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The late Mr. Cumberland, however, as Regives Professor ; and the series, was the only person who attempted of itself, forms an inestimable library to answer it; and his reply lost much to every candidate for holy orders. It of its effect from the appearance of could add nothing to his Lordship's haste and violence in which it was fame, as it required selection alone; composed.
it was therefore considered merely in The Bishop of Llandafi
' was now the light of a duty. considered as a very able and popular As the Bishop of Llandaff had now prelate; and on being chosen to preach become a legislator, the eyes of the before the Lords on January 30, 1783, public were steadily_fixed upon his the Abbey was crowded on the occa- political couduct. During the dission. But those who expected any cussion of the commercial treaty with violent declarations, or extraordinary France, his Lordship supported Mipolitical sentiments, returned home visters in that measure, which must disappointed; on the other hand, such be allowed to have proved highly be. as were fond of a discourse admirable neficial to this country. During His in its composition, and cautious as well Majesty's first illness he joined the as temperate, in respect to its senti- opposition, and was one of those who ments, were delighted upon this considered the Prince of Wales as occasion.
possessing an unqualified right by In 1786 appeared: “ A Collection birth alone to the assumption of the of Theological Tracts," in 6 vols. 8vo. Regency. But Mr. Pitt, on this occaof which his Lordship was the avowed sion, deemed it more constitutional, editor. This was published at Cam- that the two remaining states should bridge, and designed extirely for the supply the temporary vacancy of the use of students in divinity: it may be throne. The sudden and unexpected considered as an official publication, recovery of the Sovereign put an end
to all the changes then meditated; 1,500,0001. a year; and that, estimating and among other incidental speculathe clergy at 10,000, this would not pro- tions of that day, the vacant Bishopric duce a clear revenue of above 1501. a year of St. Asaph was assigned to Dr. to each individual. Now, although the Watson. whole revenue of the church is so inconsiderable as not to admit of any diminution event occurred in Europe, which, from
Meanwhile, a great and singular of it; “yet,” adds his Lordship, “ a somewhat better administration of it miglit be the very beginning, seemed porteuintroduced, with much, it is apprehended, tous; and in a short time appeared advantage to the state, and without the pregnant with the most serions and least injustice to any individual.” He ac- important results. Different opinions cordingly proposes to endow the poorer, prevailed as to the manner in which out of the revenues of the richer benefices, the French Revolution ought to be so as at the end of 60 or 70 years, to ren- viewed by the English people; and der all the clergy comfortahle ; whereas ministry and opposition were, as usual, by the operation of Queen Anne's Bouuty, divided, both as to the nature and the this cannot occur, in less two or three treatment of this national convulsion. hundred.
4 As to any censure,” adds the goud The Bishop of Llandaff, as a friend to Bishop,“ to which I may have exposed peace, appears to have deprecated all myself, in becoming, as some will scof- intervention on our part; and it was fingly phrase it, a reformer; in disturbing, not outil long after the commence. as others will seem to apprebend, the re- ment of hostilities, that he gave his pose of the establishment, I will, as the avowed sanction to the war. In 1791 Apostle recommends, take it patiently: he delivered a charge to the clergy of it is nuch easier to bear the reproach of his diocese, in which this and a num. other men's tongues, than of our owu ber of other points were touched minds; and that I could not have escaped, had I done less than I have done. i upon; particularly respecting the pre. Aatter myself, however, or rather I have sent condition of the Church, and the good reason to ex peet, that many of my pretensions of those who dissented brethren will see the subject in the same from the established faith. To avoid light that I have done, and will concur in the possibility of misrepresentation, he recommending it, when the more urgent soon after deemed it necessary to pubconcerns of the state are in some measure lish this address. settled, to the notice of Parliament." His attention seems now to have
been divided between his attendance not, like Horsley's contest with in the House of Lords, where he spoke Priestley, lead to preferment, yet, for frequently, and always in the spirit a time, turned the tide of loyalty and of conciliation, and his prelatical du- religion in his favour, and procured ties, when called on as a preacher, to him admirers among a class of writers promote the great charitable institu- who had before been his enemies.* tions of our metropolis. Accordingly, At the commencement of the year he twice preached sermons for the be- 1799, his Lordship published an nefit of the Humane Society, both of " Address to the People of Great which were admirable of their kind, Britain." In this political pamphlet although neither of them has ever he prudently waved all discussion of been printed. He also delivered a the merits or demerits of the war, in discourse in behalf of the Westminster respect to its origin; but took Dispensary, which has been praised view of our then situation, after six by an author, by no means favourable to his political sentiments :
* The author of the “ Pursuits of Li“ I am not in the habit of perusing terature," thus compliments the good many of the various single sermons Bishop, both in prose and verse, upon the which are published; but I cannot present occasion : resist the opportunity of recommend. 6 Yet all shall read, t when bold in ing three, which I think are at this strength divine, time important, and written with Prelatic virtue guards the Christian shrine, ability and spirit. One by the Rev. Pleas'd from the pomp of science to de Dr. Vincent, head Master of West
scend, minster School (a gentleman of very
And teach the people as their hallow'd
friend; considerable erudition, diligence, abi. In yentle warnings to the unsettled breast, lity and most exemplary conduct), In all its wand'rings from the realms of preached for the Westminster Dis
rest, pensary; another by Doctor Watson, From impious scoffs and ribaldry to turn, Bishop of Llandaff, preached for the And Reason's Age, by reason's light disWestminster Dispensary also; with cern; an Appendix, containing Reflexions Refix insulted truth with temper’d zeal, on the Present State of England and And feel that joy which Watson best can France: the Appendix is of peculiar
feel." merit; -and a third .On Gaming ;' written with great energy, patriotism eloquent Letters addressed to Thoinas
“ See the important, convincing and and eloquence, by the Reverend Paine, author of the Age of Reason ;' Thomas Renuel, D. D. Prebendary Second Part, by the Right Rev. Richard of Winchester."
Watson, Bishop of Llandafi, styled . Ar In 1796, an opportunity occurred, Apology for the Bible.' and was happily seized by the Bishop, " To write such a book as this, is to do which enabled him not only to dis a real service to mankind. A cheap edi. tinguish himself as an advocate for, tion of it is printed, and it is ped will be but also to be of eminent service to circulated throughout the kingdom. the cause of Christianity. It was at
“I think that his Defence of Re. that period that the Age of Reason" vealed Religion,' in two short sermons, is was encountered by " An Apology Bishop Watson should often write, but
of great merit, and of general utility. for the Bible, in a Series of Letters, with the utmost caution, accuracy and ar dressed to the Author of that Work." consideration; because his works will On this occasion, he made use of the always be read. same niildness and urbanity that he “ I would also particularly recommend had before displayed, when encoun the perusal of the Sixth Letter of the series tering the infidel' opinions broached of letters which the Bishop addressed to by Mr. Gibbon; and it must be al- Mr. Gibbon. To young men of fashion Towed that in both instances he was
and of abilities, originally good, but obdeemed not only a very opportune, but scured by libertine life and conversation,
it will be peculiarly serviceable; as well a very able champion in behalf of that faith, which pervades the whole of dern pretended discoveries in natural phi
as those who are led astray by some mocivilized Europe. In short, Doctor losophy, now a favourite mode of intro, Watson's well-timed and celebrated ducing and enforcing scepticism and tract against Paine, although it did infidelity.”-P. 230—232.
years' conflict with an enemy, which purchased Calgarth Park, in Westbecoming stronger daily, during the moreland, and erected a house, delightcontest, now. menaced us with retali- fully situate, in the immediate vicinity ation, and even threatened invasion of the lakes. Here he considered itself. Assuming the proposition, himself as a country gentleman, and that the nation was reduced to the dedicated much of his time to agrialternative of absolute submission on cultural pursuits. For many years one hand, or a vigorous prosecution Mr. Curwen, M. P. for Carlisle, was of the contest on the other, he de either the associate of his labours or clared in favour of the latter. His the occasional companion of his reLordship accordingly maintained, that tirement. Under his auspices, and at great sacrifices and great exertions his own expense, the neighbouring had become necessary; and he con- mountains, up to their very summits, jured his countrymen to make these were clothed with wood of all dein behalf of their liberty, their pro. scriptions, particularly the larch. Of perty, and all that is dear to man. this' favourite tree he planted many
This address of course produced a millions, and obtained on that account multitude of replies. Some accused not only the applause of all men intehim of dereliction of both principles rested in the improvements of their and character ; while others animad- native country, but the gold medal of verted on the laxity of his opinions, the Society of Arts, Manufactures, and the prudent conformity now &c. His leisure moments were also cvinced to the established order of occupied at intervals, with literary things. The pamphlet in question, pursuits, and he is said to have been however, produced a great effect on busily employed for many years past the public mind. The Government in writing an “ History of his Own too, as if impressed with new zeal, in Times." consequence of this timely co-opera- The good Bishop, who had now tion, immediately unsheathed the attained almost a patriarchal age, flaming sword of prosecution against began of late years to stoop, and exhis opponents, two of whom were hibit symptoms of decay. A fit or convicted of seditious libels; while two of apoplexy, warned both himall other writers were appalled from self and family of his impending fate; engaging in so dangerous a contro- and he at length uttered his last sigh versy. But the gratitude of Ministers at Calgarth Park, in the county of ended here; for no translation ensued, Westmoreland, amidst the woods he and it was now found that the labourer had planted, and the hills where he who came in at the twelfth hour was was born, on July 5th, 1816. not to be rewarded like him who ap- Thus died Richard Watson, Bishop peared at the ninth.
of Llandaff, in the 79th year of his But notwithstanding his Lordship age. As a divine, he must be allowed had no fewer than six children, and to have been orthodox; for although his bishopric was always accounted a a friend to reform, he broached no poor one, yet his revenues from the new tenets, but was a vigorous, able, church could not be deemed scanty, and zealous supporter of the estanor his fortune contemptible. By the blished church. In his person, he death of Mr. Luther,* in 1786, he had was tall, stout, muscular and dignified. also obtained a legacy of 20,0001. As a bishop, he was always the patron Immediately after this, he determined of unfriended merit, and added dignity to make an acquisition to that amount to the bench by his learning, his in his native county. He accordingly intelligence, his ability and his inde
pendence. As an orator, his action
was graceful, his voice harmonious, This gentleman was not only indebted and his delivery both chaste and corto the Bishop for the care taken of his edu
rect. cation and morals, but also for his friendly
As a writer, he displayed a and spirited intervention on a singular oc. great knowledge of composition ; his casion. Mr. L. was addicted to play, and style was neat, and even elegant, having fallen into the hands of sharpers in while his diction was pure and arguFrance, was actually rescued from their mentative. But it is as a controversiak fangs by Dr. Watson, who repaired to the writer that he is entitled to great, Continent on purpose.
deserved and undiminished praise.
In all his contests, he made use of the Transactions of the Manchester Litelanguage befitting a scholar and a rary and Philosophical Society. gentleman; and he both detested, and Charges and Single Sermons. scorned to imitate, the vituperative 15. An Assize Sermon preached at attacks of those who, by recurring Cambridge, 4to. 1765. to scurrility and personality, forget 16. A Sermon preached at do. on the first duty of a Christian divine. the 29th of May, 1776, 4to.
17. A Sermon preached at do. on
the Anniversary of His Majesty's List of the Works of the late Dr. Wat- Accession, 4to. 1776.
son, Lord Bishop of Llandaff. 18. A Sermon preached at do. on 1. Ricardi Watson, A. M. Coll the Fast Day, 4to. 1780. S. S. Trin. Soc. et Chemiæ Profess. 19. A Discourse delivered to the in Acad. Cantab. Inst. Chemic. in Clergy of the Archdeaconry of Ely, Prælect. Acad. Exp. Pars Metallur. 4to. 1780. gica, Avo. 1766.
20. A Sermon preached before the 2. An Essay on the Subjects of Lords, in Westminster Abbey, on the Chemistry, and their General Divi- 30th January, 4to. 1784. sions, 8vo. 1771.
21. Visitation Articles for the Dio3. An Apology for Christianity, in cese of Llandaff, 4to. 1784. a Series of Letters to Edward Gib- 22. The Wisdom and Goodness of bon, Esq. the Historian, 12mo. 1776. God in having made both Rich and S editions.
Poor; a Sermon, 4to. 1785. 2 edi. 4. Chemical Essays, 2 vols. 12mo. tions. 1781 ; since published in 5 vols. 23. Address to Young Persons after 12mo.
Confiraation, 12mo. 1789. 5. A Letter to Archbishop Corn- 24. Charge delivered to the Clergy 'wallis, on the Equalization of the of the Diocese of Llandaff, in 1791. Revenues of the Church of England, 4to. 1792. 4to. 1789.
25. A Sermon preached in 1785, 6. Visitation Articles for the Dio- for the Westminster Dispensary, with cese of Llandaff, 4to. 1784.
an Appendix, 4to. 1792. 7. Collection of Theological Tracts, 26. A Charge delivered to the selected from various Authors, for the Clergy of the Diocese of Llandaff, use of such of the younger Students 4to. 1795. of the University of Cambridge as are 27 & 28. Two Sermons preached intended for Holy Orders.
in the Cathedral of Llandaft, 4to. N. B. His Lordship, on this occa- 1795.
sion, acted merely as Editor. 29. A Sermon preached in the 8. Sermons on Public Occasions, Chapel of the London Hospital, 4to. and Tracts on Religious Subjects, 8vo. 1802. 1788.
30. A Charge delivered to the 9. Considerations on the Expedi- Clergy of the Diocese of Llandaff, ency of revising the Liturgy, and 4to. 1802. Articles of the Church of England, 31. A Sermon preached in the 8vo. 1790. Anon.
Church of St. George, Hanover 10. An Apology for the Bible, in a Square, before the Society for the Series of Letters addressed to Thomas Suppression of Vice, 8vo. 1804. Paine, 12mo. 1796. Many editions. 32. A Charge delivered to the
11. An Address to the People of Clergy of the Diocese of Llandaff, Great Britain, 8vo. 1798.
in June, 1805. 4to. 12. Substance of a Speech intended 33, 34 & 35. Two Sermons, and a to have been spoken in the House of Charge, in Defence of Revealed ReLords, 8vo. 1809.
ligion, 8vo. 1806. 13. Thoughts on the intended In- 36 & 37. Two Sermons, constituvasion, 8vo. 1803.
ting a second Defence of Revealed 14. Miscellaneous Tracts on Reli. Religion, preached at the Chapel gious, Political and Agricultural Sub- Royal, 8vo. 1807. jects, 2 vols. 8vo. 1815.
38. A Charge delivered to the Also a variety of papers in the Clergy of the Diocese of Llandaff, Philosophical Transactions, and in the 8vo. 1808.
'Sir, Clapton, June 1, 1817. , had given up the cause as hopeless, A
conversation with Mr. Gran- torical and legal research, to which ville Sharp on the subject of his first the work I have mentioned bears attempts, forty years before that time, ample testimony. It may, indeed, be to vindicate the freedom of Negroes fairly questioned whether more 'unin England. He soon after very wearied industry were ever employed obligingly communicated to me the in the accumulation of wealth, than following papers, the copies of his Mr. Sharp exerted through life, in letters being endorsed, corrected and finding occasions for its benevolent signed by himself. I am persuaded distribution. you will readily judge these authentic It is remarkable that what was not documents on such an interesting sub. considered as the established law of ject, to be worthy of preservation. England till 1772, and after so severe The condition of Negroes in England, a conflict, had been described as the when Mr. Sharp undertook their known law of France one hundred cause, cannot be shewn more clearly years before, in the reign of Louis than by the following advertisements, XIV. The following passage is a which I copy from p. 87 of his first translation from Les Delices de la publication, “ A Representation of the France. 18mo. Paris, 1671, Prem. Injustice and Dangerous Tendency of Part. p. 246, by an author sufficiently Tolerating Slavery; or of Admitting courtly: the least Člaim of Private Property in
France is so fond of liberty that she the Persons of Men in England." cannot endure a slave. Thus neither 1769.
Turks nor Moors, and still less Public Ledger, Dec. 31, 1767. Christian people must bear fetters or
“ For sale, a healthy Negro Girl, be chained in that country. So that aged about fifteen years, speaks good slaves arriving in France, are no English, works at her needle, washes sooner landed than they exclaim for well, does household work, and has joy, France for ever, with her de had the small pox. By J. W. at Mr. lightful liberty.' I once observed, in M-Auley's, the Amsterdam Coffee- a certain city of the kingdom, a Moor, House, near the Exchange, from in the train of a Portugneze Jady. twelve till two o'clock every day."
Immediately on quitting the vessel, GAZETTEER, April 18, 1769.
he threw himself on the earth, kissing Horses, Tim Wisky, and Black Bny. it tenderly. Then raising his arms
“ To be sold, at the Bull and Gate to heaven he cried aloud, France for Inn, Holborn, a very good Tim ever! I am free! I am no longer a Wisky, little the worse for wear,
slave!' a chesnut gelding, a very good grey mare, -and a well made good tempered liberté, qu'elle ne peut pas souffrir un
* « La France est si amoureuse de la Black Boy; he has lately had the Esclave : de sorte que les Turcs, & les small pox, and will be sold to any Mores, bien moins encore les Peuples gentlemau. Enquire as above."
Chrestiens, ne peuvent iamais porter de Such were the reputed human fers ny estre chargés de chaisnes, estars hrutes, mere marketable commodi- dans son pays: aussi arrive-t'il, que quand ties, for whom Mr. Sharp, fifty years il y a des Esclaves en France, ils ne sont ago, solely adventured to claim the pas si tost à terre, qu'ils s'escrient pleins rights of men, and submitted to be de ioyo; Vive la France avec son aymable smiled upon as a humane visionary, if Liberté; & ie puis dire que i'ay veu
estant not censured as a busy body in other dans une ville du Royaume une More à men's matters. But the wisdom with la suite d'une Dame Portugaise, laquelle which he pursued the impulse of his iettant à terre, elle la baisa tendrement,
ne fut pas si tost hors du vaisseau que se benevolence was, at length, suffi- haussant ensuitte les bras vers le ciel, & ciently justified. I have been in- criant à pleine teste; Vive la France, ie formed, probably from himself, that suis libre, vive la France, ie ne suis plus he persevered, after his legal advisers Esclave."