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and the personal allusions which he himself en-
couraged in the pulpit. This taste continued to
the last period of his life; nor was he ever known
to be displeased as long as the preacher hit his
courtiers somewhat harder than himself. Even
when seated on the English throne, a conscien-
tious, or perhaps discontented, clergyman would
occasionally proceed to such lengths as to keep
the courtiers in continual alarm, lest any thing
disagreeable to the king, or injurious to their own
interests, should transpire. On these occasions
they distracted his majesty's attention by the best
means in their power. A jest well introduced, or
a facetious remark, seldom failed in such an emer-
gency. Among those who were best acquainted
with James's character, and who thus pandered
to his amusement, was Neile, Bishop of Lincoln,
and afterwards Archbishop of York. This pre-
late was constantly at James's side, and when-
ever any thing was uttered, especially from the
pulpit, which he was unwilling should meet the
royal year, diverted the king's attention by some
merry tale."
Arthur Wilson was himself
present at a sermon which was preached before
James at Greenwich, when the following re-
markable scene took place. The preacher, one
of the royal chaplains, selected for his text, Matt.
iv. 8. "And the devil took Jesus to the top of
a mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms
of the world, saying, All these will I give,'
&c. He first proceeded to demonstrate the
power of the devil at that period; he then brought
his kingdom down to the present time, express-
ing his belief that, as the devil was in possession
of such large dominions, there could be no doubt
but that he had his viceroys, councillors of state,
treasurers, secretaries, &c. This gave him an
opportunity of attributing the several vices, of
which James's advisers were accused, to the
ministers of his Satanic majesty, and portraying
their characters accordingly. At last he came to
the devil's treasurer, when he fixed his eyes on
the Earl of Cranfield, a man notorious for his
exactions, and lord treasurer at the time, and
pointing at him with his hand, exclaimed in an
emphatic manner, "That man," (repeating the
words,) " that man, who makes himself rich and
his master poor, is a fit treasurer for the devil."
Cranfield all this time sat with his hat over his
eyes, ashamed to look up; while James, who
was placed above him, sat smiling, like a mis-
chievous schoolboy, at his minister's discom-

It has been already remarked, that in his mother's extremity, James had applied to the principal ministers of religion to remember her in their prayers. This order, with the exception of his own chaplains, and a Mr. David Lindsay, the minister at Leith, was universally disobeyed. James, indeed, was treated quite as cavalierly by the Scottish clergy (and stood just as much in awe of them) as by his nobility. The following anecdote is highly characteristic of his subserviency to the Puritan priesthood, and of the pulpit familiarity which was permitted at the time. James had fixed on a particular day, on which prayers were to be offered up for his unfortunate mother in the several churches, and had selected the Bishop of St. Andrew's to officiate in his own presence on the occasion. As soon as this order became known to the principal oppositionists, they induced a young man, a Mr. John Cowper, to ascend the pulpit, and to forestall the bishop in the performance of the service of the day. The king, says Archbishop Spotswood, seeing Cow- A treaty of marriage between James and Anne, per in the place, called to him from his seat, and daughter of Frederick, King of Denmark, had said, "Mr. John, that seat was destined for an- been set on foot as early as the year 1585, though other; yet since you are there, if you will obey not fully concluded till 1587. The death of the the charge that is given, and remember my Danish king in this latter year still further demother in your prayers, you shall go on." Cow-layed the completion of the marriage. When per replying that he would do as the Spirit of the match with Denmark was first proposed to God should direct him, was commanded to leave James, he is said to have displayed the grossest the place. This order he showed no inclination ignorance as to the history and respectability of


to obey accordingly the captain of the guard
proceeded to pull him out; on which he burst
forth as follows; "This day shall be a witness
against the king, in the great day of the Lord,"
and then denouncing a wo to the inhabitants of
Edinburgh, he went down, and the Bishop of St.
Andrews performed the duty.§
James was, to a certain degree, indebted for
these insults to the discussion of familiar subjects,

of Leicester, probably by Elizabeth's directions, addressed a letter to James, in which, though clothed in the most Jesuitical language, he points out the worldly advantages which would accrue to him by submitting quietly to his mother's execution, and even indirectly asks his concurrence. To any other monarch but James, the insolence and bad taste of such an epistle would have been intolerable. "She is the person and prince in this world," says the earl, speaking of Elizabeth," that may do you most good or most harm; let no persuasion or desire let you think otherwise." And again Lord Hudson writes to him after the fatal blow had been struck, offering to procure a declaration, signed by all the judges in England, that the execution of his mother could in no way interfere with his legitimate claims.

We are informed, though the authority is questionable, that when Henry the Fourth sent his ambassador, Sully to James, inviting him to join with him against Elizabeth, by which means he might satisfy his revenge, the young king answered, that he was unwilling to fall out with the Queen of England, for his mother's death had left him more secure on the throne than ever. The Scottish nobles were greatly disgust ed at the indifference of their young prince. Instead of appearing in mourning, as had been ordered by the king, Lord Sinclair presented himself at court in full armour, as the garb best suited to the occasion.t

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*Richard Neile, the son of a was


born in King Street, Westminster. He rose, by rapid gradation of preferment, to be master of the Sa voy, Dean of Westminster, and successively, Bishop of Rochester, Litchfield and Coventry, Lincoln, Dur

ham, Winchester, and Archbishop of York. Both

Pryne and Wilson accuse him of Arminianism, but

says Anthony Wood," as full of years as he was of his orthodoxy is defended by Laud. "He died," honours, an affectionate subject to his prince, an indulgent father to his clergy, a bountiful patron to his chaplains, and a true friend to all who relied upon him." He was buried in Westminster Abbey.Fasti Oxoniensis, vol. i. p. 159.

that country, and to have objected to the alliance on the ground of the unworthiness of that kingdom to furnish him with a consort.* Every thing, however, was at length settled. The marriage ceremony had been performed in Denmark, by proxy, in August, 1589, and James was anxiously expecting the arrival of his bride, when he received the news that she had been driven on the coast of Norway, and had determined to defer her voyage till the spring. It is amusing to discover a solemn historian of the period gravely attributing these delays to the machinations of witches. One Agnes Simson, "a matron of a grave and settled behaviour," actually confessed, that, at the instigation of the Earl of Bothwell, she had applied to her familiar spirit, (whom she was in the habit of invoking by the words holla, Master,) to take away the king's life. The demon, she said, had informed her, that on this occasion his powers had failed him; giving her his reasons in French, a language of which she was ignorant, though she was able to repeat the actual words of the spirit-il est homme de Dieu;t a compliment to James, which he, no doubt, fully appreciated.

Notwithstanding the powers of witchcraft, and the terrors of the sea, of which latter James stood greatly in awe, he was so eager to behold his future consort as to determine on proceeding in person to Norway for the purpose of conducting her home; the only act of gallantry on his part which history has been able to record.

James set sail, October 22, 1589, and after a prosperous voyage arrived at Norway, not far from Upslo, where the Princess of Denmark had taken refuge; and where the marriage was eventually solemnized. His dread of the sea is mentioned by more than one writer, and in his farewell manifesto he himself alludes to his anxiety on the subject: "As for my part, what moved me, ye may judge by that which I have already said,

* Melvil, p. 164. It is possible that James's objections might have arisen from the crown of Den

mark being elective.

Sanderson, p. 159.

The interest which he took in the approaching ceremony is discoverable by a letter which he addressed to Lord Burghley, and which is still preserved among the Lansdown MSS. In this epistle he particularly recommends to his lordship's favour some merchants whom he has sent to London, to purchase dresses for the interesting occasion.

Right Trusty and Well-Beloved,

We greet you heartily well. Having directed the bearers, Robert Jowsie and Thomas Fenlis, merchants of Edinburgh, toward London for buying and provision of certain abulzementis and other ornaments requisite for decoration of our marriage, we have taken occasion to recommend them to your great courtesy, heartily requesting and desiring you to in

terpose your good will and mind to their expedition and furtherance in that concern, so that they be in no wise interrupted nor hindered in the performance and execution thereof, but may receive quick and hasty

despatch; as ye will report our right special and hearty thanks and do us acceptable pleasure. Thus we commit you to God's good protection. From the

Canonry of Ros, the 19th day of July, 1589.

Your loving friend,

I pray you further this
on an extraordinary occasion.

To our right trusty and well-beloved
The Lord of Burghley,
Great Treasurer of England.

read; it is

Ellis, Orig. Letters, vol. iii. 29.

besides the shortness of the way, the surety of his father's honours and estates, received him are here to answer for his death." James, the passage being clear of all sands, forelands, or with much kindness on his return; his brother greatly alarmed, insisted that, being a minor at such like dangers; the harbours in these parts so Alexander he made a gentleman of the bed- the time, he was entirely innocent of the execusure, and no foreign fleets resorting upon these chamber, and on his sister he conferred one of tion of the late earl, and used every argument seas."

the principal posts about the queen. * The cha- and entreaty to avert the threatened danger. Shortly after the marriage ceremony, James racter of the earl, at this period, appears to have Ruthven's compassion was so far moved, as to proceeded with his bride to pay a visit to the been drawn according to the political prejudices undertake, on condition that the king should court of Denmark, where he remained during the of the different writers. By one party he is remain quiet, to endeavour to soften his brother. winter, and did not return to his ominions till described as proud, insolent, and ambitious; by However, he soon returned, and informed James May 20, 1590.* During his stay in Denmark, the other, as amiable, kind-hearted, and strictly that there was no remedy, and that he must he constantly attended the courts of law, with the disposed 10 the duties of religion. At the time make up his mind to die; at the same time forobject of obtaining an insight into the legislature of the plot, he had only just completed his cibly laying his hands upon the king, and enof that country; he afterwards, according to twenty-first year, while his brother was but deavouring to bind his hands with a garterDaines Barrington, added to the Scottish law nineteen.

remarkable expedient, when we consider that a three statutes for the punishment of criminals, Previous to fixing a crime on a suspected per- pistol or a dagger (if Ruthven had, indeed, any which he had borrowed from the Danish Code.t son, the first step is to investigate the motive intention on the king's life) would have been

The day following the arrival of the royal which he might have had in view. In the pre- much more effective. Besides, according to party in Edinburgh, the Council met for the pur- sent instance, two inducements have been men- James's own account of the transaction, which pose of fixing a day for the queen's coronation. tioned—the desire to revenge the death of a he afterwards published, it appears that during There happened to be no bishop in Edinburgh at father, and the hope of supplanting James on Ruthven’s temporary absence, the man in armour the time, and the clergyman, whom James had the throne. The first of these suppositions not only expressed his intention not to injure the honoured by selecting him to perform the office, clearly loses its weight from the fact, that the king, but asserted with an oath that he would positively refused to officiate, unless the cere- earl was put to death during the minority of the sooner die first. For what reason, therefore, mony of unction, which he asserted to be papis- king, who could therefore have had no voice on this person was placed there, or why he did not tical and of Jewish origin, were omitted. James the occasion. With regard to the second deduc- assist James to escape, or why he did not interwas obstinate on the subject, and so was the cler- tion, it appears, to say the least, extremely im- fere when he beheld his sovereign struggling in gyman, who, moreover, was supported in his probable, that so very young a man, without the gripe of Ruthven, appears not only unacopposition by the principal puritan ministers. any adequate force, without the remotest proba- countable, but has occasionally induced a disThe consequence was, that a very learned dis- bility of ultimate success, should have been rash belief of the whole affair. cussion was carried on between James and the enough to embark in so hazardous an enterprise. The king, according to his own narrative, church, in which, as regarded controversial skill The circumstances, as regards the supposed at- managed during the struggle to drag his adverand theological knowledge, the king certainly tempt on James's person, are commonly related sary towards a window which looked into the proved his superiority. It was only, however, as follows:

street, and perceiving the Earl of Mar below, by threatening that he would wait the arrival of a The king was residing at Falkland for the called out to him lustily for assistance. The bishop, that a divine, Andrew Melvil, rather than purpose of indulging in his favourite sport of earl, followed by a considerable number of perthat the ceremony should be Episcopalian, con- hunting, and on the morning of 5th August, sons, rushed up the staircase, and finding the sented to perform it as the king wished. The 1600, was sallying forth with his hounds, when door fastened within, burst it open.* Precourt put forth its rude splendour on this occa- Alexander Ruthven, looking pale and agitated, viously, however, to the arrival of the earl on sion. There was a succession of banquets and rode up to his majesty, with the information that the spot, John Ramsey,f a page, happening to masks; and the rejoicings lasted for two months. a person, supposed to be a Jesuit, and having a come up a back staircase, through which the

large amount of foreign gold about him, had assassins meant to have escaped, discovered the

been intercepted by his brother, Lord Gowrie. king struggling with Ruthven. James instantly CHAPTER III.

To this intelligence he added a request, that the called to him to strike his antagonist, desiring The Gowrie conspiracy, by which we are to king would ride to his brother's residence at him to thrust low, for he wore a coat of mail. understand the real or pretended attempt on the Perth, by which means he expressed his belief His words were, “ Fy! strik him laich, becaus life of James, by the Earl of Gowrie and his that some important secrets might be extracted brother, Alexander Ruthven, is too memorable from the suspected person. From what we

The Duke of Lennox, in his deposition, gives and too mysterious an event to be passed over in know of James's character, this part of the story an amusing description of the stirring scene in which silence. We must recollect, that it has not to certainly carries with it an air of truth. Such he bore a share. “As they wer standing (below the this day been clearly ascertained, whether there an investigation was exactly suitable to the king's window) advyseing quhair to seik the king, incontiwere really a treasonable intention on the part of tastes, for he peculiarly prided himself on his nent, and in this mentyme, this deponar hard ane Gowrie, or whether the plot were not altogether talent for cross-examination and power of elicit- voce, and said to the Eric of Mar, « This is the kingis a specious contrivance of the king, in order to ing the truth; besides, the thoughts of the gold voce that cryis; be quhair he will!' And sua they get rid of a dangerous subject. was probably not without its consideration. He lukand furth at the window wantand his hat, his face

all lukand up to the ludgeing; they saw his majestie The suspected conspirators were the sons of accordingly expressed his intention of honouring being reid (red], and ane hand gripand his cheik that Earl of Gowrie who had been executed Gowrie with his presence at dinner.

and mouth; and the king cryit, I am murtherit! some years previously for seizing James's After continuing the sport for a short time, and Teassoun! My Lord of Mar, help! help! And son at Ruthven. Soon after his father's death, having killed a buck, James, accompanied by the incontinent, this deponar, the Erle of Mar, and their the young earl had permission to travel abroad, Duke of Lennox and the Earl of Mar, rode to cumpany, ran up the stair to the galry chalmer

, and it is said that, at Padua, he adopted an

the residence of the Gowries. No sooner had quhair his majesiy wes, to have relevit him; and as heraldic device on which were a hand and a

he finished his repast, and the attendant noble. they passed up, they fand the dure of the chalmer There is another men had been seated for a similar purpose, than raschit at the dure with the ledder, and the stoippis

fast; and seeing ane ledder standing besyd, they sword aiming at a crown.

Alexander Ruthven approached him; intimating of the ledder brak. And syne they send for hamstory, that, when at Orleans, a fortune-teller

predicted to him that he should become melancholy that now was the most favourable moment for meris; and nochtwithstanding lang forceing with from the effect of love, that he should be pos- followed Ruthven to an upper room, on entering quhill eftir the Erle of Gowrie and his brother wes examining the stranger. The king rose and hammeris, they gat nocht entrie at the said chalmer

, sessed of great power, and that he should die by which the latter closed the door, and James sud- baith slane.”—Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. ii. p. the sword.§ On his way home he paid a visit

173. to the court of Elizabeth, on which occasion he denly found himself in the presence of a

person His natural inquiry was

† For this service, Ramsey was created Viscount is said to have fixed his affections on the unfor- in complete armour. tunate Arabella Stuart. whether this was the person he had. come to Hadington, and, having accompanied the king to

England in 1620, was raised to be Baron of KingsJames, who had previously restored him to examine? “ No,” said Ruthven, (at the same

ton and Earl of Holderness. The elevation was time snatching a dagger from the girdle of the attended by a particular proviso, that on the 5th of *Sanderson, p. 253.

man in armour,) “ you have been brought hither August, the day on which he had delivered his D'Israeli's Enquiry into the Literary and Political for another purpose; you killed my father, and sovereign, he and his heirs should for ever carry the Character of James I. p. 216.

sword of state before the king, in commemoration of Spotswood, p. 380. . Sanderson, p. 226.

* Spotswood, p. 457.

the service which he had performed.



he hes ane pyne-dowlit upon him."*

' Ramsey that the king's published relation of what ocolish crown; and, strange as it may appear, notinstantly obeyed, forcing his dagger into Ruth- curred, is in singular opposition to the evidence withstanding the proverbial industry and perseve{ven's stomach two or three times. According of the witnesses.*

rance of the genealogists, this important doubt has to Spotswood, the man whom the king found in The further we investigate this complicated never been cleared up. The supposition of Gowthe apartment endeavoured to make his escape, affair, the greater difficulties we meet with at rie's affinity to the throne rests as follows: At but was run through the body by Sir Thomas every step. On the one hand, it appears highly the death of Elizabeth, the crown would natuErskine, and killed on the spot. It seems, how- improbable that James should have entered into rally revert to the descendants of Henry the ever, by every other account of the affair, that such a plot against his own subjects—that he Seventh ; Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of this mysterious individual took advantage of the should have allowed the earl and his brother to that monarch, and grandinother of James the commotion, and retired unnoticed from the apart- return from abroad, and have loaded them with First, after the death of her husband, James the ment.

favours, when all the time he fully intended their Fourth of Scotland, had married Henry Stuart, Soon after this, the Earl of Gowrie, who destruction--that he should have been guilty of Lord Ruthven; who again married Lady Janet really seems to have been completely ignorant of the solemn mockery of appointing an annual day Stewart, daughter of the Earl of Athol. Lord what was going forward, rushed into the apart of thanksgiving for a deliverance which was Gowrie's mother was certainly granddaughter of ment in which James had been placed by Sir merely ideal ;t and, what is perhaps the most Lord Ruthven, but whether descended from his Thomas Erskine, accompanied by three or four weighty argument, that so notorious a coward first wife, the queen dowager, or from Lady of his retainers, and having a sword in each should have voluntarily implicated himself in so Janet Stewart, remains yet to be proved: if from hand. He made a most gallant attack, or rather perilous an adventure.

the former, after the failure of issue from James defence, and was on the point of routing his On the other hand, the arguments in favour of the First, the earl was certainly the natural sucopponents, when one of them cried out that the the Gowries' innocence are still more staggering. cessor to the throne ; if from the latter, though king was killed. Gowrie, in natural astonish- Besides the absence of a sufficient motive, it was in some degree it allied him to the royal family, ment, dropped the points of his swords to the proved that the only weapon found on Alexander it placed his hopes of succession at a very conground, when Ramsey, the page, seized the Ruthven after his death, was a sword rusted in siderable distance. lil opportunity, and ran his rapier through the its sheath and undrawn; and he was, besides, a Ingenious as are the attempts to prove this i earl's heart.t

mere boy at the time. The earl and his brother relationship on the part of the Gowries, and Thomas Cranstoun, George Craigengelt, and were both slain on the spot, instead of being some of the arguments are staggering, we must John Baron, retainers of Gowrie's, were exe- taken prisoners, which might easily have been ever bear in mind the important fact, that not a cuted for having connived at this conspiracy ; effected. The king, without any apparent mo- single contemporary historian has alluded to the they all declared with their dying breath that tive, had assembled an unusual force of armed subject; and we can hardly believe that, had - they were ignorant of any treasonable intent, men at the time, and as many as five hundred such claims really existed, we should have been and that they had only drawn their swords in gentlemen are said to have composed his suite left so entirely in the dark. There are innudefence of the earl, their master. “I have been in the neighbourhood. The reality of the con- merable instances which clearly demonstrate that taken," said Cranstoun, "for a traitor, but I spiracy was not only generally canvassed at the both Elizabeth and James regarded Lady Arathank God I am not one. I was stabbed through period, but appears to have been commonly dis- bella Stuart as the subject most nearly allied to with a sword at this last tumult, and now I am believed. The ministers of the church in Edin the throne. “Quiet as that young creature to be hanged."I Andrew Henderson, another burgh positively refused to return thanks for the looks,” said Queen Elizabeth to the French follower of that unfortunate nobleman, deposed, king's delivery, and preferred encountering his ambassadress, “she may one day sit on this on the other hand, that he was the person in utmost vengeance to implicating themselves in throne !" Now, if the Earl of Gowrie were armour already mentioned; though it seems that what they conscientiously believed to be an in- really the grandson of Queen Margaret, the the king had been previously well acquainted famous and mountebank cheat. The Bishop of claims of Arabella Stuart as great granddaughter with Henderson's person; and yet, notwith- Ross alone had complaisance enough to address are thrown altogether in the background. Supstanding a protracted conversation, had hitherto the people at the Market Cross, at Edinburgh; posing, however, as a matter of argument, that entertained not the least suspicion of his identity. but even he contented himself with a narrative Gowrie really stood in the position in which it The evidence, indeed, of Henderson is so full of relation of what was supposed to have taken has been attempted to place him, the fact, howcontradictions, as to render the fact of his being place. For many years afterwards, Gowrie was ever satisfactorily proved, would throw but little the person extremely improbable. It appears spoken of in Perth and its neighbourhood as an additional light on the identity of the guilty far more likely that he volunteered the testimony innocent and injured person, and James's con- party. The same inducement which might have which he gave, in order to save his life; if, in- duct invariably mentioned with abhorrence. led Gowrie to get rid of James, in order to his deed, he had not been tampered with by the It has been asserted that a criminal intercourse own succession, might have actuated James in court, who were naturally anxious to corroborate had been carried on between the queen and Alex- getting rid of Gowrie; for James was undoubtthe king's statement, on which hitherto had alone ander Ruthven, and that the king's jealous sensi- edly as jealous of his successor, or of any perrested the suspicions of Gowrie's guilt. Besides, bility induced him to adopt this means of revenge: son who might interfere with his rights, as was James describes the man in armour as “ a black, this supposition, however, can be mentioned as

Elizabeth herself; a fact sufficiently proved by grim man,” while Henderson is stated by his little more than a surmise.

his treatment of Arabella Stuart. It is improeotemporaries to have been a person of " low An attempt has been made to prove that the bable, also, that the proximity of the Gowries to stature, ruddy complexion, and brown bearded." Earl of Gowrie was not only nearly allied, but, the blood royal should have been an inducement In addition to these inconsistencies is the fact, after James, was actually the next heir to the Eng- with James ; for, after the death of the earl and

his brother, there remained two younger bro* Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. ij. p. 158. * See Life and Death of John Earl of Gowrie, p. thers, William and Patrick, who naturally in

Spotswood, p. 457; Sanderson, p. 226. 324. It is there asfirmed, on the authority of an herited the claims of their elder brother. James,

Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. ii. p. 155. Edinburgh MS., that at the very time when Gowrie whatever was the motive, certainly persecuted $ See a very ingenious treatise, “ The History of was killed, Henderson was seen walking on the Tay that gallant and unhappy family to the last: the Life and Death of John Farl of Gowrie, by the Bridge of Perth; and again, “ That he was the man

William died in exile, and Patrick remained a Rev. James Scott,” p. 327, Edinburgh, 1818. This said to be in armour, was known to be a falsehood, prisoner in the 'Tower of London till liberated at work, which is one of considerable labour and re- for he was seen that day coming from Scoon to search, contains some curious references and extracts Perth, on foot; and having heard that the king was

the accession of Charles the First. The boon from unpublished MSS. the parochial records of in Gowrie's house, and the gate shut, walked on the of freedom would have been valueless without Perth, as also a summary of the various tracts, and bridge till all was over.”

the means of subsistence, and Charles considerother printed works, which treat on the subject of † À thanksgiving for the king's deliverance was ately settled a small pension on the victim of his the "Gowries’ Conspiracy.” The object of the continued on the 5th of August throughout his father's gross injustice. During his incarcerareverend author is confessedly to exculpate his reign. Bishop Andrews is said to have fallen on tion, Patrick Ruthven had occupied his time and favourites, the Gowries; and if he has fallen short his knees to James, beseeching his majesty to en- attention in literary and scientific pursuits. When of effecting his purpose, he has at least deduced lighten him as to the reality of the treason, in the troubles of the revolution deprived him of some very staggering facts, and opened an interest order that he might be released from mocking the the royal bounty, the last of the Ruthvens aping and wider field for discussion. The reader is Almighty, should the story be a mere fiction. also referred to the detailed, and more popular ac- James, however, assured the bishop, on the faith of a pears to have wandered an impoverished scholar count of Robertson.-Hist. of Scotland, ilorks, vol. Christian and the word of a king, that there was no

in the streets of London; if he had not actually ii. p. 205.

deception in the case. - Biog. Brit. vol. iv. p. 2455. to struggle with the horrors of starvation.


It is but fair on the part of James to record the following anecdote:-Mr. William Cowper, the minister of Perth, informed Archbishop Spotswood, that, visiting the Earl of Gowrie some days previous to the supposed conspiracy, he found him intent on a book entitled, "Conspiracies against Princes."* The earl remarked that former plotters had invariably failed in their object through mismanagement, and that entire secresy was the only basis of success.

Robert Carey, afterwards Earl of Monmouth,
who was constantly in the queen's sick cham-
ber, who relates the story in a somewhat differ-
ent manner. Elizabeth, he says distinctly, was
speechless at the time; adding, that, when the
name of the King of Scotland was mentioned to
her, she put her hand to her head, by which
"they all knew that he was the man she desired
should reign after her."* The council, and
especially Čecil, were naturally anxious, in order
to the quiet establishment of James, that they
should be enabled to add the authority of the
queen's express wishes to the claims of heredi-
tary descent; we can therefore readily imagine
that any circumstance, however slight, would
have been brought to bear on the occasion. It
is just as probable that the movement of the
queen's hand should have been caused by a pain
in her head, as that it should have been intended
to denote the disposition of a kingdom.

the council? I told him none; and acquainted him how narrowly I escaped from them. And yet I had brought him a blue ring from a fair lady, that I hoped would give him assurance of the truth that I had reported. He took it and looked upon it, and said, 'It is enough; I know by this you are a true messenger.'


To enable the crown to confiscate the estates of the deceased earl, it was necessary that there should be a legal inquiry into the proofs of his guilt. This ceremony may be rather called a trial of the dead, for, in accordance with an ancient custom, the massacred remains of the brothers were deposited in court during the process of investigation. The parliament decreed that their names, dignities, and memories should be blotted from the books of the nobility; that their property should be at the disposal of the king; that they should be hung, drawn, and quartered at the cross of Edinburgh; and that the several portions of their bodies should be affixed to the most public buildings of the principal towns in the kingdom. The sentence was fulfilled almost to the letter; their heads were placed on the Tolbooth at Edinburgh, and their legs and arms on the gates of Perth.

Such are the circumstances connected with the famous Gowrie conspiracy. It must be admitted that the generality of our historians have decided in favour of James; indeed, the curious evidence recently brought forward by Pitcairn, in the Criminal Trials, is supposed by many to have set the question at rest. Whatever, therefore, is now adduced, has been intended rather to display the merits of a perplexing controversy, than as throwing any additional light on a subject which has been so often and so ably discussed.

No sooner was the breath departed from the queen's body, than Sir Robert Carey,† who had been anxiously hovering about the death-bed of his kinswoman and benefactress, set off, with the lamentations of her women still ringing in his ears, to announce the important tidings to James: an act quite as indelicate as it was unauthorised. It appears, by Carey's own statement, that he must have ridden the distance between London and Edinburgh (about 400 miles) within the space of sixty hours, notwithstanding he received a dangerous fall from his horse, which retarded him on the road.‡


James received the news of his accession with proper decency. Rapin states, on the indifferent authority of a French historian,§ that he could not forbear lifting up his eyes to heaven, as if to thank God for the boon which he had so long and anxiously expected. Carey, on his part, mentions nothing of this discomposure, slight as it was, in the manner of James. The king had just gone to bed when he arrived, and therefore received him in his bed-chamber. "I kneeled by him," adds this true courtier, "and saluted The crown of England, at the death of Eliza-him by his title of England, Scotland, France, beth, was transferred tranquilly and undisputedly and Ireland. He gave me his hand to kiss, and to the brows of her successor. The deceased bade me welcome. After he had long discoursed queen, as is well known, partly, perhaps, from of the manner of the queen's sickness, and of superstitious, and partly from political motives, her death, he asked me what letters I had from had ever shrunk from naming the person whom she wished to succeed her, and had invariably met any importunities on the subject with the utmost indignation. In the last moments of her glorious career, while in extreme sickness of mind and body, the lord admiral, the lord keeper, and Secretary Cecil, for the last time intruded upon her the hateful subject. The queen, says Camden,† replied faintly, that as she held a regal sceptre, so she desired no other than a royal successor. When Cecil requested her to explain herself more fully: I would, she added, have a king to succeed me, and who should that be but my nearest kinsman the King of Scots? Such is Camden's account, from which our principal historians appear to have borrowed their relation of this important passage. There is, however, another writer,

The person selected by James to communicate his intended proceedings to the English council was Sir Roger Aston, who is reported to have served the king for many years as his barber, though he eventually rose to be a gentleman of the bed-chamber and master of the wardrobe. He seems to have been a plain and straight-forward man, and quite as overjoyed as his master at entering upon the splendours and luxuries for which they had so long waited. This rough Scotsman being admitted into the council-chamber, the lords received him with much courtesy, and asked him how he did? "Even, my lords," he replied, "like a poor man wandering about forty years in a wilderness and barren soil, and now arrived at the land of promise." Such was the general feeling of the Scottish nation. Shortly before James's departure from Edinburgh, happening to attend divine worship at St. Giles's church, the preacher thought proper to

borrower from other writers. See Oldey's Life of
Raleigh, p. 163; and Kennett's History, vol. i. p.

* Memoirs of Carey, Earl of Monmouth, p. 140.
† Fourth son of Henry, first Lord Hunsdon, creat-remind him of God's mercies, exhorting him to
ed by James I. 5th February, 1625, Baron Carey and be duly grateful for the favour which had been
Earl of Monmouth. Horace Walpole has given him shown him, and not to forget his countrymen!
a place among the Noble Authors, observing, that The king actually rose from his seat, and," pro-
"he was a near relation to Queen Elizabeth, but ap-mising to have a care of them and their good,
pears to have owed his preferment to the despatch gave them a most loving and kind farewell."||
he used in informing her successor of her death." He
was indeed a true courtier. His memoirs were first

The progress of James, from his old to his new capital, was every where attended with a magnificence to which he had scarcely been accustomed in his own impoverished realm.¶ The

published by John, Earl of Cork and Orrery, in
1759. He died at an advanced age in 1639. Wal-
of Himself.
pole's Works; Burke's Extinct Peerage; Memoirs

Memoirs of Carey, Earl of Monmouth, p. 149.
More than one instance might be mentioned of our
ancestors having performed considerable distances
in an incredibly short space of time. On the 17th
of July, 1620, one Bernard Calvert, of Andover, rode
from St. George's Church, Southwark, to Dover,
crossed the channel in an open boat to Calais, and
from thence returned to St. George's Church in the
same day; having performed the whole distance be-
tween three o'clock in the morning and eight in the
Medulla Hist. Anglicanæ, p. 185; Stow,
§ Vol. ii. p. 158; from Du Chesne, Hist. d'Anglet. |


Birch has thrown a partial light over the history of the blue ring. "Lady Elizabeth Spelman," he says, "used to relate, that the Lady Scroope, who waited upon the queen in her last moments, as soon as her majesty expired, threw this ring out of the window to her brother, which appears to have been a token agreed upon between her and the King of Scots as the notice of the queen's death." A window was recently pointed out on Richmond Green, the site of the old palace, from which legend reported that the ring had been thrown.

Nothing could exceed the joy of the Scots, when the tardy accession of James to the throne of England was at length announced. The protracted reign of Elizabeth had been universally regarded as a national calamity; and we are even assured that a belief existed among the lower classes in Scotland, that the Queen of England had been long since dead, and that the English had been in the habit of substituting a series of old women in her room. Weldon says that the wisest heads in Scotland could scarcely be induced to believe, that as long as there was an "old wife" in England, their king would be called on to succeed.

*De Conjurationibus adversus Principes. Camden, History of Queen Elizabeth, in Kennett, vol. ii. p. 653.

Rapin, vol. ii. p. 155; Echard, vol. i. p. 902; Hume, vol. v. p. 385. Sanderson, who may almost be considered as a contemporary, gives a similar account (p. 261.) This historian, however, notwith-afternoon. standing his constant professions to have been behind the scenes, is well known to have been a mere

* Memoirs of Carey, Earl of Monmouth, p. 151. View of the Negotiations between England, France, and Brussels.

He was natural son of John Aston, second son of Richard Aston, of Aston, in Cheshire; and though born an Englishman, had been brought up in Scotland. He had occasionally been employed to carry letters between James and Elizabeth. Sir Roger died 23d May, 1612, having accumulated a large fortune at court. Athenæ Oxon. vol. i. col. 173. Weldon, p. 6. Spotswood, p. 476. See Nichols's Progresses and Processions of King James I., vol. i. p. 53.



houses of the nobility and principal gentry were The Scots, who accompanied James to his was four brawny pigs, piping hot, bitted and prepared for his reception on the way, and he new dominions, are said to have brought with harnessed, with ropes of sausages, all tied to a was every where entertained with the most them their dirt as well as their poverty. The monstrous pudding. * splendid hospitality. “These people,” said a Countess of Dorset informs us, that when she The king's love of buffoonery never deserted blunt Scotsman, - would spoil a good king.” paid her visit of congratulation to the royal fa- him, even when age and vexation were pressing With the exception of a fall from his horse in mily at Theobald's, she was surprised at the hard upon him. But what he most delighted in hunting, and a remarkable circumstance of his great change which had taken place, in regard to was any burlesque, however caricatured, on the having hung a footpad without even the form of the want of cleanliness, since the preceding reign. incidents of real life: the more ridiculous they a trial, no event of any importance occurred in Soon after quitting the palace she found herself were, says Arthur Wilson, the more they pleased his progress through his new dominions. infested with those insects, the name of which it him. A story is told by this writer, of a profane

The grief for a departed monarch is commonly is scarcely considered delicate to mention. expedient, adopted by Buckingham and his moof short duration. The joy of the people was It is to be regretted, that Sully, in his account ther, to divert the royal melancholy at the most not less ardent, nor their acclamations less loud, of his embassy to England, enters so little into dismal period of his reign. A young lady was when they beheld the foreign successor, (of the fashions and manners of the court. He men- introduced, carrying in her arms a pig, in the whose character they knew about as little as tions, however, an occasion of his dining with dress of an infant, which the countess presented they did of his folios,) than when they had James at Greenwich, when he was "not a little to the king in a rich mantle : one Turpin, dressed crowded round the chariot of the great princess surprised to behold that the king was always like a bishop, in a satin gown, lawn sleeves, and over whose remains the grave was just closing. served on the knee. A surtout,” he adds, " in the usual pontifical ornaments, commenced readJames, however, did his utmost to damp the the form of a pyramid, was placed in the middle ing the ceremony of baptism from the book of ardour of his new subjects. He had always dis- of the table, which contained most costly vessels, Common Prayer, while an assistant stood ready liked a crowd, and on the pretence that such a and was even enriched with diamonds.” Let us with a silver ewer filled with water. The king, eoncourse of admirers would produce a scarcity return, however, to the private tastes and pur- to whom the joke was intended to convey a of provisions, he issued an order for their dis- suits of James.

pleasing surprise, hearing the pig suddenly persion. The higher ranks were not better There were a set of persons about the king, squeak, looked more closely about him, and repleased with the manner in which he prostituted who were ever ready to pander to his gross ideas cognised the face of Buckingham, who was inall titles of honour. Besides his promiscuous of amusement. Sir Anthony Weldon gives us tended to personify the god-father. “ Away, for additions to the peerage, it is reported that with the following account of the popular entertain- shame,” he cried : “ what blasphemy is this?”?: in six weeks after he left Scotland, he conferred ments at court, about the period that Buckinghamn extremely indignant at the trick which had been knighthood on no less than two hundred and first came into favour. “Then,” he says, “ the imposed upon him.t thirty-seven persons. A pasquinade was affixed king began to eat abroad, who formerly used to We must not, however, attribute his displeato St. Paul's, purporting to be a method to en- eat in his bed-chamber, and after supper would sure, on this occasion, to any other cause than able weak memories to retain the names of the come forth to see pastimes and fooleries, in which the accidental melancholy which happened to new nobility."*

Sir Edward Zouch,* Sir George Goring,t and have mastered him at the time. It is extremely James's notions of the royal prerogative appear Sir John Finett, were the chief and master- improbable that such artful politicians as Buckto have increased with his addition of territory. fools: and surely this fooling got them more than ingham and his mother should have ventured on At Newark, as has been already related, he took any other's wisdom, far above them in desert. such“ blasphemies,” unless persuaded, by the upon himself to hang a highwayman without the Zouch's part was to sing bawdy songs and tell success of former puerilities, that their impious least pretence of a trial—a sort of orientalism bawdy tales : Finett to compose these songs. buffoonery would not be unpleasing to the weakwhich was afterwards canvassed in such a man- Then were a set of fiddlers brought up on pur- minded monarch. It may be proper, too, to ner as to prevent the probability of its recur- pose for this fooling; and Goring was master of mention, that a pig was an animal of which James rence.t

the game for fooleries, sometimes presenting Da- had a more than Judaical abhorrence ;-he tells In James's progress to London celerity seems vid Droman and Archie Armstrong on the back us, in his “ Counterblast to Tobacco," that were to have been considered as of the least import of the other fools, to tilt one at the other, till they he to invite the Devil to dinner, he would place ance. The greater part of the days were passed fell together by the ears ; sometimes the property three dishes before him ;—first, a pig; secondly, in hunting, and the nights in feasting. He ar- was presented by them in antic dances. But Sir a poll of ling and mustard ; and thirdly, a pipe of rived in London on the 7th of May, 1603, having Jo. Millisent, who was never known before, tobacco to assist digestion. His dislike to toconsumed five weeks in his journey. I

was commended for notable fooling; and so was bacco was only equaled by his horror of the pig; The tastes and habits which were introduced indeed the best extemporary fool of them all.” a fact well known by the fame of the celebrated by James into the English court differed widely Sir George Goring, who afterwards rose to tirade above alluded to. There was an order from the stately pastimes and chivalrous amuse- military celebrity in the civil troubles, appears issued during his reign, prohibiting the members ments of the past reign. There was no want of to have well merited his title of “ Master-fool.” of the University of Cambridge from smoking what may perhaps be called magnificence; in- In a letter to the Earl of Arundel, dated 22d No- tobacco in St. Mary's church. Considering how deed, the expense of supporting the royal plea-vember, 1618, another of his follies is described. frequently references are made by contemporary sures occasionally amounted to extravagance, The occasion was a kind of al fresco party, in writers to the king's dislike to pigs, we are surbut at this period of his reign there was not only commemoration of the prince's birth-day, when prised to find his favourite Buckingham more than little elegance, but the taste of the court, and the principal courtiers had agreed to meet to- once addressing him in his letters, by the familiar especially of the king himself, appears constantly gether, each contributing his own share of the appellation of "Sow;" but the following curious tinctured with grossness and vulgarity. The repast, some striving to be substantial, some letter, addressed by the Earl of Pembroke to Sir nice perceptions of Prince Charles and Bucking-curious, and some extravagant. Sir George Edward Zouch, is even more startling. ham eventually introduced those intellectual re- Goring's invention bore away the bell ; and that

“ Honest Ned, finements which, in the succeeding reign, distinguished the court of England as the politest in

“I know you love your master dearly, and * Probably the same Sir Edward Zouch who was his pleasures, which makes me put you in trust Europe.

Knight Marshal of England in the reign of James I., with this business, myself not being able to stay

and consequently related to Edward Lord Zouch of Wilson, in Kennett, vol. i. p. 665.

in the town so late. Haringworth. The identity, however, is equally † James entertained to the last the most dangerous uncertain and immaterial.

" I pray you, therefore, as soon as it grows notions as to the extent to which the royal preroga- † Sir George Goring, afterwards so distinguished dark fail not to send the close cart to Basingborn tive should be carried : this is the more singular for the services which he rendered to his sovereign for the speckled sow ye saw the king take such since his tutor, the illustrious Buchanan, endeavoured during the civil troubles, was created, 14th April, 1632. liking unto this day; and let her be brought priby every means in his power to instil very different by Charles I., Baron Goring of Hurst Pierpont, and vately to the man of the wardrobe, by the same ideas into the mind of his sovereign pupil

, and, in- sih November, 1644, Earl of Norwich. He married token, that I chid him for letting the other beasts deed, published his work, De jure Regni apud Sco- Mary, daughter of Edward Lord Bergavenny, and go carelessly into the garden while it was day, tos, with this object.

died in 1662. † The coronation of James took place on the 25th # Sir John Finett, master of the ceremonies to of July, 1603; the ceremony, owing to the plague James I. and Charles I., and author of Finetti Phi- Lodge's Illustrations of English Hist. vol. iii. which raged fearfully in the metropolis, being per- loxenis, containing some curious anecdotes and treaformed hurriedly, and without ostentation, by the tises on points of precedence and court etiquette. It † Wilson, in Kennett, vol. ii. p. 764. Archbishop of Canterbury. was first published in London, 1656.

# Witty Apopthegms of James I.

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