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troversy hitherto so perplexing laid or the volition, which immediately asleep for erer: but it seems to us preceded the outward action, as well that ihis method of reconciliation is to as of all the consequences which evade, and not confront the difficulties follow? And how does it appear of the question. The objection of the to be more just and reasonable, that libertarian is this, that according to the I should be made responsible for the hypothesis of his opponent, the state of volition which is one link in the the mind which immediately precedes, chain of fixed concatenation, than for and indeed produces the physical or any other link, since of neither of them corporeal action, that state to which am I absolute master, or master at all we give the name volition, is itself unless subjection to laws and control produced by causes, whether within of laws are the same thing. If every or without the mind, over which the link in the chain is what, and where agent has no control, and for which it is, in the order of nature, and by the therefore, though he may be made operation of its laws, 10 make me acaccountable in fact, he cannot be re countable for any link, and volition as sponsible in equity. And it is no suf- much as the rest, is to make me reficient answer to his objection, “chat sponsible that nature is what it is, and according to these laws of concatena. to regard the subject of natural laws as tion, not an event can arrive, nor can if he were the author of them. Thus an action be performed, which is not reasons the libertarian; and it is evi. to be ascribed to a series of preceding dent that nothing can satisfy his notion causes and effects; yet we are to re- of just responsibility, but the admission collect that the will of man is not only of a power in man, which is indeed one of the links, but it is a link of derived from God, but which, being des peculiar cnergy and importance; and it rived, has a sphere of uncontrolled and often takes the lead, in a manner which independent operation, and is the proper is more than an equivalent for the ap- and ultimate author of its own acis. parent disgrace of submission. If it be In the two succeeding Essays we are the effect of preceding circumstances, upou controversial ground. In both it is, in its turn, a cause of numberless our author attacks literary names of other effects. It introduces and con- high reputation; and in the latter he ducts the most important events. It questions opinions, soine of which erects, establishes and destroys empires. have not commonly been opposed with If it be the parent of vice, it is also the such a firm aspect of open hostility. parent of viriue. It is this which sub- In his preface Dr. C. informs us, ibat dues vice, arrests its pernicions conse in consequence of long residence in quences, directs to right conduct, and foreign parts, bis refutation of Beautie's fosters all the principles of religion and Essay on Truth was written before njorality. It is the will of man which Priestley's examination of it bad fallen turns a wilderness into a garden, and jvto his hands. The question is well renders deserts fruitful. It cultivates argued, and the doctrine ably exploded. all the sciences, and introduces every If any of our readers have either any useful art. luis incessantly working its doubts upon the subject, or any desire way through difficulties innumerable, to become acquainted at very líule exand perfecting itself in its progress.” pense of line and labour with the It is admitted that “ the act being per- merits of a question, which was agitated formed, the whole process of volition for a short time with much warnith is terminated, and all power respecting on both sides, though wiib liitle parity it terminales also. "The deed must of reasoning, we can recommend this now work its own way, to the pro- Essay to his perusal, as at once concise duction of good or evil. From abso- and satisfactory. Some of the oppo. lute masters, as we thought ourselves nents of the doctrine of co:nmon sense before the commission, we now feel have unwarily and inconsistently adthat we are compelled to be passive sub- mitted the existence of self-evident jects, to the whole train of consequences truths; but Dr. C. was too well ur. induced by it:" and the reason is, quainted with his ground to concede that the action proceeds through all what is merely assumed, and what, if its consequences according to the in- proved, would have made his victory a alterable laws of nature, over which task of much greater difficulty. the agent has no control: but is not “ I think (he says) that I have prored, this also true of the state of the mind, that the proposition which is most clearly
perceived, cannot be termed self-cvident, in order to discover the weakness of the according to the meaning which is cagerly intellectual faculties ; and he couducts us annexed to the terin; that there must through various propositions, which he have been an intellectual process, bowerer professes to consider as truths, in order rapid ; that if an axiom be clear to the gradually and imperceptibly to undermine mathematician or metaphysician, it is them. He takes the liberty of uniting not to an uncultivated mind. When two opposite systems in bis current lanphilosophers commence their abstruse guage, that which he attempts to subresearches, it is always at a maturu age. vert, and the oue he wishes to establisb ; Tbey enter their studies with the immense he talks of us, we, men, the esperience advantage of a previous education. They of mankind, as if he were assured that have imperceptibly been gathering up other beings exist as well as bimself; principles in their infancy, childhood, yet his grand attempt is to weahen all and youth, by wbich alone they become the arguments which support this belief. qualified to philosophize, and to which He seems to acknowledge the doctrine of they bare been so long habituated, tbat, cause and effect, at the inoment he comas it plainly appears, they have totally bats every principle most intimately coue forgotten the origin of their philosophical Dected with it. He frequently retires beknowledge. It this be the cast', and I hind anbiguous pbraseology, and undedefy the disciples of our theorișt to dis. fined expressions ; and not unfrequently prove it, the term intuitive is intrusive claims a right to fix ideas to words, and absurd. He takes for granted what totally different from the general accrpta. he is bound to prove, that intuitive tion. Hence it is as difficult to contend principles exist, and then to point out with such an adversary, as it is for regular what they are. Will be send us away troops to contend with the bush-fighters with the assertion, that I know by in- of America, who are at one moment in tuition the existence of intuitire princi- one position, and the next in another ; ples? Is positiveness an attribute of whose professed discipline cousists in conintuition? Can be expect to satisfy us, cealing themselves beliind brambles and though he way himself, with the syllo- thorns and other interposing bodies, that gism, whenever I am positive a thing they may take aim in greater security, at exists, or a principle is true, it is by forces which disdain to shelter themselves, intuition; and therefore every time I am and yet find it difficult to return the positive, I have an intuitive knowledge salute, in consequence of the obscure independent of all proof ?" — Pp. 216, situation of the foc. To follow this phi117.
losopher through all the turns and wind.
It will suffice, The sixth Speculation is an attack ings, is impracticable.
if we shew that his leading principles are upon Mr. Hunie's Sceprical Questions, and it will be, as it ought to be, exa
erroneous, . and that the most specious
arguments adduced for their support, are anined the more rigorously, because destitute of solidity."—Pp. 245247. the attack upon Mr. Humne's opinions is coupled with a censure of the man,
Again: in which the admirers of that very “ Had-be (Mr. Ilume) made a proper acute metaphysician will not readily use of his distinguished talents, he acquiesce.
might have shone like a superior luminary,
aud have thrown masses of light upon the • Perhaps (says our author), there graiest obscurities in science; but be never was a writer, whose principles are
has preferred rendering bis mental powers mure vusatisfactory, but whom it is more
subservient to the office of a midnight difficult to oppose with success, than this taper, jast glimmering to shew mankind philosopher. His erudition and unaf- the surrounding darkness. The only fected eloqnence demand our admiration; proposition which his most attentire disand the enbarrassinents he lias thrown ciples can discover is, that the whole in the way of the vosi revered opinions, human race is deplorably and inviucibly are supported with so much ingenuity, ignorant. He labours assiduously to subtilty, and address, that those who are
prove by abstruse reasoning, that the dissatisfied with his sentiments are com- human mind is not in the least adapted to pelled to respect his talents.
Whoever abstrise subjects ; a solecism which can attends closely to his mode of writing, only be rivalled by tbat of his antagovist, will, however, perceive that he has the who attempts to prove by reasoning that art of combining the greatest contrarieties
reason is not to be trusted."- Pp. 251, in one assemblage. He is sometimes.
252. profound, sometimes soperficial, sometime's extremely sceptical, sometimes ex- It is well known that Mr. Hume tremely positive. He obviously delights divides all the perceptions of the human to exert all the powers of his intellects, mind into two classes, or species, which he calls impressions and ideas, and ideas are or are not said truly to rewhich he supposes to differ from each semble the stronger perceptions, so as other only in force or vivacity., “ By to differ from them only in force or the term impression (he says) I mean vivacity. Dr. Cogan maintains, that all our more lively perceptions when they bear no marks of being copies of we hear, or see, or feel, or love, or hate, those impressions, or perceptions (as or desire, or will: and impressions are Mr. Hunc calls them) of the external distinguished from ideas, which are the and internal senses; and when he tries less lively perceptions of which we are the question not by the impressions of conscious, when we reflect on any of sight, but by those of soune of the other these sensations or moveinents above- senses, he brings facts, which it must mentioned." As it is impossible to be acknowledged are rather stubborn, speak at all on the powers and opera- against Mr. Humne's opinion. tions of the mind without using terms
“ After a disciple of Mr. Aume bas which are not strictly proper, being heard a noise in the street, is de conscious derived from names which at first ré- of an echo every time he remembers it? presented sensible objects, the writer Should a bon vivant hare regaled himself on such subjects claims indulgence, with copious draughts of Burgundy, when and more than any other has a right to in France,—will he every time he recol. complain of injury, if his commentator lects his good fortune, rejoice that be bas insists upon the literal ineaning of brought hone with him a delicate flavour terms, which he has adınitted lessiv his mouth? When we reflect upon a from choice than from necessity. For musical performance which gave us pethis reason it has appeared to us that culiar pleasure, do we enjoy a lesser Mr. Locke has not been well used by degree of satisfaction at the reinembrance; several of the Scotch metaphysicians by putting into fainter morements those in their strictures upon his doctrine of undulations of air, which vibrated upon ideas: and if, as we think, Mr. Hume Or should any one be most painfully
our acoustic perves during the concert ? has not been fortunate in his applica- scorched by being too near a conflagration, tion of the term impression, which i!l will this vivid impression bereafter subagrees with what is supposed to be his side ipto moderate warmth, and make own doctrine of the origin of ideas, we him confortable during the remainder of should not be disposed to insist upon a his days, by the easy expedient of recol• literal meaning, or contest his use of lecting the event ?"_Pp. 260, 261, the term as long as having defined it, he keeps within his definition. Hav- that an air in music has been noted
Is it not however a well-known fact ing divided all our perceptions into two down, at some distance of time after classes, Mr. Home found it necessary to devise a name for that class which it was first heard, so correctly, as to as he says wanted one in our language. peat it as well as if he had heard it;
one, who never heard it, to reThe less lively perceptions had always that is, the ideas of himn who noted it been called Thoughts
, and, since Mr. Locke wrote, ideas pretty generally;
down so well resemble the sensations, but the more lively perceptions, of or impressions, that a third person shall which he considered the weaker as a
reproduce the sensations in him, from copy, had no name which could de- by the impressions, but the recollected
the notes which were suggested, not scribe the whole class : they were sensations, feelings, sentiments, passions. perceptions or the ideas... With respect Mr. Hume has called them all im to the ideas of things visible, our author
remarks: pressions, and not very philosophically perhaps, since they are acknowledged
“ We are charmed with a romantic or to be perceptions, and the liveliest of luxuriant prospect ; but we cannot recolwhich the mind is conscious. In the lect, with that accuracy which this system name however we.sec nothing to con- demands, the precise objects with which firm the opinion, “ that Mr. Hume the nanje of a city which I have not seen ;
When I read bas manifestly advanced his doctrine
Vienna, Moscow, Pekin in China, for of impressions in order to account for example; the imagination builds a city the origin of our ideas independent of . after its own manner, totally unlike the a material world :" as far as his se- original. It uses those very materials Tection of the term goes we should which this philosopher considers as exact rather suppose the contrary. But it is resemblances of other cities. It must be more material to enquire whether our copfessed that these fainter materials buve
been wonderfully decomposed in the mind, in which they may be combined with, since they are ready for the building of a out limit; for in the Essay on the Dew imaginary town with them in an Origin of Ideas, Mr. Blume is so far instant. Here then are two phænomena, from denying a single percipient, or a wbicb demand an explanation. cone I to build a city in thought, the that he assumes it throughou. We
How mind endowed with various faculties, Inoment I read the vords Vienna, Mos
sholl cow, Pekin, inscribed upon paper ? I
quote one passage in proof, ought to expect nothing more
“ Nor is any thing beyond the power miniature word, and a fainter ink. The
of thought except what implies an sight of a word ought not to build a
absolute contradiction. But though town: and when I borrow materials from our thought seems to possess this unforiner impressions, what provision does bounded liberty, we shall find upon a Mir. Humne's system make for their decou nearer examination that it is really position, since the fainter copy is to contined within very narrow limits, remain entire, every time we recollect the and that all this creative power of the impression ?"-Pp. 259, 260.
mind amounts to no more than the Again :
faculty of compounding, transposing, “Every new perception gives us clear augmenting, or' diminishing the ma. ideas of the thing perceived. Informaterials afforded us by the senses, and tion is thus conveyed to the mind that experience." Grant this faculty, which things exist, possessing certain charac. Mr. Hume always supposes, and with ters and properties. But this informa- it the simple ideas which Mr. Locke tion is as remote from resemblance, as says are gained only from sensation, the tidlings of a murder baving been and reflection, and which Mr. Hume committed, are from the sight of a calls copies of the impressions of our mangled corpse; or as the telegraphic external and internal senses, and wenews of the capture of a man-of-war, is shall be furnished with a tolerable an. from the vessel, the crew, the guns, swer to our author's question, “ How thunder, flames and smoke, and confusion of the engagement. The primary moment I read the words Vienna,
come I to build a city in thought, the impressions can only be considered as
Moscow, Pekin, inscribed upon paper?" notifications of existent objects, diversified according to the diversities in the The mind is, and we apprehend' it is objects. Thoughts thus suggested by
affirmed by Mr. H. to be, the builder ; things external, become the occasions of and the materials are its own recollected other thoughts also, to an infinite extent; perceptions, which, if they resemble but in what manner such wonderful effects any thing, might seem to resemble are produced ; how this wonderful pro most the primitive perceptions of cess is carried on, who can explain which they are the recollection. We Every attempt hitherto made, degenerates would ask, how is it that very exact into an unsatisfactory inctaphor, having a likenesses are thrown upon paper in very imperfect, and a very trivial relation the absence of the living original ? to the subject ; and when extended be. The artist painted from his ideas, or yond its limits, lays itself open to con- recollections only, and if they are not plete confutation.”—P. 264.
a copy of the impression on ihe sense Mr. Hume, being well aware of this, of sight, how comes it that his picture has introduced his use of the word is so good a copy of it? impression with the notice, " that he We proceed to the Doctor's examiemploys the word in a sense somewhat nation of Mr. Home's Sceptical Doubts different from the usual;" and in the concerning the Operations of the Hu. explanation of what he means by man Understanding. The object of them, which immediately follows, he that celebrated Section is to establish has been very careful to avoid as much the proposition, that causes and effects as possible every metaphorical express. are discoverable not by reason but by.. jou. He does indeed afterwards call experience. “It is confessed (he says) ideas copies of the original impressions, that the utmost effort of human reason and this he does in a passage in which is to reduce the principles productive he proposes. “ to express himself in of natural phænomena to a greater philosophical language." Still it ap- siinplicity, and to resolve the many pears plain from other passages, that particular effects into a few general when he describes ideas 'as the copies causes by means of reasoning from of impressions, he means only simple analogy, experience and observation; or elementary ideas, and not the groupes but as to the causes of these general
causes we should in vain attempt their In a writer of less acumen than discovery, nor shall we ever be able to Dr. C. we should suspect that this satisfy ourselves by any particular ex- answer was built upon a mistake of plication of them. These ultimale Mr. Hume's meaning. He also adsprings and principles are totally shut mits the facts. He no where denies out from huinan curiosity and enquiry," that the effects are uniformly conjoined Hence he maintains, " that in our con. with the cause, or that there exist clusion from past to future experience, causes in nature which are discoverable there is a certain step taken, a process in their effects. All that he maintains of thought, and an inference which is, “ that we never can by our utmost wants to be explained; there is required scrutiny discover any thing but one a mediuin which may enable us to event following another without being draw such an inference, if indeed it be able to comprehend any force or power drawn by reasoning and argument. by which the cause operates, or any What that mediuni is I must confess connection between it and its supposed passes my comprehension, and it is effect:" and consequently that there incumbent on those to produce it who is not in any single particular instance assert that it really exists, and is the of cause and effect, any thing which origin of all our conclusion concerning can suggest the idea of power, or nematters of fact." Here it should be cessary connexion.” To this Dr. C. remarked that Mr. Hume no where does however well reply in his remarks insinuates that the inference is false : on the Section, On the Idea of Neceson the contrary he admits that it is
sary Connexion : verified in fact: he only demands the process, or medium of deduction, the
“ Mr. H. maintains, with infinitely middle term, by which it is drawn,
more boldness than facts will admit, that To this challenge our author replies :
there is not, in any particular instance of
cause and effect, any thing wbich can “ I therefore maintain, io opposition suggest the idea of power or necessity. to the bold assertion of our philosopher, Whence comes it, then, that the idea is that the discovery of powers and proper actually suggested
every thinking ties, inherent in different substances, and mind in the universe, excepting his own? invariably connected with different cir- If he means ought not to suggest these cumstances, is the discovery of a medium, ideas, formidable should be the proofs which renders the experience of the past that cause and effect are incessantly actof tbe utmost importance to the future ; a ing in opposition to their own natures ; medium, which is infallible, whenever for they are doing it perpetually. Our our knowledge is sufficiently extensive and philosopher absurdly expects, that powers, acegrate. If one substance possess ex
and influence, and connexion, should actly the same properties as another,
assume some corporeal form. Their esand if it be placed in a situation in all
sence must be seen, smelt, tasted, or respects similar, a similar effect must be heard, in order to produce the indubitable produced. If one mode of acting be impression. But this is not their proproductive of a particular event, and this vince, it does not belong to their nature. mode be imitated subsequently, every Their office consists in producing effects, circumstance connected with it being and these effects are to make impressions, exactly the same, in its nature and these are to be perceived by the mind, strength of operation, the result must according to their specific characters.”bare a perfect correspondence. To sup- Pp. 310, 311. pose the contrary, is to suppose that these properties are endowed with a principle Mr. Humne has said, " that it is alof caprice, merely to tease and disappoint lowed, on all hands, that there is no us; or that the same bodies and the same known connexion between the sensible circumstances combat against themselves! qualities of bread, and the secret powe It is to suppose, that they are preciselyers of nutrition ; and consequently, the tkie same, and yet that they act in a mind is not led to forin a conclusion, manner which demonstrates that they are not the same. When the result is dif- concerning the constant and regular ferent from what we had expected, it conjunction between eating bread, and does not shake the immutable laws of being nourished by it, by any thing natare; it simply indicates our ignorance; which is known of iheir nature." And it teaches us to inquire more accurately our author replies, that " it is not alinto the state of things, and to be less lowed, on all hands, that there is no presumptuvus in the future."--Pp. 289, known connexion between the sensible 989
qualities of bread and its nutritious