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of society." &c. Who have suspected It is wholly out of my power to this? Who are suspected? Where ascertain the object of the Old Uniare the proofs? No man should have tarian's letter, or to account for the whispered such a suspicion without irritation and suspicion which pervade being disposed and able to answer it; but I am satisfied that, as to what these questions. At such a time as is most important in it, his assertions the present, he who could give such may be denied and his inferences disa hint should have been prepared to proved. volunteer as an informer and a wit
W. J. FOX. ness. Better at once to drag the culprits, if such there be, from the Letter from Mr. Fry to a Calvinistic chapel to the Court of Justice, than Minister, on his want of Charity. to expose a whole sect to the evils of
MR. EDITOR, May 19, 1817. dark and undefined accusation. Who F the following letter, written on knows what ministers some inay think are here intended? Who knows one of those specimens of bigoted but that local circumstances may give harshness against Anti-Trinitarians, a point to these inuendoes by which not upfrequent in the present day the character, usefulness, comforts, among some religious sects, shall apand prospects of a respectable nan pear suitable to the design of your may be destroyed, and his personal useful publication, perhaps its inserJiberty endangered ?
tion will not be displeasing to some And this is done by one whose of your readers, at least to such of “ Christianity admits of no connexion them as have had their ears assajled with politics !" Sir, I am no friend with the like demonstrations of deto the use of physical force, but I termined hostility. It may be proper love civil and religious liberty, and to observe that no answer to it has have not learned, like your Corre- been received, though a week has spondent, by misapplying Scripture, elapsed since it was sent. Whether to change the epistles of Paul into the this omission is to be ascribed to an Gospel according to Hobbes. How idea in the mind of the minister to amusing his aversion to Bonaparte, to whom the letter was addressed, that whom, in certain circumstances, his the remonstrance of an Unitarian on concluding political Christian prin- such a subject was not worthy of a ciple would have made him his as reply; or to his feeling that the rewell as your “most humble servant!" prehended though common outrage Censures on a fallen or a banished against charity and decorum could man come ungraciously from one who not be justified, and that therefore he is avowedly slavish upon principle. could not answer me without making Should their fortunes change, he some apology, which would be too would of course change also, seeing grating to his orthodoxy, I cannot that “ Cliristianity adinits of no con determine. But having been informed nexion with politics, except that it that some remarks on my observations enjoins that every soul be subject unto are to appear in one of the magazines the higher powers." Were Bonaparte devoted to the interests of Calvinistic crowned to-morrow in Westminster tenets, I am induced to solicit the Abbey, he would therefore be a insertion of my letter in the Monthly loyal subject. Were Peter Porcu. Repository.
R. F. pine to cut the Regent's throat and instal himself in St. James's, he would Letter addressed to the Rev. T. W. be dutiful and obedient.
Kidderminster, May 12, 1817.
SIR, 6 And if in Downing Street Old Nick
Last evening I attended the service should rerel
at the Old Meeting, under an expecEngland's prime minister, then bless the Devil!"
tation of hearing Mr. B-, with
whom I have been long acquainted, However favourable such a maxim in which I was disappointed ; aud may be to the peaceable lives of its feeling aggrieved by a part of your admirers, doubts will arise in the discourse, I scarcely know how to minds of some about its tendency to refrain from expressing to you my produce all godliness and honesty. dissatisfaction. I do --ot complain of
what you advanced concerning the some of them have produced. With, necessity of Christ's coming to judge out doubt your mind is fully persuaded the world for the purpose of testifying that the doctrine for which you are his eternal Deity, because you have so strenuous, of Christ's having a au unquestionable right to deliver proper equality with the Father, is doctrinal sentiments which you be explicitly taught in the sacred wrilicve to be true and important; though tings, and you valoe it highly as being I conceive such a representation to be essential to your doctrinal system. inconsistent and at variance with the But it is not unworthy of any ChrisHoly Scriptures, which declare this tian to maintain his sentiments with great office to be sustained by him in charity for those who differ, as they consequence of his designation to it, have a right to judge for themselves, or by the appointment of the supreme and may have substantial reasons for authority of his God and Father their dissent. However coufident you What I complain of is, your placing may be of the truth and importance those of your fellow-christians who of this notion, I am equally persuaded disbelieve the Deity of our Saviour, that it has no real foundation in the upon a level with the worst rejectors word of God, but that it is a corof revealed religion, by using the fol- ruption derived from popery. lowing expressions, when speaking of In your present temper it is not the enemies of true piety who must likely that you will deign to enter a receive condemnation in the last day: place of worship used by Unitarians ; " Some there are who deny the Deity perhaps you may disdain to peruse of Christ, some trample upon his any of their treatises in vindication of blood, and some despise the whole their principles; but I will venture to system of his divine revelation." This assert that in either case you would statement to me appears very disin- not meet with an instance of an Unigenuous, as it imports a refusal to tarian's so dishonouring himself and admit those to be numbered among degrading his religion, as invidiously the disciples of our Lord who differ to unite descriptious which have no from yourself on this disputed point, kind of analogy. But supposing that the Deity of Christ; and it has an in- on any occasion you bad heard one of jurious tendency on the minds of the that sect, in his over-heated zeal for hearers, especially the more ignorant his opinions, arrange the deniers of sort, even to inspire them with si- the sole Deity of the God and Father milar illiberality. Such rash language of Jesus Christ, or Trinitarians, in the indicates, what you would probably same lists with Deists, scoffing infidels, feel some reluctance more plaiuly to and tramplers on the blood of the avow, that you are conscious of having Mediator, what would you have formed an infallible judgment re- thought and felt ? You would no specting a doctrine which has been a doubt pronounce this to be a species subject of controversy among wise of bigotry of which the avower ought and good men in various ages. To to be ashamed. Reflect on your manthis. I may add, that it is preposterous ner of classing characters, which perto associate the deniers of Christ's haps may be too familiar, and recollect Deity with despising infidels, because that persons who have other views of those who believe that he is in every the Christian doctrine than those respect dependent upon the only true which you profess, may have equal God, the Creator of heaven and earth, sensibility with yourself; as much in. regularly assemble together for divine tegrity of heart and uprightness of life worship according to the Christian as you may be known to possess; as revelation, and to hear its truths and sincere and strong an attachment to precepts dispensed. So that they what they conceive to be divine must either believe in the divine truth ; and as earnest a concern to mission of Christ, and consequently witness the prevalence of their prinestcem the Gospel as true and divine, ciples as you can entertain—though or be mere hypocrites in their reli- the credulity of mankind with regard gious professiou; the latter of which to uuscriptural and unintelligible can hardly be your deliberate opinion mysteries, and their deeply-rooted of them, especially if you consider the prejudices in favour of what is sancable defences of Christianity which tioned by worldly authority and pomp,
may forbid their having equal success. Repository, a few lines respecting the
Unitarians to be gratified by its pub.
Stourbridge, May 5, 1817. SIR,
May 16, 1817. YOUR Correspondent from this VOUR Correspondent N. [p. 210),
vicinity [p. 210), may be assured in his Essay on Vitality observes, that no designed misrepresentation " whether it (the body), increases or or accidental error occurred in the decreases; whether it preserves all biographical memoir inserted in your its members or is mutilated of them publication for January last, relative all, the ratioval principle is not into the late Rev. B. Carpenter. At jured, but in many instances strengththe very time when he is represented ened by the loss of limbs; all proving as resuming the pastoral charge (Oct. the complete distinctiou between body 12, 1806), he was officiating as a sup- and mind." ply during a vacancy; and at the This is an argument frequently proclose of his discourse on the morning duced for the distinct nature and inof that day, delivered an address to destructibleness of the human soul: the congregation which contains the but I should not have expected to see following passage, alluding to an invi produced by so philosophical an tation which had been sent to him on observer of natural history as your the 10th September preceding : Correspondent. The mutilation of the
“ I think it better not to give a de- limbs affects not the rational principle cisive answer to it at present, but only any more than their decay by old age; to eugage to supply this congregation for the plain reason that the rational in person or by proxy till Christmas." principle is not there. How then This plan was adopted, Mr. Car- does this fact prove a complete dispenter and Mr. Ward officiated during tinction between body and mind? the remainder of the quarter. The The seat of the sentient principle is vacancy was prolonged till the end of the brain : if the brain continue sound, the first quarter of 1807, during which the faculties are sound even to exMr. Carpenter and Mr. Scott per- treme old age and in the hour of formed the services as supplies, and death; if the brain lose its healthful became stated pastors from March fibre, the faculties are prematurely 25th of that year.
enfeebled: if the brain be seriously This statement pot only agrees with injured, as by the concussion of a facts well known to all whom they blow, the rational principle is injured, concern, but is engraved on the mo and madness or idiocy ensues. The nument erected to the memory of Mr. inference to be drawn is directly Carpenter.
opposite to the conclusion drawn by W. S.
As, N. argues the point on philoW My near Taunton, sophical grounds, I make no use of SIR,
May 9, 1817. the arguments which may be drawn
your Tenth Volume, I observed thesis of a vital principle distinct from in the Repository for Novenaber, 1815, man's physical organization. His a prospectus of a Greek and English position that “organization alone is Lexicon, by the Rev. John Jones. a mere machine wholly void of all Having several times. ordered the sepsation," merely begs the question : work, and the bookseller repeatedly which is, whether Almighty power receiving for answer that it is not yet has not impressed this organized published; give me leave to request matter with a principle of vitality and of that gentleman, by means of the a thinking faculty?
This point is, I think, proved, no
union attains to the firmness of less philosophically than scripturally, maturity; it decreases also to the imby Dr. Priestley, in his “ Disquisi- becility of age. It cannot stand still lions on Matter and Spirit:" where at any one moment of existence withalso may be seen a defence of the out corrupting; the accessions by the form and properties of that, which secretion of the day push off the exyour Correspondent, in conformity ternal particles formerly secreted as with the popular physics, calls "inert worse than useless, when they have matter."
E. ceased to give vigour and strength.
How different is the animating prinOn Vitality.
ciple; this inhabitant of the house of May 10th, 1817. clay continues through life! It is former letter on this sub- this gives identity to the body, al
ject, (p. 210), went to shew, ways at home; it recollects the enthat throughout all nature, every dearments and afflictions of childliving body with whose origin we hood, the follies and gaities of youth, are acquainted, received its heing the reasonings and anxieties of manby a two-fold instrumentality, and, hood, and the sound determinations that being ab origine of a two-fold from the experience of age. The loss nature, and so continuing through of an eye or an ear, an arm or a leg, life, the death and dissolution of the even a total dismemberment, whilst body did not necessarily involve in the vital organs are preserved, instead it a destruction of the vital animating of reducing its powers have given principle. The purport of my pre- strength to its energy, and enabled it sent letter will be to shew from to overcome, by its more powerful nature, marked distinctions between exertions, that tendency to decompothe body and the vital principle sition which had begun in the body which animates it, the conclusion before such dismemberment had taken from which evidence must necessarily place. be, that it is the animating principle Observe the opposite actions of or mind, and not the organized body, body and of mind. By a slow and which constitutes the man.
certain progress the body attains to The commencement of all animated maturity, and by an equally markedexistence, whether animal or vege- out process it goes on progressively table, is so infinitely minute to the to decay. During the whole of this human eye, as to be wholly incapable period, physiologists observe, that of human observation ; yet to what. there is an unceasing strife between soever magnitude the being may at- the vital power and the powers that tain in the oak, the chesnut, the govern inanimate bodies. In health elephant or the mammoth, the whole the contest is successful on the part is but the enlargement of this invisible of vitality: in disease it is doubtful. atom, and of course but an addendum In death the contest is ended; vitality of liquid or solid matter accumulated is no longer able by its exertions to by the organic secretions of the ani- controul the mechanical and chymical mated being. In animal bodies, these laws of nature, though during life it are in a proportion of about one-sixth had modified, influenced and altered solid materials to five-sixths of liquid, their effects. After full maturity has and in vegetables of about three- taken place on the body by a comfourths solid to one-fourth liquid, and plete developement of the germ, as even the small proportion of solid strength increases in the midst of animalization is but -accidental and this contest till corporeal maturity, transient, being at first gelatinous, from that period, for a long time, perand naturally tending after death, to haps insensibly, weakness commences enter into the putrefactive fermenta- and keeps increasing, till the cortion and dissolve and pass away in poreal functions are stopped for ever. aerial and liquid forms, to unite with Not so the mind : equally helpless its dative elements, again to form other with the body in infancy, it soou substances for fresh animation. All commences to add knowledge to these transitory, solid, and liquid consciousness, and through the lonsubstances, must be necessarily con gest life keeps constantly increasing sidered as no part of vitality. Their in its powers of determination or
judgment: all its infirmities seem endowed with the most acute sensito be corporeal infirmities, or those bility; and as they regulate all the arising from ignorance. Idiotism does offices of the viscera, such is their not appear ever to be in the mind; sensibility that bruises, wounds and foron removing the corporeal im- disorders in the epigastic region will pediment, the mind again manifests sometimes occasion such an intensity its former energies. That there should of pain, as not only to disorder the be this difference between the two whole functions of life, but even to we canuot be surprised at when we extinguish the vital powers. It is consider the difference of threir compo- through them that life depends uot sition; the whole corporeal develope- on the fickleness of the mind, the meut manifests the flecting nature of heart, the stomach, the viscera, &c. the materials of which it is formed. &c., are all independent of the will. It is diseased when any particle of it Wherever they unite with the ceis not passing away: detention for a rebral nerves, there, and only there, inoment beyond its due time is the the mind has, according to such commencement of all the maladies of uuion, power over the nervous aclife: such an ever-passing cause can- tion : when internal inflammation pot possibly be more than an instru- takes place, the irritation is conment to the enduring and ever-ini- veyed to the brain, and from the proving principle of vitality, the seat brain by an internal nervous sensation of consciousness aud knowledge, the to the heart, and the organs of respimind or more justly the man, as being ration. Wherever there is intensity the only part that can feel happy in of pain in any part of the body, the its own identity, and conscious of knowledge of it is conveyed by the its past and present existence. sympathetic nerves to the cerebral,
That organization is only the in- and by the cerebral to the seat of strument of vitality, and that the consciousness. By a pressure suffipeculiar principle of vitality has cient to deaden the action of the à seat or throne of action from sympathetic nerve in the part affected, whence by its energy, through the though the disorder is not abated, the instrumentality of the organized sys- sensation of the existence of the distem, it rules the whole animal fabric, order ceases, by the pain being imis evident from the uses of the two mediately stopped, and proves by this sets of nerves, the cerebral and the consequence, that life is not actually sympathetic. In animals without present, if I may so express it, vertebræ, the sympathetic appear to through all parts of the body, though be the only nerves, and the sole con- its action extends to all parts. If it duits of the action of vegetable life. was universally present, it must be It is by them absorptiou, digestion, at all times and under every circumcirculation, secretion and nutrition are stance in a state of consciousuess; but carried on without the interference of it is evident from this circumstance, the will. To them it is supposed that when the communication with that the numerous diseases received the affected part is interrupted, its by impression may be referred, whilst consciousness respecting what passes the peculiar point or theatre of vi. in that part ceases. Nerves therefore tality is exclusively the seat of are not iniud, but instruments for its thought, consciousness, determination use. and action.
It has been proved by numerous In the animal system, the sympa- experiments on animals, that whilst thetic nerves extend from the base the spinal marrow is not injured, life of the skull to the lower part of the is not destroyed even by the resacrum, and are nourished by all the moving of all the intestines, but you perves' of the spinal marrow from destroy or rather paralise all below which they receive branches; nu- the vertebra above which you cut merous ganglions, considered by some the spinal marrow, beginning from as little brains, divide them into the last vertebra, and ascending oue systems, in which ganglions, or by one to the top: the circulation bulgings, is elaborated the fluid they remains in the parts below, the retransmit to the nerves. The nume- maining nerves and muscles exist, rous filaments of these nerves are but consciousness is gone. The com