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opportunity, with all the sympathy The short illotránce in 1795, that they deserve; and to

poor Skirving thought was the cause of those friends endeared hy distince, his death, bronght" a riipture on me, who are pleased to interest themselves and otherwise disordered my frane. about me.

The quick and extreme vicissitndes of I am, dear Sir,

the clinate are rather possibly tho Your much obliged and affectionate much for a broken down old man like

T. F. PALMER. me. To the young and the robust they The Rev. Dr. Disney.

åre nothing, who lie out in the woods [Received Muy 4, 1796.) without harın. My fellow-sufferers

laugh at ine, but I have no scruple in Letter IV.

saying it is the finest country I ever Sydney, N. S. Wales, Aug. 14, 1797. saw. An honest and active governor, MY DEAR SIR,

who could administer an equal governI BEG leave to return you my ment, might soon make it the region warm thanks for your most friendly of plenty. In spite of all possible and consoling letter. It would be the rapacity and robbery, I am clear that severest drop in my cup to be forgotten it will thrive against every obstacle. by such men. The esteem and appro- There may come a time when the bation of the worthy are next to that of settler shall reap what he has sown; one's own mind.

at present, from necessity, he is obliged I received two or three little pam- to sell to an avaricious huckster his phlets, with all the Morning Chronicles wheat at 3s. per bushel, who turns it 10 April

, accompanying your letter. into the stores at 10s. the price which We have read over and over all our government gives for it. He buja little stock of books, therefore any liquor at 3s. per gallon, and charges it celebrated pamphlets that our friends at £3. £4. and perchance five pounds have done with, it would be charity to per gallon. Tobacco he buys at 15d. send. Your noble gift of the Encyclo- and sells it to the poor farmer and lapædia has been of infinite use and en- bourer at 75. and ius, a pound. The iertainment to us. It has instructed same of every thing else. If he raises us in arts necessary to a livelihood: Indian corn, or wheat, it is of little use an interested and powerful monopoly to him. He must sell it for what he of trading officers, who have the art to can get to these bucksters. He cannot, persnade an old man to just what they like them, turn it into the stores. please, have thrown every impediment This is a matter of interest. We have possible to our getting an honest one. laid out what would sell here for £300. But, in spite of all, we have weathered on a farm, and we never could have our point. In a great measure owing interest to turn only forty bushels in, to the help of your Encyclopædia we from the time we have been in the have built and navigated a little vessel. island. If, like other settlers, from We meant it for fishing, but as we necessity we have been driven to deal could not have the smallest encourage- with these hucksters, nothing so easy ment for what was so evidently for the then as to turn in to the amount of public good, we have made it a mer. the debt, be the stores shut or open, cantile vessel, and trade from hence to but not one farthing on our Norfolk Island, a thousand miles account. distant. To be sure we arc obliged to By these means the colony is ruined. sail without licence or certificate ( which All the necessaries are double the the governor, poor man, positively price they were when we landed. resuses), and are liable to be hanged as Every farmer and settler is only a tepirates by any body that chuses to give nant'at rack rent to the officers. Go himself ihat trouble. If paper should vernment is at an immense expence continue of value, I hope we shall not for no other purpose than to put money return to Europe poorer than we into the pocket of these officers. All


of them keep hucksters' shops, where

you may buy from a dram to a puncheon As many volumes of the Scotch En- of spirits, from a skeign to a pound cyclopædia as were then published, were

of thread. I cannot affirin it to be presented to Mr. Palmer, by the joint with, I hope that it has been with. contributions of a few friends, before bis oul,the governor's knowledge, but departure from England. D,

the greatest and most extortionate shop


án the colony has been that of govern- Unfortunately, the carpenter staid to meni house. They sell indigo at this keep him company, and the rest promoment for its weight in silver. In ceeded and arrived safe. The carpenter short, reformation may long be in vain churlish and avaricious, and without expected in these remote dependencies sense of foresighi, seized their fish, so far removed from the eye of control. would give them nothing in return and Such a man as Capt. King, however

, offended them so much, that the first late governor of Norfolk Island, would mate, whom they were fond of, fell a do much. I have reason to think him victim to his follý, and they both per as honest as he is active and enlight, rished. My most worthy, friend Mr. ened. Such a man with a fourth, I Bass, surgeon of the Reliance, went believe a tenth, of the present expence, out on purpose to find these two. He might make this the cheapest and most found only their bones. He was acplentiful market, and most plentiful companied by the inost scientific people country in the empire of Great Bri- in the language, though by none more tant). tal

than by hiinself; and natives of his Of this wonderful country we have acquaintance told him the above. He little or no knowledge, except a small rețurned only yesterday. He confirins portion of the sea coast of a corner of the above account of the country. He it. With two armed ships and a says there are several species of trees schooner, on purpose for the use of not found here. But, what is more the colony, no discovery has been important, he has discovered a seain of attempted. Such things are never coal, seven miles long, great part of thought of; and if a private adventurer which, by the inequality of the ground, undertakes them, he is discouraged. is above ground. He has brought home Chance however has done something. three bags, it burns capitally, some of The Sydney-cove, a large ship from which the governor sends by this ship Bengal to this place, was wrecked on (the Britannia, Capt. Dennet). 10 Sir this coast in lat. 41. 47. The mate Joseph Banks. The coal is not distant and others left the wreck in the long twenty yards from the sea, and about boat unfortunately in the tempestuons 45 miles distant, by sea, from hence. winter season, and this was again We are told by people who have wrecked on the coast

. But the super- been there, that in the tropical regions cargo and two others, after innume- of this country all kind of tropical rable hardships, arrived safe. By this productions abound. A little beyond means we learn, that where the Sydney port Stephens, about a degree and a cove was wrecked, there is an archi- half north of this, the country and its pelago of islands, with a strong tide productions change. There is a sort of and current from east to west, and vice apple of a deep, red, both within and versa ; from which a rational conjec-without, with four pips. It grows to ture inay be formed that there is a the height of 80 feet

, without branches. passage guite through the island. The fruit is represented as large and Should this conjecture be true, and luscious, and highly nutricious. The this passage should be navigable, the country producing inore, ihe natives passage to India would be very con- are larger and more numerous than siderably shortened. The country is here. Seven convicts lived five years described as totally different from this, ainong them. I have repeatedly con. very rich and fertile, abounding in versed with them. They were received pines and firs, of which there is not and supported with singular kindness one here. In all the intercourse of and hospitality. If these people are to whites with the uncorrupted natives of be believed, they took the whites to be this country, they have found them the ghosts of their departed friends, most kind, huniane, and generous. whom death had made white. They Where the inate and supercargo were inquired very particularly after their wrecked, 110 civilized Europeans could fathers, mothers, and all their relatives, exceed them in kindness. They sup- and how they employed themselves. plied them in abundance, and succes- I believe this account, because when sive parties of fresh natives, equally Capt. Broughton, of the Providence kind, shewed them the way. The sloop of war, took these convicts' away, mate, represented to be an amiable man, the natives brought two dead young walked ull he could walk to longer. nien on board, begging Capt. Brough VOL. XII.

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ton to bring them back again in a year boxes and parcels, that unless they are or two.

booked in the log-book, or male's book, Two or three natives of my acquain- they may be reckoned as lost. Between tance have begun to cultivate the the rogues on ship-board, and on shore, ground, and, with a little attention on a convict is sure not to get them, bethe part of government, they might cause he has no redress. Excepling soon be civilized. Ellis and I staid books, I beg nothing more may be sent with them a week, and we promised to me. There are some modern publicareturn to hoe up the ground and plant tions, which I will not mention beit for them. But I am now too infirm. cause expensive; but such smaller They are quick, ingenious, vivacious books or pamphlets which my friends and happy, read countenances and have done with, I will thank them characters with singular penetration, for. I shall write to my nephew for and take them off with great humour. the publications 1 allude io.

It is singular that no dialect, or ra- I am, ny dear Sir, ther language, reaches above forty miles Most sincerely your obliged extent, some not half so far, so that a

T.F. PALMER. native of one district is totally unintel- The Rev. Dr. Disney. ligible to another. They are as free as [Received Feb. 11, 1799.) the air they breathe, and pay respect only to brarery and talents. They

Lotter V. have no chief or priests. They have a Sydney, N. S. Wales, Sep. 10, 1799. discipline by which every member of Dear FRIEND, the coinmonwealth is coerced into good I HAVE the pleasure to receive a order. For slight offences so many letter from you, dated September 28, spears are thrown at the offender, which 1798, by the Hillsborough. On the he may ward off, if he can, with his receipt of it, I applied for permission shield. For great offences these spears to take Joseph Larkin * to my house : must not only be thrown, but broken. but no such person could be found, nor

If the offender is wounded, and justice has there been such a person embarked. be satisfied, nothing can equal their It is most fortunate for him that he did 'care and kindness to the wounded not come in this murderous ship. Of person.

two hundred and sixty convicts put on If I should not have time, being board, ninety-seven died before they taken by surprise by the ship sailing, reached the harbour, and ten since. will you tell our common friend, Mr. They were whipped, confined in pesRutt, that, with no little difficulty, I tilential air and starved. The Captain, obtained a large deal box, which came

H- - would not allow them a in the Ganges, directed for Messrs. swab to clean out their place. I saw Muir, &c. It contained some brown their filth. In conserjuence, the jail paper parcels from you and Mr. Rutt, fever made its appearance. Eight died some newspapers, and a large deal box in one night at the Cape.

It is painful and some letters directed to Mr. Muir, to relate the barbarity, the tyranny, the and two counterpanes. Mr. Muir's murderous starvation of this wretch. letters and box, indeed the whole con. This is the fourth who has exercised tents, I opened before the governor.* these atrocities while H

has The last mentioned deal box contained been governor, and no inquiry made!!! private property from Mr. Muir's father; this was given to the provost

A young man who had been capitally marshal to be sold for the benefit of his convicted at Lancaster, on a charge of creditors. The letters I opened before forgery. On account of some favourable the governor, and, by his permission, bad been commuted to transportation for

circumstances in his case, bis punishment burnt. The only property from the life. Mr. Girle, who is mentioned in the committee, the two counterpanes,


Obituary (VIII. 280), and who then resided

at Lancaster, took a very benevolent inteI have been so often defrauded of rest in the fate of Joseplı Larkin; and at

his desire, I bad recommended the young • Mr. Muir bad escaped from the colony man to Mr. Palmer's attentions. if my in an American vessel which touched there. memory serves me, Dr. Barnes, of MaoAfter various adventures he died in Spain. chester, also interested himself on the

same occasion. R.




I was very much pleased with Wake- would not change my residence for a field's pan phlet. I sent a servant with week without these inedicines, so very it to a friend some miles distant, who subject I am to this disorder. I know unfortunately was robbed of it because that I should long have been dead but it was tied in a silk handkerchief. I for them. I give seven or ten grains must beg you therefore to send me of cerated antimony and alternately another, and Llandaft's also.

small doses of ipecacuanha. Oh had Mr. and Mrs. Boston and two chil. I kırown of this remedy at Spithead, dren, Ellis and myself have always what lengthened misery and wear and lived together since we have been on tear of constitution I should have the Island. We have engaged in escaped. Possibly Gerald and Skirving many schemes to make a living. might now have been alive! Pray tell Among the rest, brewing and farming, this to Dr. Hamilton and Blake. and what every officer civil and mili- I wish Mr. Holcroft would send me tary does here, buying goods on board the remaining volumes of Hugh Trevor. a ship and selling ihem on shore. We I was delighted with the three first. I built a vessel at considerable expence think the first volume as good as any to trade between this place and Norfolk I ever read. The infancy of Hugh is Island, and a very beneficial trade it iniinitable. It is odd that I never saw

But the Governor of Norfolk but one person in this country who. Island for the time being (Captain could perceive the tendency of the T.

-), being a great irader him- work, though it is so very conspicuous. self, found that it interfered with his I have not seen a Review since 1796, profits, and raised the strongest cla- nor an Annual Register since 1793, mours agaiifst the enormous price we and only four numbers of that excellent sold at.. We sold liquor at 25. per work the London (Monthly) Magagallon, and he at that very time sold it zine. I cannot speak enough iu praise at five pounds. At last he would not of the C


Tell suffer us to land it at all, notwithstand. Mr. F- to be careful. I am ing we had Governor Hunter's permit, going to fit up a room for the worthy We suppose the crew on this rose and editor, well knowing he will come seized the spirits, for we never more

out here. If I deserve to be sent to heard of captain or ship. It would Botany Bay, he ought to be sent to the have made our fortune soon. I am Georgium Sidus. ashamed to say how much we lost, The following is the price of articles We were not disheartened. We set at present. Rum 20$. a quart; tea 5s. to and built another at a great expence,

an ounce; bread 4d. a pound; butter, loaded her with a cargo that would 4s.; mutton 28.; pork 1s. 3d.; wheat make good returns, and sent her to 10s. a bushel; wine 10. a bottle; Norfolk again. We had previously shoes from 20s. 10 258. a pair. That made a good quantity of salt to cure you see it is absolutely necessary to do the cheap pork of Norfolk Island, and something for a livelihood. I forgot to put it into the stores here where it to tell you that we have nearly built a is so much wanted. This has been windmill, which we are in great hopes gone now five months. The gales will turn to good account. hare been dreadful, and we have every Recommend me to those worthy reason to fear that she is lost likewise : friends, the very mention of whom in so that we have nearly the world to your letter I could not help being afbegin again.

fected with, viz. Hamilton, Gurney, As there is little chance of any being Lindsey, Dyer, Vaughan, Frend, able to draw any thing out of the com- Tooke, Disney, Blake, and all who pany's stock to enable

me to get home, are pleased to interest themselves about I must take another method.

I find that the cerated glass of anti- Farewell, dear Sir, with my best mony with ipecacuanha, will cure the respects to Mrs. Rutt, most inveterate fluxes of this country in a day or two. So little attention is Your much obliged and affectionate paid to the sick, that I am obliged to

T.F. PALMER. doctor some, though I know that I do J. T. Rutt, Esq. it with a rope about iny neck. I [Received April 3, 1800.]


I am,



To S. T. COLERIDGE, Esq. whom all the prophets bore witness On his Attack upon the Unitarians con

as the author and finisher of our faithtained in his Second Lay Sermon.

our spiritual and triumphant LETTER II.

master--as the captain of our salva

tion, “made perfect through suffer* Such tricks hath strong imagination." Midsummer Night's DREAM. doctrines we receive, drawn up, ex

ings." So that, in a catalogoe of the SIR,

Temple, May 1, 1817. pressly for the purpose of shewing H

AD your attack on Unitarianism their scantiness, you insert what we tion which my first letter was in. only omit all which gives us a right tended to expose, I should scarcely to the name of Christian. Nay, inore, have thought it required a reply. But you state the opinions which part of you have condescended to make use us reject concerning Christ, and then of other weapons, which though un- set them down as an “ affirmative worthy of hands like yours, are more article of our faith.” And afterwards dangerous than the fair and lawful you triumphantly assert, “ These are arms of intellectual combat. You all the positives of the modern. Sohave stooped to misrepresentations of cinian creed !" You must, indeed, our creed which are only to be met congratulate yourself that, on this by a positive denial. At the same occasion, you addressed “ the untime, I do not believe you intended wary.' falsely to blacken us. Strange as it But you make anıple amends for may seem, I have no doubt that you this omission in the second article. really believe your own portrait of “ 'They (Unitarians) believe men's Unitarianism to be faithful; and yet I actions necessitated, and consistently will venture to affirm that a more with this AFFIRM that the Christian unjust

, representation of any sect has religion (i. e, their view of it) prenever been made, since the good old cludes all remorse for sins, they being times when holy men were attired a present calamity but not guiti." previous to their martyrdom in dresses Now, in the first place, it is utterly on which the figures of demons were untrue that the doctrine of philo sketched out and the flames of hell sophical necessity, in any forin, and depicted.

the belief in Unitarianism are in their Venerable, however, as the art is, nature united. It is false that, as a it will not now avail. It is the eye body, the believers in the latter con. of childhood that fears a painted nect them. The opinion that men's devil." As, however, the picture is actions could not have been otherdrawn professedly “ as an act of kind- wise than they are, may be part of the ness to the unwary," it will be right creed of a Unitarian, but it is no part to shew, for the advantage of this of a Unitarian creed. True, it has numerous class of your readers, how been maintained by Dr. Priestley and volike it is to the original. For the is held by Mr. Belshain ; but it has benefit of any other set of men the also been powerfully enforced by Edtask would be undoubtedly super- wards, and is implied in the dogmas Auous.

of Calvin. It is a doctrine peculiar The first “affirmative article" of to no sect; but much more essential faith which you impute to us is the to the support of the orthodox than proper oneness and unimpersonality of of the heretical creed. From the God and the mere humanity of Christ. opinions of those who entertain milder To this statement I have only to make views of the Divine intentions towards two objections. First, that many man, it naturally acquires a gentler Unitarians believe both in the pre- colouring. But, in itself

, it is a docexistence and super human nature of trine of philosophy and not of reJesus; and secondly, that though yon ligion, much less of any particular have professed to hring together all sect of believers. Unitarians might the "affirmative articles of our faith," therefore as well be charged with all you have actually omitted to state that the theories of Dr. Priestley on the we receive Christ as the Messiah to subject of cheinistry, or of all his

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