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thing can be," and the word was God," third sort grossly fancy; but God unJohın i. as also in denying his being created. from the beginving, against the very An Essay on the Doctrine of Christ's tenour of that of John i. and divers Satisfaction for the Sins of Mankind. others, as at large is shewn in the

20. We distinguish between a Scripthird chapter of this treatise.—Again, ture Trinity, Father, Sou and Holy Question, But what Scriptures prove Ghost, which we unfeigvedly believe; the Divivity of Christ, against such and that humanly devised Trinity of as falsely deny the same? Answer, three distinct and separate persons, « And the word was God.”

which we receive not; because the “Whose are the fathers, and of whom Holy Scriptures make no mention of as concerning the flesh Christ came, it. who is over all, God blessed for ever."

Sime Work. Catechism, 1673.

From SEWEL's HISTORY. 17. After quoting the texts, “ No

(Ed. 1795.) man knoweth the Father, but the Son,

21. When the priest (Geo. Brooks) or heto whom the Son will reveal him:"

was speaking of the Trinity, T. Salt- I am the way, the truth, and the house had asked him, where that word life: no man cometh unto the Father

was to be found in the Scriptures; but by me;"—he adds, “ Hence he is saying farther, “I know no such fitly called the mediator betwixt God Scripture that speaks of the three perand man. For having been with God

sons in the Trinity; but the three from all eternity, being himself God, that the Scripture speaks of, are the and also in time partaking of the nature Father, the Son, aud the Holy Ghost, of man, through him, is the goodness and these Three are One." Page 211, and love of God conveyed to mankind, (1655) Vol. I. and by him again man receiveth and partaketh of these mercies."

22. Extract from a Paper printed in Apology, Lat. 1676.

1693, entitled “ The Christian DocEng. 1678, p. 10.

trive, and Society of the People called

Quakers, cleared," &c. 18. His (John Brown's) next per- We sincerely profess faith in God version is yet more gross and abusive, by his only begotten Son Jesus Christ, p. 238, where from my denying as being our light and life, our only ã That we equal ourselves to that holy way to the Father, and also our only man, the Lord Jesus Christ, &c. in mediator and advocate with the Father. whom the fulness of the Godhead That God created all things; he made dwelt bodily;" he concludes," I affirm the worlds, by his Son Jesus Christ, him to be no more than a holy man; he being that powerful and living word and because I use the words plenitudo of God by whom all things were made; Divinitatis, that I deny his Deity, which and that the Father, the Word, and the is an abominable falsehood. I detest Holy Spirit are one, in divine Being that doctrine of the Socinians, and inseparable; one true, living, and eterdeny there is any ground for their dis- nal God blessed for ever. tinction; and when I confess him to be We sincerely confess (and believe in) a holy man, I deny him not to be God, Jesus Christ, both as he is true God, as this man most injuriously would in- and perfect man, &c. sinuate; for I confess him to be really That divine honour and worship is both true God, and true man."

due to the Son of God; and that he Reply to John Brown's Examina- is, in true faith to be prayed unto, and tion of his Apology.

the name of the Lord Jesus Christ From RICHARD CLARIDGE.

called upon, (as the primitive Chris19. We do also believe that he' tians did) because of the glorious union (Christ) was and is both God and man,

or oneness of the Father and the Son, in wonderful union, not a God by &c. Page 542 and 546, Vol. II. creation or office, as some hold, nor

Signed by George Whitehead and

Seven other Friends. man by the assumption of a human body only, without a reasonable soul, P.S. I have to apologise for occuas others; nor that the manhood was pying so much room; but in the words swallowed up of the Godhead, as a of a writer whom I have before

I

quoted, " the trouble of transcribing trade to supply the priests with disprevents the accumulation of extracts, courses, and sermons may be bespoken (which might be carried to the extent upon any subject, at prices propor. of a folio volume,) of matter illustrative tioned to the degree of merit required, of the sentiments of the primitive which is according to the rank of the Quakers, in which no Unitarian could congregation to whom they are to be possibly unite."

addressed. One clergyman of Cam.

bridge has assisted his weaker breSir,

May 22, 1817. thren, by publishing outlines which peared in your Magazine, [XI. skeletons of sermons; another of higher 578,] much pleased with and interested rank, to accommodate them still furin the success of Doctor Thomson's ther, prints discourses at full, in the admirable plan of establishing funds, written alphabet, so as to appear like to be subscribed in small weekly or manuscript to such of the congrequarterly sums, by the members of gation as may chance to see them. our numerous churches, for the pur- 'The manuscripts of a deceased clergy, pose of assisting poor congregations in man are often advertised for sale, and carrying on their worship, building it is usually added to the notice, that chapels, supporting aged ministers, and they are warranted original; that is, other Unitarian purposes; and I hardly that no other copies have been sold, need say how highly gratified, to find which might betray the secret. These his ideas so judiciously acted upon shifts, however, are not resorted to by by our brethren at Birmingham and the more respectable clergy; it is not Swansea. I earnestly and confidently uncommon for these to enter into a hope that this excellent example will commercial treaty with their friends of be followed without a single exception, the profession, and exchange their comby the members of every place of Uni. positions. But even with this reintarian worship in the island : it will forcement, the regular stock is usually be a present bond of union amongst but scanty; and if the memory of the us, and a most powerful means of pro- parishioners be good enough to last moting the great cause, from which all two years, or perhaps half the time, who justly appreciate the efficacy of they recognise their old acquaintance the “ truth as it is in Jesus," look for at their regular retorn. the reformation of the Christian, and If, however, this custom be burthe conversion of the Jewish and Hea. thensome to one part of the clergy, then world.

they who have enough talents to supUnitarians seem hitherto to have port more vanity fail not to profit by worked only by hand; and though some it, and London is never without a cerhave laboured hard, and done much, tain number of popular preachers. I still the business has been imperfectly am not now speaking of those who are and heavily carried on. But the ge- popular among the sectarians, or beneral adoption of this admirable plan, cause they introduce sectarian doctrines will set a powerful machine in motion, into the church; but of that specific which will execute all that we want, character among the regular English by the assistance of all, and without clergy, which is here denominated a requiring the painful exertion of any; popular preacher. You may well imaI am, with ardent wishes for the spread gine, that, as the tree is known by its of genuine Scripture doctrines, fruits, I have not a Luis de Granada,

M. H.

nor an Antonio Vieyra to describe.

Threadbare garments of religious poThe Spaniard's Letters from Enyland. verty, eyes weakened by incessant

(Continued from p. 284.) tears of contrition, or of pious love, 7. English Clergy-Clerical Traders, and cheeks withered by fasting and pe

THE sermon is read, not recited, nitence, would have few charms for which is one main difference between the popular preacher of London curls the regular English clergy and the his forelock, studies gestures at his sectarians. It has become a branch of looking-glass, takes lessons from some

stage-player in his chamber, and disThomas Prichard.

plays his white hand and white hand.

kerchief in the palpit. The discourse vice, at the choice of the people, and supis in character with the orator; no- ported by them at a voluntary expense, thing to rouse a slumbering consci- the appointment is in their hands as a ence, nothing to alarm the soul at a thing distinct from the cure; it is deseuse of its danger, no difficulties ex- cided by votes, and the election usually pounded to confirm the wavering, no produces a contest which is carried on mighty truths enforced to rejoice the with the same ardour, and leaves befaithful,-to look for theology here hind it the same sort of dissension would be seeking pears from the elm; among friends and neighbours, as a -only a little smooth morality, such contested election for parliament. But as Turk, Jew, or Infidel, may listen to the height of the popular preacher's without offence, sparkling with meta- ambition is to obtain a chapel of his phors and similes, and rounded off with own, in which he rents out pews and å text of Scripture, a scrap of poetry, single seats by the year: and here he or, better than either, a quotation from does not trust wholly to his own oraOssian.---To have a clergy exempt from torical accomplishments; he will have the frailties of human nature is impos. a finer-tuned organ than his neighbour, sible; but the true church has effec- singers better trained, double doors, tually secured hers from the vanities and stoves of the newest construction, of the world. We may sometimes have to keep it comfortably warm. I met to grieve, because the wolf has put on one of these chapel-proprietors in comthe shepherd's cloak, but never can pany; self-complaceney, good humour, have need to blush at seeing the mon- and habitual assentation to every body key in it.

he met with, had wrinkled his face These gentlemen have two ends in into a perpetual smile. He said he view; the main one is to make a for- had lately been expendiog all his ready tune by marriage,--one of the evils money in religious purposes; this he this of a married clergy. It was for- afterwards explained as meaning that merly a doubt whether the red coat or he had been fitting up his chapel; the black one, the soldier or the priest, “ and I shall think myself very badly had the best chance with the ladies : off," he added, “ if it does not bring if, on the one side, there was valour, me in fisty per cent." there was learning on the other; but since volunteering has made scarlet so

8. Frequent Executions for Forgery. commou, black carries the day ;-ce

The frequent executions for forgery dunt arma toga. The cusioms of En- in England are justly considered by gland do not exclude the clergyman the humane and thinking part of the from any species of amusement; the people, as repugnant to justice, shockpopular preacher is to be seen at the ing to humanity, and disgraceful to theatre and at the horse-race, bearing the nation. Death has been the unihis part at the concert and the ball, form punishment in every case, though making his court to old ladies at the it is scarcely possible to conceive a card-table, and to young ones at the crime capable of so many modifications harpsichord : and in this way, if he of guilt in the criminal.

The most does but steer clear of any flagrant powerful intercessious have beeu made crime or irregularity, (which is not for mercy, and the most powerful aralways the case, for this order, in the guments urged in vain; no iustance heretical hierarchy, has had more than has ever yet been known of pardon. one Lucifer,) he generally succeeds in A Doctor of Divivity was executed finding some widow, or waning spin- for it in the early part of the present ster, with weightier charms than youth reign, who, though led by prodigality and beauty.

to the commission of the deed for His other object is to obtain what is which he suffered, was the most usecalled a lectureship in some wealthy ful as well as the most popular of all parish; that is, to preach an evening their preachers. Any regard to his sermon on Sundays, at a later hour clerical character was, as you may than the regular service, for which the well suppose, out of the question in. parishioners pay by a subscription. As this land of schism; yet earnest entrea. this is an addition to the established ser

ties were made in his behalf. The fa

mous Dr. Jobnşon, of whom the Ep. * Pedir peras al olmo.

glish boast as the great ornament of his age, and as one of the best and cess by travelling in it himself about wisest men whom their country has forty leagues. A man of respectable ever produced, and of whose piety it family and unblemished conduct has will be sufficient praise to say that he just been executed in Ireland, because, was almost a Catholic,-he strenuously when reduced by unavoidable misforexerted himself to procure the pardon tunes to the utmost distress, he comof this unfortunate man, on the ground mitted a forgery to relieve his family that the punishment exceeded the from absolute want. measure of the offence, and that the 9. Miserable Condition of the English life of the offender might usefully be

Poor. passed in retirement and penitence. The beadsman at the convent door Thousands who had been benefited by receives a blessing with his pittance, his preaching petitioned that mercy but the poor man here is made to feel might be shewn him, and the Queen his poverty as a reproach; his scanty herself interceded, but in vain. Du- relief is bestowed ungraciously, and ring the interval between his trial and ungraciously received; there is neither his execution, he wrote a long poem, charity in him that gives, nor gratientitled Prison Thoughts; a far more tude in him that takes. Nor is this extraordinary effort of mind than the the worst evil: as each parish is bound poem of Villon, composed under si- to provide for its own poor, an endless milar circumstances, for which, in an source of oppression and litigation age of less humanity, the life of the arises from the necessity of keeping author was spared. Had the punish- out all persons likely to become ment of Dr. Dodd been proportioned chargeable. We talk of the liberty of to his offence, he would have been no the English, and they talk of their object of pity; but when he suffered own liberty; but there is no liberty in the same death as a felon or a mur. England for the poor. They are no derer, compassion overpowered the longer sold with the soil, it is true; sense of his guilt, and the people uni- but they cannot quit the soil, if there versally regarded him as the victim of be any probability or suspicion that a law inordinately rigorous. It was age or infirmity may disable them. If long believed that his life had been in such a case they endeavour to represerved by condivance of the execu- move to some situation where they tioner; that a waxen figure had been hope more easily to maintain themburied in his stead, and that he had selves, where work is more plentiful, been conveyed over to the Continent. or provisions cheaper, the overseers

More persons have suffered for this are alarmed, the intruder is appreoffence since the law has been enacted hended as if he were a criminal, and than for any other crime. In all other sent back to his own parish. Whercases palliative circumstances are al- ever a pauper dies, that parish must be lowed their due weight; this alone is at the cost of his funeral : instances the sin for which there is no remission. therefore have not been wanting, of No allowance is made for the pressure wretches in the last stage of disease of want, for the temptation which the having been hurried away in an open facility of the fraud holds out, nor for the cart upon straw, and dying upon the difference between offences against na- road. Nay, even women in the very tural or against political law. More pains of labour have been driven out, merciless than Draco, or than those and have perished by the way-side, inquisitors who are never mentioned because the birth-place of the child in this country without an abhorrent would be its parish. Such acts do not expression of real or affected huma- pass without reprehension ; but no nity, the commercial legislators of adequate punishment can be inflicted, England are satisfied with nothing but and the root of the evil lies in the laws. the life of the offender who sins against When voluntcer forces were raised the Bank, which is their Holy of Holies. over the kingdom, the poor were exThey sacrificed for this offence one of cluded; it was not thought safe to the ablest engravers in the kiogrlom, trust them with arms. the inventor of the dotted or chalk santry are, and ought to be, the engraving. A mechanic has lately strength of every country; and woe suffered who had made a machine to to that country where the peasantry go without horses, and proved its suce and the poor are the same!

But the pea

Many causes have contributed to and willingly consented; the lord the increase of this evil. The ruinous mayor and the chapter made no obwars of the present reign, and the op- jection; but the bishop positively repressive system of taxation pursued by fused; for no other reason, it is said, the late premier, are among the prin- than because the first application had cipal. But the manufacturing systein not been made to him. Perhaps some is the main cause; it is the inevitable puritanical feeling may have been tendency of that system to multiply mingled with this despicable pride, the number of the poor, and to make some leaven of the old Iconoclastic and them vicious, diseased, and miserable. Lutheran barbarism; but as long as

To answer the question concerning the names of Barry and of Sir Joshua the comparative advantages of the Reynolds are remembered in this counsavage and social states, as Rousseau try, and remembered they will be as has done, is to commit high treason long as the works and the fame of a against human nature, and blasphemy painter can endure, so long will the against Omniscient goodness; but they provoking absurdity of this refusal be who say that society ought to stop execrated.* where it is, and that it has no further amelioration to expect, do not less

11. Dissenters" Socinians." + blaspheme the one, and betray the I have related in my last how the other. The improvements of society Dissenters, from the republican tennever reach the poor : they have been dency of their principles, became again stationary, while the higher classes obnoxious to government during the were progressive. The gentry of the present reign; the ascendancy of the land are better lodged, better accom- old high church and tory party, and modated, better educated than their the advantages which have resulted to ancestors; the poor man lives in as the true religion. Their internal state poor a dwelling as his forefathers when has undergone as great a change. One they were slaves of the soil, works as part of them has insensibly lapsed into hard, is worse fed, and not better Socinianism, a heresy, till of late years, taught. His situation, therefore, is relatively worse. There is, indeed, * A story, even less honourable than this no insuperable bar to his rising into a

to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's is curhigher order — his children may be

rent at this present time, which if false tradesmen, merchants, or even nobles be generally known. 'Upon the death of

should be contradicted, and if true should - but this political advantage is no amendment of his actual state. The tablet to his memory in this cathedral, and

Barry the painter, it was wished to erect a best conceivable state for man is, that the dean and chapter were applied to for wherein he has the full enjoyment of permission so to do;

the answer was,

that all his powers, bodily and intellectual. the fee was a thousand pounds. In reply This is the lot of the higher classes in to this unexpected demand, it was repre. Europe; the poor enjoys neither-the sented that Barry had been a poor man, and savage only the former. If, therefore, that the monument was designed by his religion were out of the question, it friends as a mark of respect to his genius : had been happier for the poor man to

that it would not be large, and consequently have been born among savages, than might stand in a situation where there was

not room for a larger. Upon this it was in a civilized country, where he is in answered, that, in consideration of these fact the victim of civilization.

circumstances, perhaps five hundred pounds

A second remonstrance 10. Mercenary Conduct of the Dean and might be taken.

was made : the chapter was convened to Chapter of St. Paul's.

consider the matter, and the final answer Some five-and-twenty or thirty years 'was, that nothing less than a thousand ago the best English artists offered to pounds could be taken. paint pictures and give them to this

If this be false it should be pnblicly cou. cathedral;—England had never greater tradicted, especially as any thing dishopainters to boast of than at that time. nourable will be readily believed concernThe thing, however, was not so easy

ing St. Paul's, since Lord Nelson's coffin

was shown there in the grave for a shilling as you might imagine, and it was ne

a head, -TR, cessary to obtain the consent of the

+ This passage was quoted in our ag. bishop, the chapter, the Jord mayor, count of The Spaniard's Letters on their and the king. The king loves the arts, first appearance, M. Repos. II., 500. ED.

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VOL. XII.

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