History of Europe: From the Commencement of the French Revolution to the Restoration of the Bourbons in MDCCCXV [i.e. 1815], Band 1

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The independence of pastoral life ib 13 The security of walled cities
10
The protection of mountain retreats ib 15 Limited extent of freedom in ancient times
11
Different policy of the Romans Its prodigious effects
12
Real causes of the decay of the Roman Empire
13
First irruption of the northern nations Its great effects
14
Lamentable prostration of the vanquished
15
Separation thence induced between the classes of society in modem times
16
Entire prostration of the vanquished ib 22 Total absence of representative governments in antiquity
17
And in the northern nations on their first establishment in Europe
18
Causes which led to representative governments in modern Europe
19
They are borrowed from the assemblies of the Church
20
Are universally established in Europe
21
Fatal defects of the feudal system
23
Cause of the early corruption of barbarous conquerors
24
Effects of the private wars of the nobles
26
Causes of the decay of the feudal liberty in Spain
27
Its decline in France and Germany
28
And in England ib 34 It was only fitted for a barbarous age
29
Opulence undermined the power of the nobles
30
Progress of freedom in the south of Europe
31
Rapid rise of the urban civilisation of Italy Great and patriotic efforts of these states
32
Causes of their decline
33
General defection of the subject states on disaster 84
35
Common conclusions as to the tendency to decay in all communities 88
37
Causes to which it is to be ascribed 89
40
And dangers
41
Ultimate benefits of knowledge
42
Discovery of gunpowder destroyed the power of tho nobility 50 Increase of luxury tended to the same effect
44
Combination of these causes in inducing the French Revolution
45
Vast effect of the revolt of armies on the cause of democracy
46
Danger from popular license which now threatens society
47
Slow growth of durable freedom
48
CHAPTER I
49
Moderation in England and violence in France after victory
50
Great influence of religion in England and of infidel principles in France
51
Moderation displayed in the English civil wars and cruelty in France ib 6 Vast difference as regards the subsequent law in tho two countries
53
And as regards the distribution of property ib 7 Political weight in France since the Revolution compared with England
54
And on the military and naval power of the two countries
55
What that cause was
56
Degraded state of the inhabitants of both Gaul and Britain under the Romans
57
Total prostration of the Britons and Gauls after the fall of Rome
58
Effects of AngloSaxon conquests to 14 Effect of the insular situation of Britain
60
Cause which was beginning to prove fatal to freedom
61
Consequent aristocratic tendency of society among the AngloSaxons
62
It gave origin to the yeomanry of England
64
Vast effect of the insular situation of England on the conquering race
65
And on the early struggles for freedom
66
And on the national wars of the English
68
Total want of archery as a force in France and Scotland
69
Great effects of the Norman Conquest
70
Power of the crown under the Norman kings
71
Insular situation
72
AngloSaxon institutions
73
Entire want of protection to the rural labourers
74
Democratic spirit in the time of Richard II ib 31 Wars of the Roses
75
Decline of feudal liberty
76
Revived by spirit of religious freedom and the Reformation
77
Modified by the regard to ancient rights in England
79
Which is the result of longestablished popular institutions ib 36 And which extends to America
81
Savage character of the civil wars in Ireland
82
And Scotland
84
Causes of the humanity of the Great Rebellion ib 41 State of the Gauls in the decline of the Roman Empire
85
Their conquest by the Franks
86
Independent spirit of the Franks
87
Rois Fainiants and early corruption of the empire of Charlemagne ib 45 Its dissolution
89
Rise of the boroughs
90
Great feudatories
92
Misery arising from the English wars and its effects
93
Rise of the democratic spirit in France
94
Contrast of the French and English contests for freedom
95
their pernicious effect
96
Effect of the English wars
97
Effect of the standing armies of the crown on public freedom
98
Military spirit of the nation
99
Privileges of the nobility Their pernicious effect
100
Great effects of Richelieus system of government
101
His measures to carry these designs into effect
102
Prodigious effects of these changes
103
Real causes which brought it about
104
Despotic nature of his government
106
Failure of the Reformation in France
107
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
109
Dreadful ultimate retribution to which it led
111
Manner in which this retribution was brought about
112
d
113
Beneficial effects of periods of suffering
114
Slow growth and invaluable inheritance of real freedom
115
CHAPTER II
117
Its advantages for inland trade
118
Statistics of the country
119
Remarkable disproportion between agriculturists and manufacturers in Franco and England
120
General character of the French people
122
French colonies and the cause of their loss ib 7 Vast colonial trade of France with St Domingo
124
Its naval forces as compared with those of England ib 9 Military strength of France before tho war
125
Real force of Franco in 1792
126
Household troops of the king
127
What then led to the Revolution?
128
The collision of tho classes did not necessarily produce revolution
130
Middle ranks desirous of elevation ib 16 Slavery prevented this appearing in ancient times and pressure from below brings it out in modern
131
General operation of these principles in modern times
132
Its important effects in modern times
133
Extinction of public spirit by private opulence is long averted by these causes
134
Perils of this progressive rise of the lower orders
135
Collision of the higher and lower orders is unavoidable in every advancing modern state
136
Destruction of the power of the nobles
137
Military spirit of tho people
138
Philosophy and literature
139
Causes of the general delusion regarding public opinion
140
Classical allusions which generally prevailed
141
Influence of the French stage on the public mind
142
State of the Church
143
Fatal effects of the revocation of tho Edict of Nantes
144
Weakness it induced on the Gallican Church
145
It issues in the contests of the Jesuits and JanBenists A 32 Transition of this contest into that of the parliaments with the king
146
Powers of the parliaments
148
Progress of the contest with the parliaments
149
Suppression of the Jesuits
150
Cessation of the religious contests and rise of the philosophical opinions ib 37 Life and character of Montesquieu
151
Character of his writings
153
Influence of Montesquieu on the Revolution
154
Birth and parentage of Voltaire
156
His subsequent career
158
Rises to great literary eminence
159
Retires to Ferney on the Lake of Geneva
160
Character of his philosophy
162
His principles on religion
164
Rousseau His early life and habits
165
Criminal irregularities of his youth
167
His first essay in literature
168
Heartlessness towards Madame Warens
169
Foundation of his philosophical principles
171
Importance of the preceding detail as to these great men
172
The new opinions are carried out still further by their successors
173
Raynal Diderot and DAlembert
174
Pernicious doctrines of the Materialists
175
Universal infidelity which prevailed
176
Spread of these irreligious principles among the nobility
177
Great encouragement given to irreligion by Frederick and Catherine
178
Weakened state of the church at this period
180
Remarkable prophecies of the French Church on the effects of the irreligion of the age
181
Corruptions and evils of the church
182
The Economists
184
Reflections on these doctrines
185
Privileges of the nobles
186
Rigorous distinction of noble and roturier in France
188
Composition of the privileged classes
189
Prosperous condition of the Tiers Etat
190
Vast growth of Paris and the principal towns of the kingdom
191
Superior education of the Tiers Etat
192
Taxation Its inequalities
193
Inequality in the imposition of the direct taxes in France
194
Indirect taxes
195
State of the labouring poor
196
Nonresident proprietors
197
Feudal services
199
Exaggeration on this subject
200
Administration of justice
201
Royal prerogative
202
Extreme inconsistency with which the royal power had been exercised
204
Terrible torture which was still continued in France
205
Horrors of the old punishments
206
Corruption at court
208
Profligacy of the Regent Orleans and Louis XV
209
Madame Pompadour and Madame du Barri
211
Dissolute habits of young EgalitS
212
Contrast to the manners of the middle classes at that period
214
Embarrassment of finances
215
Ineffectual efforts of preceding sovereigns to make up the deficit
216
Contempt and weakness into which the nobility had fallen
219
Inefficiency of the noblesse as a political body
220
Fatal division in France between the old families and the tummeaux anoblis
222
Distracted state of the clergy
223
Disastrous effect of the great influence of Paris
224
The element of rural loyalty was wanting or very weak in France
225
Remarkable observation of Lord Chesterfield on the state of France
226
Louis XV foresaw the dangers of the French monarchy
227
Overthrow of the parliaments resolved on by Louis XV
228
Suppression of the parliaments
229
Mr Burkes reflections on this event
231
Conquest of Corsica which made Napoleon a French citizen
232
Death of Louis XV
233
Advantages of the French system of government
234
Excellence of the parliaments as courts of law ii
236
Difference in consequence between the independence of the courts of law in the two countries prior to their Revolutions
237
Excellence of the French system of intendants of provinces ib 112 Reflections on the causes which preceded the Revolution
239
What are the real causes of revolution ti 114 It was the national vices not the national sufferings which produced the Revolution
242
CHAPTER III
243
Early characters of the Dauphins three sons
244
Early disposition of Louis XVI
245
His character
246
To what this irresolution was owing
247
Birth and early years of Marie Antoinette
248
Grief for her departure from Vienna and splendour of her reception in France
250
Magnificent fete at Paris on the marriage
251
Jealousies at court which make the Dauphin andDauphinoss live retired
253
Mr Burkes picture of Marie Antoinette
255
Character of the Queen
256
Her imprudences and the falsehoods to which they gave rise
257
Her heroic qualities and domestic virtues
258
Popular acts of the King and Queen on their accession
260
Character of Maurepas
262
His system of government
264
Dismissal of Abbe Terray and Maupeou and recall of the Parliaments
265
Importance of the step thus taken
267
Ingratitude of the parliament
269
Change in the system of government
270
Birth and early history of Turgot ib 24 His character as a minister
272
Fatal errors in his principles
273
Turgots finance measures
274
He establishes a free trade in grain and tumults in consequence
275
Violent disorders which ensued
277
History and character of Malesherbes
278
Malesherbes principles of government
279
Views of Turgot and his general principles
280
His ultimate designs
281
His designs for immediate change ib 34 Transports of the philosophers in Paris at his administration and ap pointment of St Germain
282
History of Count St Germain
285
Changes which he introduced
287
Breaks up the Hotel des Invalides Great discontents this excited in the army
288
Turgots Six Edicts
289
Universal combination against Turgot to resist the Six Edicts
290
Continuance of the contest with the Parliament which occasions his fall
291
Reflections on the fall of Turgot
293
Causes of these disastrous results
294
The system of the old regime iB restored by Clugny who succeeded Turgot
295
Early history of M Necker
297
Madame Keeker and the society with which she was surrounded
298
Causes which led to Neckers appointment to the ministry
300
His appointment as finance minister ib 49 Neckers first finance measures and opposition against them
301
Character of Necker and his plans of finance
302
Views of Turgot and Necker on the American war
303
Growing interest of the French in favour of the insurgents
304
Character of Calonne ii
322
His exposition to the King of the real state of the finances
323
Increasing loans of Calonne who is at last driven to extremities
325
Calonnes plan for the convocation of the Notables
326
Convocation of the Notables is agreed to by the King
327
His candid exposition of the state of the finances
329
Noble speech of Calonne to the Notables
330
Universal storm against Calonne on these proposals
332
Causes of this general combination
333
Pretences of the Notables to elude the plan and finance contests
334
Death of Vergennes and continued resistance of the Notables
336
Character of the Archbishop of Toulouse
338
Brienues dangerous speech on dismissing the Notables
340
Birth of the Princess Royal and the Dauphin
341
The Queen becomes the object of persecution to the Orleans party
343
Character of the Duke of Orleans and his party
344
Incessant efforts of the Orleans party to defame the Queen
346
Queens increasing influonce at court inflames the hostility against her
347
Increased rigour in favour of the aristocracy in regard to commissions in the army
348
Aid which these calumnies received from the Queens imprudent conduct
349
Nocturnal parties on the terraces at Versailles
350
Total change of ladies dress is introduced by the Queen
351
Affair of the diamond necklace 852
354
General spirit of innovation
356
Great extent of the Anglomania
358
First measures of Brienne which are successful
360
Progress of the dispute with the Parliament
361
Who continue to refuse to register the Edicts
362
Banishment of the Parliament to Troyes
363
A compromise between the Crown and the Parliament
364
Brienne proposes large new loans
365
The loan is rejected and the Duke of Orleans exiled
366
Further measures on both aides
368
Briennes plan of a Cour Pleniere
369
Protest of the Parliament of Paris
370
Arrest of dEspremgnil and Montsabort
372
Dramatic scene in the hall of Parliament
373
Universal enthusiasm excited in France by these events
374
Litdt Justice held at Versailles A 110 Edicts there proposed which are rejected
376
Convocation of an Assembly of the clergy which also demands tho Statesgeneral
378
Troubles in Beam and Dauphine 879
383
Vehement excitement of the public mind
384
Divisions already appear in the country on the subject
385
Great influence of the Abbe Sieyespamphlet 886
387
Which lead to the fall of Brienne and Lamoignon
388
Riots in Paris on the 25th August
390
Riot at Briennes hotel
391
Want of vigour in the government in prosecuting the offenders ib 123 Universal joy on Neckers restoration to office
392
Royal edict for summoning the Statesgeneral 893
395
A second convocation of the Notables to determine the form of con voking the Statesgeneral
397
The popular party contend for one chamber and a double number of deputies from the Tiers Etet
398
The parliament of Paris resist these changes
399
And immediately lose their popularity
400
Meeting of the Notables who confirm the decision of tho parliament of Paris
401
Necker induces the King to double the Tiers Etat and leave tho mode of voting unsettled
402
Neckers reasons for this step
404
Elections and extraordinary negligence with which they were conducted ib 135 Dreadful distress in Paris in the winter of 17889
405
Disturbances in Brittany and Provence
406
Tumults in Rennes and in Dauphine
407
Elections at Paris
408
Cahiers or instructions to the deputies
410
Vehement excitement which prevailed in Paris
411
Riot at ReveiUons
413
Destruction of Reveillons manufactory and violent tumult to which it gave rise
414
Who was the author of this tumult
415
Neckers views on the union of the orders
416
Reasons which led Louis XVI to adopt these views of Necker
417
Their pernicious results
418
Who did wrong at this period of the Revolution
419
The forcing of the King into the American war
420
Fault of the nobles and clergy in resisting equal taxation ib 150 The Parliaments did wrong in refusing to register the taxes
421
Neckers fatal error in the convocation of the Statesgeneral Effect of his concessions
422
Limits of conciliation and concession
423
What constituted the great error of Neckers measures
424
Effect of Neckers concessions
425
Slow growth of the ability to wield political power
426
Distinction between the love of freedom and the passion for power t4 157 Revolution headed by the higher classes
427
CHAPTER IV
429
Rashness of the Constituent Assembly and peril of hasty innovation
430
Opening of the Statesgeneral 481
431
Meeting of the Statesgenoral 488
434
Speech of M Nocker and general disappointment it occasioned
437
Commencement of the contest between the orders
439
First interference of the electors and municipality of Paris with the government
440
Tiers Etat insist for one Assembly which completely stops the public business
441
Violent contest betwixt the parties Advantages of the Commons ib 15 Sentiments and cahiers of the nobles
442
Views and instructions of the clergy
444
Of the Tiers Etat a 18 Views of the King
445
And of the people of Paris
448
Few great proprietors
449
Birth and early life of Mirabeau
450
23 His first adventures in life
451
His varied and licentious writings
452
His career before the Revolution
454
His invincible moral courage
459
His character as an orator
460
Of M Bailly
461
Character and biography of M Lafayette
464
Character of ClermontTonnerre
469
Of LallyTollendal and the two Lameths
470
Biography of Talleyrand
472
The Club Montrougethe centre of the Orleans conspiracy
473
The Club Bretonthe cradle of the Jacobins
474
Prodigious excitement in Paris during the contest of the orders
475
Vacillation and terror of the ministry
476
Remarkable prophecy of Father BeauRegard
477
Views of the conspirators on the popular side ib 43 First appearance of Robespierre in the Assembly
479
Proposals of the Tiers Etat
480
Rejection of the arbitration of the King by the Orders
481
The Tiers Etat resolve to constitute the Statesgeneral alone
482
Answer of the noblesse and the clergy
483
Serious disturbances and alarm over all France
484
Tumults in the provinces
485
Three Cures join the Tiere Etat
486
Debates on the title the Tiers Etat were to assume
487
Speech in opposition by Mirabeau
488
The Tiers Etat assume the title of National Assembly
490
Resolutions of the National Assembly declaring all taxes illegal if they were dissolved
492
Immense enthusiasm over France on these events ib 56 Commencement of the persecution of the unpopular deputies
493
Measures of the noblesse
495
Neckers measures in this crisis
496
TennisCourt oath
498
Error of the King on this occasion
499
One hundred and fortyeight of the clergy join the Tiers Etat 600
501
Grand council at Marly where the declaration of 23d June is resolved on
502
Royal sitting of the 23d June Great concessions of the King
503
Which give no satisfaction
504
The Commons refuse to leave the hall
505
Vast amount of these concessions of the King
506
Royal authority overthrown 607
507
Duke of Orleans and fortysix of the nobility join the Commons
508
Great difficulties of the Kings situation
509
Immense effervescence in Paris ib 74 Interview of the King with M de Luxembourg
510
The Kings answer to the representations of the Duke
512
Revolt and treason of the French guards
515
Vigorous measures are resolved on by the court
516
Great agitation in the capital
517
Power daily passing from the government to the multitude
518
Indecision of Nocker and the ministers
519
Moro violent views of the war party in the council
520
Speech of Mirabeau in the Assembly against the troops
521
Address of the Assembly to the King
522
Answer of the King
525
Commencement of the insurrection and dismissal of M Necker 626
528
Combat in front of the barracks and treachery of the troops
529
Efforts of the Orleans party to increaso the excitement 630
531
Vigorous preparations of the Revolutionists 582
533
Rapid formation of the Revolutionary force
534
Capture of tho H6tel des Invalides ib 98 It is determined to attack the Bastille 636
537
The insurgents break into the fortress
539
Arrival of the Gardes Francoises
540
Proposals made by the civic authorities
541
Delaunay is forced to capitulate
542
Violation of the capitulation and massacre of some prisoners
543
Massacre of Delaunay and Delosme and tho Provost Flesselles
544
The rest of the Invalids and Swiss are saved by tho French Guards
545
Interior of the Bastille
546
Groat agitation in Paris during the night
547
State of Versailles and change of measures by the court
548
The King resolves on concession
549
Violent agitation in the Assembly
550
State of the court on the night of the 14th
551
Tho King goes to the Assembly and declares he will dismiss the troops
552
The King visits Paris
553
Share of the Orleans faction in the insurrection
554
Who did wrong in this stage of the Revolution?
556
Usurpation and treason of the Tiers Etat ib 119 The military did wrong in revolting against the throne
557
Error of the King in the period chosen for making a stand
558
Fatal results of this treason and treachery to the cause of freedom in France
559
All classes might have done their duty
560
Which would have avoided all the calamities of the Revolution
561
CHAPTER V
563
Extraordinary and almost bloodless triumph of the Revolutionists 668
564
Gentle character of the King
565
Mirabeaus picture of these events
566
their misery and famine ib 6 Efforts to feed Paris prove insufficient
567
Which nothing can alleviate
569
Dumonts account of these primary assemblies tb 11 Establishment of similar municipalities over all France
572
Feeble conduct of the National Assembly on this point
573
Necker is recalled
576
Murder of Foulon ib 16 AndofBerthier
577
Neckers amnesty is reversed by Mirabeau and the Assembly
578
Cruel excesses on the farmers near Paris
579
Bailly and Lafayette wish to resign but are not allowed
580
Atrocities in the provinces
581
Hideous murder of M de Belzunce 682
583
Conflagration of the chateaus 684
584
Cruelties exercised on the seigneurs
585
Disgraceful supineness of the Assembly amidst these excesses
586
Commencement of the emigration of the Noblesse
587
The insurrection of the peasants renders the emigration general
588
Abandonment of the feudal rights by the nobles
589
Speech of the Duke dAiguillon
590
Universal transports of this meeting
591
Prodigious effects of those changes
592
Dangers with which they were attended
593
Argument against spoliation of the church by Sieyes ib 34 Argument for church spoliation by Mirabeau
594
Dignified conduct of the clergy
595
Foresight of Louis and decree of the Assembly
596
Unavailing regrets of the nobles and clergy who joined the popular party
597
Secret causes of this spoliation of the church at which all classes con nived
598
Abolition of the right of shooting and hunting Its effects
599
Dreadful distress at Paris
600
Anarchy in Paris
601
State of the finances
602
Declaration of the Rights of Man
603
Opinion entertained of it by its authors ib 45 Formation of a constitution
604
First appearance of entire laxity on the subject of religion
605
Division of the Assembly into the C6t6 Droit and Cfltfi Gauche
606
Extraordinary haste in the formation of the constitution
607
Question of the absolute veto which is denied to the King ib 50 Mirabeau supports the crown in the debate
609
This was contrary to the general directions of the Cahiers
610
Increased misery and agitation in Paris
611
Neckers picture of the public distress
612
Mirabeau supports the proposal for a propertytax
613
Famino in Paris
615
Views of the King at this period
616
Banquet at Versailles ib 59 Agitation in Paris at the news of it
617
State of the Assembly and the court and arrival of the mob at Ver sailles
619
The insurgents surround the Assembly
620
And soon after break into the palace
621
Irresolution of the King and heroism of the Queen ib 64 Lafayette retires to sleep
622
Tho mob again break into tho palace and heroic defence of the body guard
623
Tardy arrival of General Lafayette
625
Heroic conduct of the Queen ib 68 The mob insist on the royal family going to Paris
626
Tho royal family como to Paris
627
Vast changes introduced by the Assembly
628
Their excessive rashness
629
Danger of sudden innovation ti 73 Tho victory of tho 6th October was really over the Assembly
630
The period had arrived when resistance was necessary
631
Great fault of the nobility at this period ib 76 Sins of the peasantry and people
632

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Seite 255 - It is now sixteen or seventeen years since I saw the queen of France, then the dauphiness, at Versailles; and surely never lighted on this orb, which she hardly seemed to touch, a more delightful vision. I saw her just above the horizon, decorating and cheering the elevated sphere she just began to move in, glittering like the morning star, full of life, and splendour, and joy.
Seite 255 - ... little did I dream that I should have lived to see such disasters fallen upon her in a nation of gallant men, in a nation of men of honour, and of cavaliers. I thought ten thousand swords must have leaped from their scabbards to avenge even a look that threatened her with insult.
Seite 162 - Les honneurs sont vendus aux plus ambitieux, L'autorité livrée aux plus séditieux. Ces petits souverains qu'il fait pour une année , Voyant d'un temps si court leur puissance bornée, Des plus heureux desseins font avorter le fruit, De peur de le laisser à celui qui les suit.
Seite 135 - Him with her loved society; that now, As with new wine intoxicated both, They swim in mirth, and fancy that they feel Divinity within them breeding wings, Wherewith to scorn the earth...
Seite 561 - I was much acquainted with the leading patriots of the Assembly. Being from a country which had successfully passed through a similar reformation, they were disposed to my acquaintance, and had some confidence in me. I urged, most strenuously, an immediate compromise ; to secure what the government was now ready to yield, and trust to future occasions for what might still be wanting.
Seite 210 - Yet empty of all good, wherein consists Woman's domestic honour and chief praise; Bred only and completed to the taste Of lustful appetence, to sing, to dance, To dress, and troll the tongue, and roll the eye...
Seite 256 - ... loyalty to rank and sex, that proud submission, that dignified obedience, that subordination of the heart, which kept alive, even in servitude itself, the spirit of an exalted freedom. The unbought grace of life, the cheap defence of nations, the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise is gone ! It is gone, that sensibility of principle, that chastity of honour, which felt a stain like a wound, which inspired courage whilst it mitigated ferocity, which ennobled whatever it touched, and...
Seite 81 - In this choice of inheritance we have given to our frame of polity the image of a relation in blood; binding up the constitution of our country with our dearest domestic ties; adopting our fundamental laws into the bosom of our family affections...
Seite 81 - Parliament, do pray that it may be declared and enacted, that all and singular the rights and liberties asserted and claimed in the said Declaration, are the true, ancient and indubitable rights and liberties of the people of this Kingdom...
Seite 227 - ... all the symptoms, which I have ever met with in history, previous to great changes and revolutions in Government, now exist, and daily increase in France.

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