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TV A LIDL D'S
JOURNAL OF POLITE LITERATURE,
EDITED BY JOHN SANDERSON, ESQ.
PHILADELPHIA, JANUARY 6, 1841.
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY ADAM WALDIE & CO. No. 46 CARPENTER STREET, PullaDELPHIA. $5 for 60 numbers, payable in advance.
ing the works we shall republish of every word which will be read with greater satisfaction than
which could cause the slightest confusion, if read that formerly used.
Finally, the punctuality in issuing each num-
We shall be obliged to retrench something
large number of selections from the best British from this book to accommodate it to our occi.
dental side of the sea, but enough will be left to
one for the great “ secretary of nature,” and one
With lively emotions, he finds himself the assistance, in the editorial department, of by, Archee is represented to be not only witty,
chapter, too, is allotted to that eminent and super.
The object of the Library is chiefly to impart companying and enlivening each number, was The second series includes the Protectorate,
nished, five numbers will be given monthly, all others of the brush-Castlemaine, who loved
or nail, but walked forth more the care of love the present and preceding ages. This compari- crite and buffoon, and getting drunk and swear. than before. She at her side, who began the son seems much in our favour as regards several ing habitually; otherwise, a very unexceptionworld plain Mrs. Palmer, is Duchess of Cleve- of the commandments, and notably the fourth. able person, having an almost Judaical antipathy land. And next, with indolent languor, affected King James, by his royal edict, ordered that his to pigs and a pious horror of tobacco. .
Jesse and sentimental coquetry, fair hair and com- subjects should be indulged in dancing, archery, attempts to vindicate him from the charge of plexion, is the graceful form of Middleton. leaping, vaulting, May-games, and Morris dances pedantry. It is certain that he learned at school
on Sunday. This Jesse calls shedding “a gleam more than the quantity of Latin usually adminis“ Helas ! avec tant d'attraits precieux,
of sunshine upon the broad shadows of human tered to kings, and that he took for his model Qui n'eut été friponne ?"
wretchedness.” In the last reign but two, Lady Solomon, whom he followed with great emula. Lady Denham, too !—Sir John wrote Cooper's Huntingdon’s daughter could not hold her office tion. Whether he had a head properly timbered Hill, and married Miss Brook. He should have in the bed-chamber, for, being a Methodist, she for Latin or other learning, will be best ascermarried Miss Brook first. Vain man at seventy! was averse to playing cards with the princesses tained from the actions of his life. who hoped to reign in a heart of eighteen, and be on Sunday. We have the advantage, too, (who
, If kings were remarkably great and good men, exempt from the general calamity. Poor Den- would think it?) on the score of cleanliness. republicanism would go out of fashion. But
? haṁ! thou wert cut off in the flower of age and The Countess of Dorset says, on quitting the tyrants apart—when you have read of Charles beauty, leaving a heart-broken and jealous hus- palace of James, she found herself infested (not the Bald, and Charles the Fat, and Charles the band to deplore thy loss-not without the repu- with bugs) with a vermin “scarcely considered Simple, their story is told. A man of even toletation of having poisoned his wife.
And the delicate to mention ;” and in the succeeding rable merit, such as Henry IV., passes among Duchess of Portsmouth, the little French bribe, reign, Pepys, who kept a journal, writes as fol- kings for a sort of miracle. Temples are built
, who was given by Louis with 200,000 francs a lows, under February 12th, “
lows, under February 12th, "Up, finding the and incense is burnt upon his altars. The best year to " settle popery in England." The tall, beds good, only-only infested with the vermin advocates of democracy, after all, are kings. slim, erect, and graceful form of Stewart, who whose very name is now considered indelicate.” This opinion is uttered from no spite at nobility without art—by the sole dint of looking pretty, Sydney Smith says, in the face of Erasmus, or monarchy. Such a sentiment is not necessupplanted Castlemaine—lived in the very air that “ no English gentleman has spat upon the sary to the preservation of the republic. At of Cyprus, and kept herself (they say) almost floor since the Heptarchy;" and English gentle- least the Romans, who would as lief see his honest for her legitimate lord, the Duke of Rich- men, when they visit us now-a-days, are dis- Satanic majesty rule at Rome as a king, were mond. She on the left, of the same height and gusted at not finding French cooks, and other not the more preserved for their royal antigrace, and a face replete with sense and beauty, epicurean delicacies, even beyond the Alleghany. pathies.
pathies. A man of good taste will no more in spite of her little eyes and turn-up nose, is Revels and compotations, also, of the higher wish the monarchy of England, with its maHamilton, Countess of Grammont.
And she classes at least, have undergone a salutary chinery of nobles, banished from their island, next? The orange girl, the rival of Ports- change. Jesse has signalised James's revels, than the gods and goddesses from the Iliad or mouth, (le roi m'aime autant que sa Ports- and Pepys speaks thus of Charles IL :-“ Let Odyssey. Kings are good things, if only to mouth-Nell,) of such impassioned and benevo
us drink the king's health, said some one. Why make novels out of. One likes to be vexed at lent beauty-one wishes to call her Eleanor—it let us, said the king. Nay, you must do it on refined and dignified distresses, and to laugh at is Nell Gwynn! Anne Hyde, the tall and stately your knees. So he did, and so did all the com- the expense of one's betters. Walter Scott has Clarendon's daughter, mistress and duchess of pany; and having done it
, they all fell a crying turned both James and his successor in this way York, and mother of two queens, overlooks the for joy, and kissing one another, the king the to good account. whole. To her we owe this little court. It Duke of York, and the Duke of York the king,
The style of Jesse's book is correct, harmowas she who commissioned Lely to snatch these and in such a maudlin pickle as never people nious, and sometimes elegant ; but rather aiming beauties from the scythe of time. One only is were, and so passed the day.” Men are yet at the dignity of history, than the easier graces wanting--the more remarkable for this.
The living who made a fortune by the regular busi- of the memoir. He has said nothing new, and barbarous Westphalian has let the frail and gentle
ness of picking up drunken gentlemen in the is not always correct in his anecdote. He some
At Chesterfield slip through the fingers of posterity. night about the streets of London. present, Any one curious of this kind of lore, who can
times takes " Pierre pour Thomas.” An obserno gentleman at a dinner ever exceeds the bounds vation made by Queen Elizabeth to Nicholas read De Grammont, will, neither on the score of of “moderate Bacchus.”
Bacon about his villa, is applied to Francis; and grace nor propriety, regret Jesse.
In reading the Protectorate, to observe the at page 220, Vol. II, he says, “ Richelieu, howSuch works as this are to be counted amongst change from Puritanism to the merry times of ever, triumphed over his rival, though Buckingthe luxuries of literature. It is delightful, in Charles, is a curious speculation. For a long ham did not live to see it. After the death of these days of improved steamboats and universal time, laughing seemed to be a modulation of face her husband, Louis the Thirteenth, the queen travel, to go back into the past ages for novelty; to which the English muscles were entirely dis- united herself to the cardinal, his sacerdotal for what is so little new now-a-days as the used. That they were thus suddenly relaxed, habit, as he had never taken priest's orders, "latest news," a day old ? Such works, too, is a phenomenon in physics, if not in morals. . proving no obstacle to their union. Richelieu relieve the reader from the toil of research, and All authorities—romance and history-work soon grew tired of her, and treated her unbring into view what many a one would never together unmercifully to the prejudice of James. kindly.” Now the fact is, that the cardinal died have sought in the grim looking tomes in which Every one knows the indignant manner in which December 4th, 1642, and Louis in the following it is shelved only for the profound scholar. Who Hume breaks from the enumeration of his weak- May, 1643, in consequence of which, the caris going to wade through the collections of Rush
History eharges itself willingly with dinal did not marry the widow, and being dead, worth, Ludlow, Clarendon, or Walker ?—surely a relation of the great crimes, and still more did not treat her unkindly. not that perpetual man of business, the American. with that of the great virtues, of mankind; but There is a charm about memoirs which no Our encyclopedical list of studies is too exten- she appears to fall from her dignity, when neces- other species of writing possesses, so fond is sive for even antediluvian longevity; and what sitated to dwell on such frivolous events and the world of title-taitle. A language follows is to be done by one of us frail and ephemeral ignoble personages.” And so he gives up the the genius and habits of the people who speak beings, who is outlived by a beetle? One of the pedantry, self-conceit, the puns, the quirks, and it. The French are the only truly social people, advantages of this book, is the comparison it solemn trifling of James to the writers of me- and of all the world, the only people who can enables us to institute, in many particulars, be- moirs. In the work before us, he is treated as talk, write letters, and make anas, vaudevilles, tween the new world and the old, and between indolent, a spendthrift, egregiously vain, a hypo- I and memoirs. We call to witness, Froissart,
INCLUDING THE PROTECTORATE.
Memoirs of the Court of England the court, some slight compensation may be found | truding their conscientious brutality in her pre
for the absence of more important events. sence, or promulgating their rebellious tenets
The peaceable career of James, and his un. among her subjects ; and, within a very short REIGN OF THE STUARTS,
warlike character, are the more remarkable, when period, the blood of her favourite servant Rizzio we reflect on the eventful history of the unhappy had been actually shed before her face,-a reand turbulent race from whence he sprang. markable scene of violence, when we consider
With the Stuarts, misfortune had been heredita- that her own husband, who ought to have been BY JOHN HENEAGE JESSE.
ry. For six generations, his immediate ances- the first to cherish the wife who was shortly to tors, with the single exception of a broken heart, become a mother, and the Lord Chancellor, who
had met with violent and untimely ends. His should have been foremost to protect the laws PREFACE.
mother had suffered on the scaffold, and his father and the person of his queen, were the principal It is a fact, which cannot have escaped obser- fell by the hand of an assassin ; and it is singular actors in that detestable outrage. vation, that while French Literature abounds with that James should have stood between two private memoirs and personal anecdote, our own crowned heads, his mother and his heir, who ly anxious to baptise the heir to the throne, ac
The queen and the Puritan clergy were equalis deplorably deficient in agreeable chronicles of were the first
and almost only instances in modern cording to the ceremonials of their respective this nature. To the author, or rather compiler, times of the sovereign suffering by the hands of faiths. An assembly of the church, which hapof this work, the want appeared to be less owing the executioner. It would appear indeed as if pened to be convened at Edinburgh at the time, to the absence of materials, than to a requisite Providence had conferred a peculiar blessing on diligence in bringing them to light; in a word, the peace-maker. His ancestors, fond of war
while they sent to congratulate the unfortunate that there existed a supply of latent stores in our and familiar with bloodshed, had with difficulty subject. The superintendent of Lothian, a man
mother, expressed their great solicitude on the own language (buried, as it were, among volumi- retained possession of their birthrights, while of a milder nature than his fellows, was their delenous records and forgotten pamphlets) sufficient to form a succinct social history of distinguished drawn sword, became master of a kingdom three- her usual sweetness, but returned no answer as James, who even shuddered at the sight of a
gate on the occasion. Mary received him with characters, who figure more or less in every por- fold the value of his inheritance. We must re regarded the principal object of his mission. She tion of our annals. With this view of the subject, it occurred to member, however, that in James the love of sent
, for the royal infant in order to into the author that the private history of the peace was less the effect of principle than of con- troduce the superintendent to his future king. Reigns of the Stuarts and of the Protectorate,
The minister fell on his knees and breathed a their families, and others intimately connected
The slight differences which occurred during short prayer for his welfare ; he then took the with the Court, — would present a series of this reign to ruffle the quiet tenor of public feel babe in his arms and playfully told him to say agreeable and instructive anecdotes; would fur- ing, arose almost entirely from subjects of a reli- amen for himself, which the queen, says Archnish the means of introducing the reader to the gious or parliamentary nature. It was solely the bishop Spotswood, “ took in such good part as principal personages of their day, and of exhibit- fault of James that his career at home was not in continually afterwards to call the superintendent ing the monarch and the statesman in their un- every respect as peaceable as it was abroad. His her Amen.” This story, in after life, was redress ; while, the same time, it would afford endeavours to encroach on public liberty caused, peated to James, who, from that period, always an insight into human character, and a picture of in a great degree, the opposition of his parlia- addressed the superintendent by the same familiar the manners of the age.
ment: his attempts to conciliate all parties, in name.* It could not escape the author, that some of the matters of religion, ended in his satisfying none.
Immediately after the birth of the prince, Sir anecdotes contained in the present volumes, have The great source of interest which his reign pro James Melvil was despatched by Mary to convey already appeared in more than one popular work duces
, is derived from the gradual advances which the intelligence to her sister, the Queen of Engof modern date. But it would have been impos- were effected in parliamentary liberty: With land. The account which Melvil gives of this sible for him to follow out his intended plan, and little to engage their attention abroad, the Com; mission is perhaps the most amusing part of his to give a complete and distinct form to his mons began to be jealous of their privileges, and memoirs. Elizabeth was in high spirits, enjoysketches, without partially treading in the foot- the nation at large of its rights ; these are the cir. ing herself at a ball at Greenwich, when the event steps of other writers ; in those instances, how- cumstances which throw a peculiar, and almost
was announced to her. Notwithstanding her ever
, where he has been compelled to make use the sole political interest over the reign of James. habitual self-command, and the fact that the posof the same materials, his researches, whenever It is as curious as it is instructive to watch the sibility of such an event must have been long a it was practicable, have been extended to the birth of that spark, which burst forth in the wild source of anxiety, the jealous feelings of the wofountain-head.
rage for liberty in the succeeding reign. James man prevailed, and her chagrin was but too eviThe author now ventures to put forth the pre- had really less of the despot in him than Eliza- dent. The dancing instantly ceased, and the sent volumes as a portion only of his labours. beth ; but the nation could bear the golden chains queen sat down in her chair, leaning her head Should others agree with him in thinking that a of the one, while it contemned the clumsy fetters upon her hand, and remaining for some time work like the present has, in any degree supplied of the other.
speechless. “The Queen of Scots,” she said a desideratum in our literature, he will consider James the First was born in Edinburgh castle, to one of her ladies who inquired the cause of himself fully repaid for the trouble it has cost 19th June, 1566. The apartment in which he her melancholy, “is the mother of a fair son, him ; at the same time, he is free to confess that first saw the light was, within the last few years, while I am but a barren stock.” She did not he would have been as well pleased, had the task and probably still is, a guard-room for soldiers. fail, however, to call dissimulation to her aid, and fallen into abler hands.
In those who are influenced by local associations, the next morning, when Melvil received his audithat apartment must still excite no slight degree ence, she appeared gayer and better dressed than
of interest ; less, perhaps, as the birthplace of usual ; and, though she deceived no one but herJAMES I.
James, than as being identified with the sorrows self, expressed the sincerest affection for the
of Mary Stuart. The clouds of misfortune had Queen of Scots, and joy at her happy delivery. CHAP. I.
gathered fast around that beautiful but imprudent The innocent cause of this jealousy was bapThe reign of James the First is eminently de- woman. She had irretrievably disgusted her tised at Stirling, 17th December, 1566, by the ficient in matters of stirring and general interest
. nobility by her impolitic preference of the arro- Bishop of St. Andrews, according to to the rites A timíd prince, a people not discontented, a long gant Italian Rizzio, and her people by her open of the Romish Church. Such of the Scottish peace abroad, and a tolerably submissive parlia- exercise of the Romish faith ; her misunderstand, nobles as professed the reformed religion absented ment at home, supply but meagre materials to the ings with her husband, the weak and showy Lord themselves from the ceremony. His godfathers historian. It is not, therefore, too much to ex- Darnley, had produced positive hatred and conpect, that, in the private history of the individual, seqent misery on both sides. The ministers of
*Spotswood's History of the Church of Scotland, in the manners of the time, and the intrigues of the Puritan or Reformed Church, were daily in- | p. 196. 1-41.
were the King of France and Philibert Duke of on her rejecting him, became the victim of des- well as to himself, should he hereaster persist in Savoy ; Elizabeth consented to be his godmother, pondency, and fell seriously ill. “By my saul,” so indolent and injurious a practice.* and by her representative, the Earl of Bedford, said James, “ Mar shanna dee for e'er a lass in James's tears at this period seemed to have sent a present of a golden font, valued at three the land!” Accordingly he interfered in favour been easily brought to his assistance. When, in thousand crowns. After the conclusion of the of his early companion, and Lady Mary even- 1582, in his seventeenth year, his person was ceremony, the young prince was publicly pro- tually became his wife, and the mother of his seized at Ruthven by the rebel lords, his first imclaimed by the hereditary titles of Prince and children.
pulse was to weep.
• No matter for his tears, Steward of Scotland, Duke of Rothsay, Earl of Such an impression had Buchanan's discipline said the Master of Glamis ; "it is better that Carrick, Lord of the Isles, and Baron of Ren- produced on the mind of James, that many years boys should weep than bearded men.”+ frew. According to Sir Theodore Mayerne, afterwards, when King of England, the miseries From a person who felt his own griefs so who subsequently became the physician of James, of his tutelage, and the austerity of his old mas- deeply, we can scarcely expect much sympathy the wet nurse of the young prince was a drunk- ter, continued vividly to haunt his imagination. with the sufferings of others. His cold indifferard, and it was owing to her milk becoming thus He used to say of a certain person about his court, ence at his mother's death, and his previous vitiated, that, though early weaned, he was unable that he trembled at his approach, “ he reminded lukewarm interposition with Elizabeth in her to walk alone before his sixth year.*
him so of his pedagogue."* And on another behalf, can never be sufficiently reprobated. Of The birth of an heir to the throne ought not occasion, he is described as dreadfully agitated an age when the best feelings of our nature are only to have added to Mary's influence at home; by the appearance of his former corrector in a generally warmest in the heart; with a chivalrous but, with proper management, Elizabeth might dream, and as vainly endeavoring to soften the nobility urging him to avenge the unparallelled have been forced to acknowledge her as her suc- fanciful displeasure which he had incurred. It indignity which had been offered both to himself cessor to the erown of England. Nothing, how- may be observed, that in his writings, James and his country; with the means of obtaining
exceed Mary's egregious imprudence more than once speaks slightingly, and even acri- powerful foreign aid both from France and and, shall we add, iniquity, at this period. Within moniously, of his old tutor.
Spain, James, with the exception of some slight the short space of two years, the greater number The elegant Buchanan was far from satisfied blustering, (arising less from any feeling which of loose incidents occurred which have thrown with the mere progress which his pupil had made he entertained for his mother's dreadful situation, so much of fearful, yet romantic, interest over her in classical and theological learning. Ata certain than from the apprehension that her death on the history. The murder of her husband, and her audience, which was given by James to a foreign scaffold would interfere with his own prospects,) consequent marriage with Bothwell; the insur- ambassador in his boyhood, it was found neces. submitted tamely to his own dishonour, and the rection of Lord Hume; her confinement and sary that the conversation should take place in ignominious execution of his only parent. There forced abdication at Lochlevin ; her romantic Latin. The foreigner happened to be guilty of can be no question that, as a matter of mere policy, escape from that fortress ; the battle of Langside; several grammatical errors, in every one of which James acted wisely in not breaking with Elizaand her flight into England—are all inclyded in James, with equal pedantry and ill-breeding, beth ; but who can forgive the man, who, on so that period, and closed every hope of her again thought proper to set him right. The ambas- sacred a subject, prefers the cold dictates of inenjoying the sovereign dignity. In order, how- sador accidentally meeting Buchanan, after the terest to the common impulse of natural affection? ever, to weaken her remaining influence still audience was at an end, inquired of him how he Alas! James had a pension to lose, and a kingmore, and to strengthen the claims of her son, it came to make his illustrious pupil a pedant. “I dom in prospectu. And how does he act when was decided that the young prince, though only was happy,” said the historian, “to be able to he finds that his mother's death is fully agreed thirteen months old, should be solemnly crowned accomplish even that.”
upon, and that her days are numbered ? He in ber stead. The inauguration of the royal baby
sends to the principal divines to desire that they was performed at Stirling by the Bishop of Ork
for her in their churches. It is an unney, 29th July, 1567. The coronation sermon
doubted fact, that the Master of Gray, James's was preached by the celebrated John Knox; and In his thirteenth year James began to interfere accredited agent to intercede with Elizabeth for the oaths, that he should maintain the reformed with affairs of state, and met his parliament for his mother's life, and who, the king must have religion, and administer equal justice, were some- the first time. He said a great deal respecting been well aware, was entirely in the interest of what unscrupulously taken by the Earl of Merton the benefits of peace, and mentioned his anxiety the English queen, if he were not actually in her and Lord Home. Soon after the ceremony, the to maintain the interests of the reformed religion, pay, gave private intimation to the English minrepublican party, whose hopes were naturally and to remedy publie grievances. Probably, istry, that if Mary's execution would not be elated by the events which were taking place, young as he was, James had some band, if not allowed to prejudice James's expectations to the caused a coin to be struck, on which was inscribed in the composition of, at least in the matters to English throne, “ her death would be forgotten.”'S the well-known motto of Trajan: Pro me; si be discussed in, this juvenile oration. At all The Master of Gray afterwards confessed before merear, in me. For me ; and if I deserve it, events, it is curious to find him commencing his the Scottish council, that he had, in fact, advised against me.'
first speech with the subject of peace; a prin- the Queen of England to take away the life of her James was a pedant even when a boy. His ciple and a topic on which he acted and harped rival ; recommending, only, that she should be tutor, the famous historian Buchanan, though he to the last.
made away with by some underhand means, incommunicated to him a portion of his learning, He showed his aversion to business at a very stead of by a public execution. He acknowimparted but little of his own elegant taste to his early age ; so much so, that he was in the habit ledged, also, that he had made use of the signifiroyal pupil. In the treatment of his charge, he of signing whatever papers were brought to him, cant words, Morlui non mordent. « The dead appears not only to have been laudably uninflu- without either reading or making himself ac- do not bite.” He was sentenced to banishment; enced by rank and circumstance, but to have be- quainted with their contents. To correct this a decision much caviled at, at the time, for its haved himself towards James as the most rigid pernicious habit, his tutor Buchanan adopted the extreme leniency.ll disciplinarian. On one occasion the young king following scheme :-one day, when the young The ruling and obstinate idea which occupied was engaged in some boisterous sport, with his king was preparing to set out on a hunting excur- the mind of James, was an apprehension lest the play fellow the Master of Erskine, at a time when sion, he placed before him a document containing manner of his mother's death should prove a bar Buchanan was deeply engaged in his studies. a formal abdication of his kingdom. It was signed, to his own succession to the English throne. It The tutor was annoyed, and declared that he as usual, without inquiry into its purport. On was this selfish fear, and not the affront to his would administer a sound flogging if the inter- the return of James in the evening, Buchanan feelings or his diadem, which we find the English ruption continued. James announced stoutly produced the paper, and pointed out its contents. ministers most anxious to combat. Even previ. that he should like to see who would bell the cat; At the sight of what he had done, the king burst ous to the death of the unhappy Mary, the Earl at which the tutor started up, threw away his into tears. Buchanan comforted him by throwbook, and performed the threatened chastisement ing the document into the fire ; at the same time most effectually. To his playfellow, the young seizing the opportunity of enlarging on the injus
* Peyton's Divine Catastrophe, in Secret Hist. of
James I. vol. ii.
† Spotswood, p. 320.
I There is also reason to suppose that the King of Stuart, daughter of Esme Duke of Lennox, and
* Osborne's Advice to his Son.
Denmark, with whose daughter a treaty of marriage Curiosities of Literature, vol. iii. p.
259. had already been set on foot, would, have supplied * Ellis, Orig. Letters, vol. iii. 198, Second Series. # Add. MSS. Brit. Museum.
James with ships.-Sanderson, p. 134.
Spotswood, p. 355. | Ibid. p. 363.