bishopric that was offered to him. Parkhurst wrote soon after his promotion to Martyr, and assured him there was no danger of setting up Lutheranism in England: only he writes, “ We are fighting about ceremonies, vestments, and matters of no moment."

Jewel wrote to Peter Martyr, on the 22d of May, “ that the church of Salisbury was so struck with thunder, that there was a clift all down for sixty feet: he was not got thither, so he could not tell whether foolish people made judgments upon this, with relation to him, or not. He writes that Bonner, Fecknam, Pole, Scory, and Watson, were all put in prison for railing at the changes that were made. The queen expressed great firmness and courage in maintaining the establishment she had made in matters of religion. He tells him, that not only Cecil and Knolls desired to be kindly remembered to him, but Petre likewise, which perhaps he did not look for.”

On the 17th of July he writes to him, “ that there was a peace made in Scotland, and that the French were sent away. Scotland was to be governed by a council of twelve persons; only all greater matters were to be referred to a parliament. He writes, that the duke of Holstein was come over to see the queen, and was nobly treated by her, and made a knight of the garter: the king of Sweden's coming over was still talked of.” After Jewel had been some time in his diocess, he wrote to Gualter on the 2d of November 1560, “that he now felt what a load government was to him, who had led his life in the shade, and at study, and had never turned his thoughts to government; but he would make up in his diligence what might be otherwise wanting: the opposition he met with from the rage of the papists was incredible.” On the 6th of November he wrote, that May, dean of

Paul's, who was designed to be archbishop of was dead: it does not appear on what views that see was so long kept void afier the rest were filled. Parker was much troubled at this, and wrote very earnestly about it to Cecil. The letter will be found in the Collection (No.lxiv). " There were great complaints in the north : the people

re were oftended to see no more care had of them; and for want of instruction they were become rude: this was like to have an ill influence on the quiet and order of the country. It was perhaps so long delayed for the advantage the queen's exchequer made by the vacancy: but if, for want of good instruction, the people should grow savage, Jike the Irish, it might run to a far greater charge to reduce them. Why should any person hinder the queen's zeal, to have her people taught to know and to fear God? If those hitherto named for the north were not liked, or not willing to go thither, he proposed that some of those already placed might be removed thither. And he named Young, bishop of St. David's, for York; and the bishop of Rochester, Guest, for Duresme: and if any suspicions were had of any of their practising to the prejudice of their successo there were precedents used in former times, to take bishops bound to leave their churches in no worse case than they found them. He had pressed them formerly with relation to vacant sees : he saw the matter was still delayed: he would never give cver his importunity till the thing was done, which he hoped he would instantly promote, out of the zeal he bore to souls so dear to Christ.”

This he wrote on the 16th of October; so it does not appear if the design for May was then so well fixed as Jewel apprehended. The hint in this letter of the practices of bishops was occasioned by the ruinous leases that the popish bishops had made; for, seeing the change that was designed, they had by the law at that time so absolute a power over their estates, having no restraints laid on them but those of their own canons, that their leases, how mischievous soever to their successors, were good in law. The new bishops, in many places, had scarce necessary subsistence, or houses left them, and were to be supported by dignities given them in commendam: and it was perhaps suggested, that they, to procure a little better subsistence to themselves, might be prevailed upon to prolong or confirm such leases.

The archbishop's importunity had its effect; for, in February thereafter, Young was removed to York; and Pilkington, a learned and zealous man, was made bishop of Duresme*. And thus the sees of England were filled. Jewel, in a letter soon after to Peter Martyr, in February 1560, which will be found in the Collection (No. Ixv), “ wishes that all the remnants of former errors, with all the rubbish, and even the dust that might yet remain, might be taken away: he wishes they could have obtained it. It seems by this, that their wishes had not prevailed. The council of Trent was then to be opened again, but the queen was resolved to take no notice of it. He gives an account of his apology, that was then set out.” This has been so often printed, and is so well known, that it is not necessary to enlarge more upon it: as it was one of the first books published in this reign, so it was written with that strength and clearness, that it, together with the de. fence of it, is still to this day reckoned one of our best books. In that letter he writes of the countess of Lenox, the mother to the Lord Darnley, “ that she was a more violent papist than even Queen Mary herself. Her son was gone to Scotland, and it was believed he might marry the queen of Scotland : the Earl of Hartford had a son by the Lady Katharine Gray: some called him a bastard, but others affirmed that they were married. If that was true, then, according to King Henry's will, he must be the heir of the crown. But he adds. : Ah! unhappy we, that cannot know under what prince we are to live. He complains that schools are forsaken, and that they were under a great want of preachers. The few they had were everywhere well received: he writes in another letter, that, in Queen Mary's time, for want of good instruction, the anabaptists and Arians did much increase; but now they disappeared everywhere.”

The popish clergy, when they saw no appearance of any new change, did generally comply with the laws then made; but in so untoward a manner, that they made it very visible that what they did was against both their heart and their conscience. This put the bishops on receiving many into

* See more of this in the Annals of the Reformation, chap. 12.

was possible

orders that were not thoroughly well qualified, which exposed them to much censure. They thought, that, in that necessity, men of good hearts, that loved the gospel, though not so learned as might be wished for, were to be brought into the service of the church : but pains was taken, and methods were laid down, to breed up a niore knowing race of men as soon as was

I turn now to show how the affairs of religion went on, particularly with relation to Scotland, of which mention was made in some of Jewel's letters.

But before I open this, I will give an account of two instruments sent me from Scotland, that came not to my hands but since the pages 337 and 338 were printed off; yet they are so important, that as I have put them in the Collection (No.lxvi), so I will give a short account of them here. On the 19th of April, fifteen days after the queen of Scotland had passed that secret, fraudulent protestation formerly mentioned, when the articles of the marriage were mutually signed, it was not only provided that the crown of Scotland, in case she should die without children, should descend to the duke of Chatelherault and his heirs; the instrument itself being published in the French Collection ; but the dauphin did, on the same day, set his seal to á charter, still preserved at Hamilton, setting forth the faith and engagements that the king his father had formerly made, to secure to the earl of Arran the succession to the crown of Scotland, in case the queen should die without children; to which he promises he will pay all obedience. He confirms and ratifies that promise for himself and his successors; promising in good faith (bona fide), that in that case he will not only suffer that lord to enjoy the crown, but that he will assist and maintain him in it.

The promise made by his father, King Heniy, to which this refers, bears date the 17th day of June, anno 1549; and was sent over to Scotland, in order to the getting of Queen Mary to be sent to France. By it the king promised, on the word of a king, that, in case the queen should die without children, he would assist the earl of Arran, in the succession to the crown, against all that should oppose him. These instruments I have put in the Collection, as lasting memorials of the fidelity and sincerity of that court ; to give a just precaution to posterity in future ages: by which it will appear, how little contracts, promises, and public stipulations, are to be depended on, where a secret protestation, lodged in a clandestine manner, is set up to make all this void ; which. I hope, will not be soon forgotten or neglected.

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