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proceeded forth, and came from God. το θες εξήλθον, και ηκα. κ. λ.

Neither came I of myself, but he sent me.

’Εγω γαρ εκ

The reproaches and contradictions which our Lord met with, and the sufferings of his death, are often set before us. But if the Logos, that high and exalted spirit, in the Arian sense, was the soul of Christ; this part of his humiliation, in clothing himself with an human body, would have been frequently represented and described in the clearest and most emphatical expressions.

Here, if I mistake not, is a proper place for setting down those observations upon this scheme, which reason may suggest, and were passed over before.

In the first place, I do not apprehend it possible that so glorious and perfect a spirit should undergo such diminution by being united to an human body, as to become thereby unconscious, or to be greatly enfeebled. I think, that if this spirit were to animate, and take upon it the part of a soul in an human body; its power, cogitation, and knowledge would subsist and remain, even in its infant state. In short, the human body would be swallowed up by this great soul. That soul would exert itself in the body, and sustain it with all facility, without rest, food, or any other refreshment, against all pain and uneasiness, and every kind of infirmity. This, I say, would be the case, supposing so great a being to take upon it a human body. If an angel (as is supposed) can move with agility a material vehicle, made dense enough to be sensible to human eyes; what influence would not this powerful Logos have over the grossest human body? But this is not agreeable to fact, as represented in the New Testament: for there Jesus is said to have "increased in wisdom" as he grew up. And he had hunger and thirst, and was wearied with journeying, and had all the sinless infirmities of the human nature, and was subject to death.

But secondly, supposing this humiliation to be possible, I think, it could not be reasonable. It is not reasonable that so great a Being should submit to unconsciousness, or any such like debilitation. Consequently, it cannot be required by God. It is incongruous to all just notions of things, that any other spirit, beside a human soul, should be made subject to the infirmities of human flesh.

I forbear mentioning some things, which appear to me consequences from the Logos (in the Arian sense of that term) being the soul of our blessed Saviour. And, as they are not mentioned, they need not affect you, unless shey should occur to your thoughts.

I now proceed to the introduction to St. John's gospel. For I believe, you may be of opinion, that I must not pass it by entirely, notwithstanding its difficulty. I will therefore explain it briefly, or a part of it at least, according to the best of my ability: still willing, however, to receive farther light from any one that shall afford it.

"In the beginning was the Word." By "beginning," I think, cannot be intended the beginning of the gospel, but of the creation, or rather always, from eternity," was the Word. And the Word was with God:" that is, was always with God, though not fully manifested, till these last days of the world." And the Word was God." Kai beos y o doros. Which sometimes has been rendered thus: "And God was the Word." But there are learned men, who say, that then the Greek would have been Kai o Oɛos y λoyos: and, that the article being joined with Aoyos, therefore that is the antecedent, and our translation is right.

Here I had been wont to submit to what Dr. Clarke says, The Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity, P. I. numb. 535. 'Of these words there are only three interpretations. The first is, ⚫ that the Word was that same person, whom he was with. And that is both a contradiction in ⚫ terms, and also the ancient heresy of Sabellius.' But now that does not move me. I am of opinion, that God here is the same God that was mentioned before. St. John useth a gradation. First he says, "the Word was" always, before all time. Then he adds: " and was with God:' and lastly, that he "was God" himself. What follows confirms this interpretation, ver. 3. "All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made that was made." Who should this be, but God the Father, the one living and true God, and author of life, and

a 1 John i. 2. "For the life was manifested. And we have seen it, and bear witness, and show unto you that eternal life, which was with the Father, and was manifested unto us."

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1 Tim. iii. 16. "And, without controversy, great is the mystery of godliness. God was manifest in the flesh."

all being? Are there more creators than one? Would any Jew, or disciple of Jesus, ascribe the creation of the world to any but God, or his reason, or understanding, or discretion, his wisdom, his power, his word, his spirit, which is the same as God himself? Ver. 10, "He was in the world, and the world was made by him." This needs no comment. Ver. 11. "He came to his own, and his own received him not." I pray whose people were the Jews, but God's, his, who styled himself Jehovah? He now came, in Jesus, to his own people. But they received him not.

St. John therefore intends the one true God, not any inferior deity.

Shall I show this more particularly from other places of his gospel? It is observable, that St. John, out of the many discourses of Jesus, (a great part of which he has omitted, as appears from ch. xx. 30, 31. ch. xxi. 25) has selected those, in which our Lord speaks very expressly of the commission, which he had received from the Father, and of his near and intimate union with him.

In all the gospels our Saviour ascribes his miracles to the Father, particularly in Luke xi. 20, and Matt. xii. 28. And the people do the same. "And when the multitude saw it, they marvelled, and glorified God, which had given such power unto men." Matt. ix. 8.

But in none of the gospels is this done so frequently, and so expressly, as in St. John's. Chap. v. 9. "The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do:" and onward to ver. 27. and ver. 30—32. and ver. 36, 37. chap. viii. 18. "The Father that hath sent me, beareth witness of me." Ver. 28, 29. "When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know, that I am he, and that I do nothing of myself: but that as the Father has taught me, I speak these things. And he that sent me, is with me. The Father has not left me alone. For I do always the things that please him." Ver. 42. "For I proceeded forth, and came from God. Neither came I of myself, but he sent me. Ver. 54. "It is my Father that honoureth me, of whom ye say, that he is your God." Ch. x. 35. "The works that I do in my Father's name, they bear witness of me." Ver. 29, 30. " My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all. And no man is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand. Father's hand. I and my Father are one."

This appears also in the discourses of others, recorded in this gospel, ch. iii. 2. Nicodemus says"Rabbi, we know, that thou art a teacher come from God. For no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him." And ch, ix. 30. "Herein is a marvellous thing, that ye know not whence he is. And yet he has opened my eyes." Ver. 33. "If this man were not of God, he could do nothing."

All these texts seem to me sufficient to satisfy us, that by "the Word," which St. John says, "was in the beginning, and was with God, and was God," he does not mean a being separate from God, and inferior to him, but God himself, or the wisdom and power of God, which is the same as God, even the Father, who alone is God, nor is there any other.

If by the Word, in the introduction to his gospel, St. John had intended a being separate from God, and inferior to him; it is reasonable to expect, that he should be mentioned again afterwards. But nothing of that kind appears. He speaks indeed of He speaks indeed of "the Son, and the only begotten Son of God." But thereby is not meant "the Word," but the man Jesus, the Messiah, in whom "the Word," that is, the power and wisdom of God, resided.

I now therefore proceed, ver. 14. "And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us:" that is, as before shown. And the Word was made man, or took upon him the human nature.' "And we beheld his glory the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth." That is, And we beheld in Jesus such power and wisdom, that we could not doubt his being the Messiah.' That St. John intends the Lord Jesus, is evident from what he adds in the 15th verse. "John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, This is he, of whom I spake. He that cometh after me, is preferred before me."

"And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us. And we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth." This is the same, which, in other words, is said in divers texts of the New Testament. Matt. i. 20-23. "And she shall bring forth a Son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus-Now all this was done, that it might be ful

a The creation of the world is always ascribed to the one living and true God, in the Old and New Testament. Gen. 1. Exod. xx. 11. Job. xxvi. 13. xxxviii. 4. Ps. xxxiii. 6. cxxxvi.

5-10. cxlvi. 5. 6. Is. xlii. 5. xlv. 12. li. 13. Jer. x. 12. li. 15. and elsewhere. Acts. iv. 24. xiv. 15. xvii. 24. Rev. iv. 8-11. x. 6. xiv. 7.

filled, which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying: Behold a virgin shall conceive, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which is God with us." And John iii. 34, 35. "For he whom God hath sent, speaketh the words of God. For God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him. The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand." Col. i. 19. "For it pleased the Father, that in him should all fulness dwell.” And ch. ii. "In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge." And ver. 19. "For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the godhead bodily."

"And we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father." As before hinted, it was not "the Word," which St. John and others beheld, but Jesus in whom the Word dwelled. Him they beheld: and his greatness was conspicuous; so that he appeared, and they knew him to be "the only begotten of the Father," or the Messiah.


Only begotten Son." The same phrase is again in John iii. 16 and 18. in our Lord's conference with Nicodemus. "Only begotten," and "well beloved Son" are equivalent. This last is the phrase in several texts: as Matt. iii. 17. Mark i. 11. Luke iii. 22. Matt. xvii. 5. Mark ix. 7. Luke ix. 35. So Prov. iv. 3. " For I was my father's son, tender, and only beloved in the sight of my mother." Comp. 1 Chron. xxix. 1.

"The Christ," or "the Messiah," and "the Son of God," are equivalent in the New Testament. Matt. xvi. 16. Peter's applauded confession of our Lord's character is in these words: "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God." So likewise John vi. 69. But in Mark viii. 29. it is: "Thou art the Christ of God." And Luke ix. 20. " the Christ of God."

And that in the language of the Jews the titles of Messiah and Son of God are the same, may be seen in Matt. xxvi. 63. and Luke xxii. 66, 70. But now I shall argue it more particularly from St. John's gospel, ch. i. 34-49. John the Baptist bears testimony to Jesus under several characters, all equivalent to that of the Messiah. "And I saw," says he, "and bare record, that this is the Son of God. Again, the next day after John stood, and two of his disciples. And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith: Behold the Lamb of God." These disciples are convinced" one of them, which heard John, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him: We have found the Messias Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him: We have found him, of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph." Nathanael likewise, after some hesitation, is convinced, and makes a like profession, saying: "Rabbi, thou art the Son of God, thou art the King of Israel."

All these pious men, acquainted with the scriptures of the Old Testament, upon the ground of John's testimony, and their own conversation with Jesus, under somewhat different appellations, but of one and the same meaning, acknowledge Jesus to be the Christ. See also John ix. 35, 36. and 1 John v. 1, 5.

The Jews, it is likely, had learned this title and character of the Messiah from Ps. ii. 7, 12. And see 2 Sam. vii. 14.

When Jesus was baptized, he was solemnly and publicly declared to be the Messiah." There came a voice from heaven, saying: This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." After which having been led up of the Spirit into the wilderness, the tempter, when he came to him, said: "If thou be the Son of God," that is, If indeed thou art the Son of God,a or the Christ, "command that these stones be made bread."

I would now endeavour to show, upon what accounts Jesus is in the scriptures said to be "the Son of God."

Sonship is a term of nearness, dearness, and affection. In general, Jesus is the Son of God, or eminently so, as he is, so far as we know, the person in all the world most dear to God the Father. To be more particular.

1. Jesus is the Son of God, upon account of his miraculous conception and birth.

Luke i. 31-35. "An angel appeared to Mary, and said unto her: Fear not, Mary. For thou hast found favour with God. And behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and shalt bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son

Il y a simplement dans le Grec, si vous êtes Fils de Dieu,' sans article. On ne laisse pas de l'ajoûter. Car le miracle, que le diable exige de J. C. montre qu'il ne s'agit pas


de savoir, 'si Jésus est enfant de Dieu,' mais si'il est le Fils de Dieu,' par excellence, c. a. d. le Messie. Lenfant sur Matt. iv. 3.

The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall Therefore also that holy thing, which shall be born of thee, shall be called the A like history of our Saviour's nativity is in the first chapter of St. Matthew's

of the Highestovershadow thee. Son of God."


2. Jesus is the Son of God, upon account of the especial commission given him by the Father, and the extraordinary qualifications bestowed upon him in order to his fulfilling it.

John x. 36. "Say ye of him, whom the Father has sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest, because I said, I am the Son of God?"

When our Lord was baptized, "the Spirit of God descended like a dove, and rested upon him," Matt. iii. 16. Mark i. 10. Luke iii. 21, 22. And John i. 32—34. “And John bare record, saying: I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon himAnd I saw, and bare record, that this is the Son of God." And ch. iii. 34, says John the Baptist again: "God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him." Is. xi. 1-3. "And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his root. And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge, and of the fear of the Lord. And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the Lord"-Comp. Is. xlii. 1-4. chap. lxi. 1-3. and Matt. xii. 17. and Luke iv. 18, 19.

By virtue of this most plentiful and extraordinary communication of the Spirit, " without measure,” or “the in-dwelling of the Father's fulness in him," as the same thing is at other times expressed, or his being "in the bosom of the Father," and acquainted with all his counsels, Jesus knew the whole will of God concerning the salvation of men, and spoke the words of God with full authority, and wrought miracles of all kinds whenever he pleased, and knew the thoughts and characters of men, and things at a distance, and things to come.

3. Jesus is the Son of God, upon account of his resurrection from the dead, on the third day, to die no more.

Rom. i. 3, 4. "Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David, according to the flesh and declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead." And Heb. i. 6. "When he bringeth in the first-begotten into the world, he saith: And let all the angels of God worship him." Which some have understood of our Lord's coming into the world at his nativity. But more generally interpreters have understood it of our Lord's entering into his glory, and taking possession of his kingdom after his resurrection. Which brings me to another thing.

4. Jesus is the Son of God, on account of his exaltation to God's right hand, and being invested with authority and dominion over all flesh, and constituted judge of the world, by whom God will pass sentence upon all mankind.

John iii. 35. "The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand." Ch. v. 21, 22. "The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son, that all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father." Heb. i. 1, 2. "God has in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he has appointed heir" or lord " of all things," ch. iii. 5, 6. Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant-But Christ as a Son over his

own house."

5. Another token of the especial love of the Father for Jesus Christ, as his own Son, is the pouring out of abundance of spiritual gifts, though in different degrees, upon his apostles, and all who believed in him, after his resurrection.

John i. 32-34. "And John bare record, saying: "I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove. And it abode upon him. And I knew him not. But he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me: Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining, the same is he, which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. And I saw, and bare record, that this is the Son of God." Com. Matt. iii. 11. Mark i. 8. Luke iii. 16.

John vii. 37-39. "In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood, and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come to me, and drink. He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. This spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given, because that Jesus was not yet glorified."

Acts xi. 15, 16. "And as I began to speak, the Holy Ghost fell on them, as on us at the

beginning. Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how that he said, John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost." See Acts i. 5. and ii. 1-36.

Gal. iv. 6. "And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father."


Eph. iv. 8-11. "When he ascended up on high, he gave gifts unto men :——and he some apostles, and some prophets, and some evangelists, and some pastors and teachers."

Upon all these accounts, and not only upon account of his miraculous conception and birth, is Jesus "the Son of God." The texts alleged under each particular sufficiently show that they are all justly mentioned, and that none of them ought to be omitted.

There are some expressions in St. Luke's history of our Lord's nativity of a virgin mother, which show the truth of this observation. They likewise manifestly show, that it is in respect to his humanity, and the dignity conferred upon it, that he has the title of "the Son of God." The expressions, which were partly alleged before, are exceedingly remarkable. "And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary; for thou hast found favour with God. And behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and shalt bring forth a son; and thou shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest. And the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David. And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever. And of his kingdom there shall be no end." Luke i. 33.

Upon all the fore-mentioned accounts, then, and his transcendent greatness, Jesus is "the Son of God." And all these things may be supposed to be comprehended in that expression, Heb. i. 9, "Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows." The words are a quotation from Ps. xlv. 7. and seem to have been originally intended of Solomon, who by divine choice and designation was preferred before his brethren." 1 Chron. xxviii. 5. But they are also fitly applied to the Messiah; who has been greatly distinguished, and highly honoured above his brethren: meaning men, of whose nature he partook. Heb. ii. 14-16, or prophets, who had the Spirit in a due, but less measure, bestowed upon them.

All these prerogatives has God the Father, in his unsearchable wisdom, conferred upon Jesus of Nazareth, whom he chose and appointed to be the Messiah: who is also "the seed of the woman," that should bruise the head of the serpent, Gen. iii. 15. and "the seed of Abraham," in and through whom all the familics or nations of the earth were to be blessed," Gen. xii. 3. xviii. 18. Acts iii. 25. Gal. iii. 8. The rod out of the stem of Jesse, and the branch that should grow out of his root, to whom the Gentiles would seek," Is. ix. 1—10. "Who was to restore the preserved of Israel, and was likewise given to be a light to the Gentiles, that he might be for salvation to the ends of the earth." Is. xlix. 6. or, as old Simeon said, "a light to lighten. the Gentiles, and the glory of God's people Israel," Luke ii. 32. For it is a certain truth, that the grace, which has been manifested by the appearing of Jesus Christ, was from early ages purposed by the Divine Being, and foretold by his prophets. Rom. i. 1-3. Eph. i. 4. 2 Tim. 1. 9, 10. 1 Pet. i. 10-12.


And how agreeable the several articles of this detail are to the scriptures of the Old Testa-ment, must appear from texts already alleged thence. Nevertheless I shall here put together a few other texts, and some of the same more largely than hitherto quoted: not transcribing them now, but referring to them, and entreating you, if you please, to read and consider them. at your leisure.

Ps. ii. 6, 7, 8, 11, 12..

Ps. xxii. throughout.

Is. xlii. 1. "Behold my servant, whom I uphold, my servant, in whom my soul delighteth." Almost the very words of the voice, that came from heaven at our Lord's baptism and transfiguration. "I have put my Spirit upon him. He shall bring forth judgment unto the Gentiles ;" and what follows to the end of ver. 7.

Is. xlix. 1-6. Compare Acts xiii. 47. and xxvi. 23.

We must now be able to perceive the true character of our blessed Saviour, and the great propriety with which the apostles and evangelists speak of him..

John i. 45. "Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph." And see

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