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ception or restriction; it will follow fore is to deny the perfections and that men can have no authority of realities of God, which is diabolical, their own, 10 reserve of right to and imports a rebellion against God, themselves; and consequently, neither as well as truth. can they duly convey any; or in Having then shewn that by mighty other words, they can have no right men we are to understand the chiefs to act or choose or constitute without or elders of the people, and that these Christ their Lord. And because they derive their due authority from God, can duly convey no authority but and by his consent from his people, with their Lord, and by virtue of it will follow, that being related to his licence, this authority by the both in the authority they bear, they Lord's licence conveyed may be justly are answerable to both for the due called the Lord's, and not the peo exercise of this authority; to the ple's, authority. But it is certain, people, as constituting them, or as, that the Lord authorizes every asso- (1 Pet. ii. 13,) arabo zmodyn x1101s, an ciation or imbodied people to choose buman constitution, and to God as and approve of their own temporal approving and ratifying his people's officers, so far as this may be done choice. And this authority being an consistently with the good of others, authority only to do the people good, with whom they are justly allied by where this purpose of good
not à prior contract; which has been answered, this authority ends, it ends religiously and inviolabiy observed. with it—especially iu the eyes of God, Power is singly the Lord's preroga. who authorizes no one to act contive; therefore, as it were injurious to trary to, or beyond his gracious will; him, to consult concerning the con- or, in other words, who gives po veying or investing this without him, one authority to act contrary to, or it were also insolence to presume beyond his given authority, upon a choice wherein to vest it un- And bere again I am bold to assert, warranted by his justice. Yet this that if these mighty men preside over choice being duly and equitably made, the people as with an authority worthy by virtue of the authority given of of God, they are and may be inculpaGod, and according to the rules of bly mighty. And whereas, Acts x. his justice; the officers themselves 35: In every nation he who feareth so chosen, may not only be justly God and worketh righteousness is said to have their authority from him, accepted with him;" it is not to be but to be his people's officers by his doubted but that, if these mighty ordinance or appointment.
men, as faithful trustees for their In evidence of the soundness of his brethren, are jealous for their native reasoning, we have several prece- rights, interests and prerogatives, dents and declaratious transmitted to and animated with an industrious us upon Scripture record. Thus, zeal to secure them, and resign them although it is beyond all question, with their dying breath intire, sound that the elders of the primitive and indebilitated; and that if with churches were chosen altogether by singleness of heart they seek, not the suffrages of the wliole church or their own, but the good of mankind, people, yet are they notwithstanding and are studious of an humble, mosaid to be made their overseers or dest, disinterested and generous diselders by the Holy Ghost; Acts xx. charge of their trust; they will surely 28: “ Take heed therefore unto your- find mercy in their degree, and so selves, and to all the flock, over far as they are ready to receive it, which the Holy Ghost has made you from the throne of God; and shall not overseers, to feed the church of God, be destined to be mightily tormented which he hath purchased with his on account of their might. own blood."
But if they betray their trust; if by And if it be true, that this au- gradu Tencroachments, through favour thority of free choice is from God, of a popular coupivance or inattention, it is an impiety to deny it. Truths or by specious and plausible names and have their foundation in God, the pretences, they seek to usurp an auimages of whose perfections and thority which they have not by derealities they are; to deny these there. rivation; if they make use of their
authority in trust to deprive their will their guilt accumulate indeed, brethren of those rights and preroga- proportionably with their mightiness, tives, for the preservation of which and they will hardly escape the judge they were intrusted with their au- ment of Satan, and of his chief angels, thority; and, by the artful abuse and ministering tools to corruption; thereof, are studious to render them- namely, the being, together with selves, as far as possible ALMIGHTY, them, mightily tormented. The corthe sources of wealth, power and ruption and ruin of mankind, and the diguity, seating themselves in the populating the infernal regions, is throne of Christ; if iustead of watch- effected principally by example, and ing over their charge with piety, self- most of all by the example of the abasement and devotion for good, mighty. they watch for opportunities to en- These reflections are by no means snare, impoverish, debase and subdue to be considered as novelties and nostheir brethren ; THEN, and in such trums of my own, but as principles case only, will they, as mighty men, advanced by the best authors, and be mightily tormented; for their por- occasionally introduced by me to iltion will be with that great oppressor lustrate the point in hand. He must and deceiver, the common enemy of be a man of very little reading who mankind, whose condemned dominion knows not that Mr. Locke has long is now no longer by authority, but since maintained that, by permission and delay, and is the AS TO PROPERTY, effect of craft and force as yet un- It being the command of God to defeated, and animated by appetite, all men that they should subdue, or despair and impudence.
cultivate, the earth, the improver, in The mighty are set up to public doing so, annexes thereto his labour, view by their brethren, and by God, which being his own natural proas examples of temperance, frugality, perty, no other man can have any moderation, continence, humanity, title to. - This Jabour, annexed to justice, benevolence, godliness, and lands before umoccupied, that is un. of whatsoever thing is holy, of whats appropriated, gives him an appropri. soever thing is just, pure or virtuous : ating title to them, on condition only if therefore by their example, con- that he leave as much to others, as nivance, countenance, pusillanimity, they can make use of.-Labour there. or for profit, and a desire to serve fore is the just ground of every man's themselves, they promote or encou- title to property, the son inheriting rage vice, idleness, vanity, luxury, the fruits of his father's toils. For delicacy, perfidiousness, debauchery, every man, being naturally master of wantonness, gambling, ungodliness, re- himself, and proprietor of his own probatism, ignorance, stupidity, effe- labours, will thus have, even within minacy, falsehood, injustice, treachery, himself, this ground of property-the rapiue, wildness, tyranny, unreason- products of his labours being as it ableness, servility, pomp, glitter, were his creatures, and to which no knavery, audaciousness, extravagance, other man, or body of men, but himriot, revelling, profaneness, profligacy, self and his offspring only, can have drunkenness, bribery, venality, per- any claim or pretence at all; the exjury, and such like; they therein clusive right thereto, and enjoyment more than participate with the cor- thereof, becomes the just foundation rupted. But if they associate with of all wealth, or opulency, constithem, and, presuming falsely upon tuting the difference between a rich the connivance of the divine justice, man, the son of the industrious, and accept the wages of unrighteousness, the poor man, the son of the idler.notwithstanding they are taught that Riches then, acquired in righteousthis eateth, or corrodeth like fire : or ness by industry, are the natural reif they in any-wise contribute towards ward of industry, either in ourselves the extinguishing their brethren's fear or ancestors ; and justly so, because, of God, or the sensibility and re. whereas he who cultivates ten acres monstrances of their consciences, or will thereon produce more fruits than their gospel light, or their graciously one thousand uncultivated acres will in-born dread of wickedness: THEN produce, such a cultivator may be
said to give nine hundred and ninety claims his impartial benevolence to. acres out of one thousand to man- wards all his creatures, tramples upon kind.
his rule of right, defies his omThat,
niscience, challenges his vindictive AS TO NATURAL RIGHT, justice, and is the very kingdom of
Every man's child, being the work. Satan triumphant. *-And, being an manship of his God, to whom we intolerable incendiary among manare all infinitely indebted, has a right kind, the peaceable friends of liberty to his parent's protection during his form theniselves into an association minority. The father is only the against it, and lay their restraints upon child's guardian, and as such guardian. it, professing that the right of resisting ship, when no longer needed, ceases, is always equal to the right of comthe father's power, and right of pre- manding among equals. scribing, ceases with it. When grown
That, up to manhood, (the state which AS TO CIVIL GOVERNMENT, made his father free,) the son has the This is a community incorporated same natural right belonging to him, to prevent the evils arising from li. as his father had originally.—There- centiousness, its individuals uniting fore a man's posterity cannot be bound their power, and contributing of their by the compact of his father; for no property, for the good of the whole, act of the father can give away the and to preserve and enlarge their free. son's natural right, his independence, dom, and to protect each other from his liberty, his power of creating, unnatural restraint. Hence tribute possessing, judging, &c. Every man, is due to the just purposes of governwhen at the age of maturity, has a ment, though to the unjust purposes right to choose what country or of it, none is due. Whereas no man government he pleases; he is to can transfer to others more power choose for himself as an independent than he has in himself; these associacreature, born no man's subject, ob- tions can only give a power to prenoxious to no man.
serve, and cannot give any power to That, AS TO LIBERTY, destroy, enslave, or impoverish inAll men are by nature equal and dividuals. Neither can any human independent, and have equally a right sanctions be good or valid against the to dispose of their actions, their properties and their persons, as they like, with innocence and justice. It Milton, though I cannot find the passage,
* It is somewhere observed by Mr. is every man's duty to protect and that “Ignorant and wicked men are nasecure these natural rights and the turally lovers of licentiousness, and haters enjoyment thereofas piously, as of true liberty." From bence I couclude, steadily and as industriously, to his that the impetuous zeal of ignorant mobs is brethren, as to himself, Exod. ii. 11, always to be suspected; while ignorant 12, and to transmit the same down and wicked, whatever their cry may be, to posterity unembarrassed.- -Li- the spirit of violence, oppression and ina centiousness, which is the greatest justice will infallibly prove their conductenemy to liberty, paying no regard to ing principle; they can never be cordially the natural equality and independence long as impiety, which is the very root of
affected in favour of truth and liberty, so of man, but acting as though. power,
servility and meanness, thrives in their quà power, gave a right to every hearts : semper sola libera est virtus. Cic. thing, talks as follows, In armis jus Virtue only is ever free. And it is therefero, omnia fortium sunt virorum ; fore a Machiavelian maxim, that If you who shall forbid me to appropriate can but debauch a man's morals, you make to my owu use the fruits of diligence; sure of him as a slave. I must however to lay my iron yoke upon the necks believe that righteous, pious, well-taught of others; to harness them into my mobs (and such mobs will most certainly service; to force them to do my
exist in every righteous, pious, well-taught drudgery? God regardeth it not. country) would be able to sustain the In other words, it denies the insepa.
character of true majesty, and the reverable relation between nature and dignity sufficient to confound the most
rence of a , inultitude, with an awe and liberty, and renounces the principles violent efforts of oppression : tantum in of humanity, equity and truth; yea virtute et fide fiduciæ atque auctoritatis it denies the providence of God, dis- inest !
welfare of mankind; the provision for In defiance of their commission and which is the true and just end of all presumption, the right will still congovernment. Lib. ii. Ch. xi. Abso- tinue to every man to act, as freely as lute power made licentious by im- ever, in whatsoever is innocent, kind, punity, being inconsistent with a society's free exercise of her united and justice, and universal charity, these being associated force, cannot be justly the standards or common measures, whereby called a form of goverument.--Since right and wrong are always to be decided. whatever tends naturally to the good for this purpose and service were the of society, must naturally justify it. elders or earls among the Jews. Exod. self; whatever tends naturally to the xxiv. 1-10. xii. 16. iv. 29. They were harm, or to the eu feebling, or to the neither Priests nor Levites, but civil, and, inconvenience of society, must be as
in modern phrase, lay-members of the naturally self-condemned. - Hence and equity, and dignified by public voice
community, men of properly, learning arises the old proverbs, Summum jus for their known worth and abilities, to est summa injuria; salus populi 51
decide, as their earls, elders, or inferior prema lex. (Law (human) in its ri. magistrates, in all their civil controversies, gour, is rigorous injury. The wel. and terminate the common differences of fare of the people is the greatest law.] the people. And out of their number was That therefore, pretended privileges chosen the Sanhedrim, which consisted of and customs, when the reason of them seventy-three Senators, six out of each ceases, should likewise cease, as being tribe, Num. xi. 16, to bear the burden of no longer reasonable. For that argu. Nasi or President, who was also not the
The people as making one body, and their ments from what has been to what high priest, but a civil member only. should be of right cau have no force; The power of this court was so supreme, and that otherwise it may happen that they not only decided in such causes that men, by entering into a society, as were brought before them, by way of may lose those very benefits for which appeal, from the inferior courts, but even they entered ; and be in a worse their kings, high priests and prophets, condition than before they entered, were under their jurisdiction. See in having thereby contributed to, and Calmet's Dictionary the word Sanhedrim, armed their trustees with their own paragraph the 5th. They presided to propower, to their own injury.
vide, that all their civil laws and usages That,
might be reduced and accommodated, in AS TO HUMAN AUTHORITY,
all points, to the divine law; and it can
not be disputed but this must also be the It being impossible for any society business of all legislatures. There is into give a right (which it has not deed strictly, (James iv. 12. Isa. xxxiii. 22,) itself) to do its members harm, au- but one lawgiver, wbo is Christ. Others thority abused is no authority at all. therefore must be his deputies. And they
-A man may indeed be commis- must be deputed to provide, Ist, That the sioned to act unjustly, but this argues laws of God be not violated, and 2dly, pothing; for it is not commission, That they be so extended and particular. but authority which gives the right of ized to ihe several occasions and condiacting; and since no man, or body of to them in equity. The law of God is
tions of their constituents, as to answer men, can have in themselves any indispensable, therefore all human laws right to act unjustly, neither can they must be made to consist with it. And transfer such right, or authorize laws whereas the natural rights and preroga. under pretence thereof, or as made in tives which God has given man, import pursuance thereto, or vest any such bis revealed will towards man; it becomes right in any other person or persons a divine law to all men, to secure to every whatsoever. *
individual among them these native rights and prerogatives unhurt. These must be
supported and vindicated as God's free • According to these and other like gilt and bounty, as claims and immunities propositions of Mr. Locke, a legislature against the free and full enjoyment of must be a body consticated by a people to which no law may be made, or being specify and determine, in particular cases, made, be suffered to operate so as to circumstances and occurrences, what is defeai or invalidate them. The good will the law and will of God, (for God alone of God to man speaks as his law for him, has an absolute right to our obedience) and, farther than this, as a law que non and what roles and customs are conform. tum denique incepit Ler esse, cum scripto able or repugnant to the divine truth, fuit, sed' tum cum orta fuit, orta qulem
and just; neither can any one be same thing as to ordain that what is commissioned to defeat this native true shall be false, and vice versa, freedom; neither will any human such absurdity must denote an exdecree whatsoever alter the natural treme blindness and brutality in noequality among men, or make man wise better than a disqualifying madother ihan he is ;-and since to or- Also, intrusted power and dain a thing repugnant to truth is the property, are only fiduciary, or to
act for certain ends; therefore whensimul est cum mente divina. Cic. which ever the end is manifestly opposed, begun not then only to exist when revealed or defeated, the trust is forfeited, void as such, but from the very time when the and insignificant. In this case, the divine bounty first begun to exert itself power devolves into the hands that towards him; and this begun at one and of God to the sons of Adam. To this you have any right, even by donation, to the same time with the decreed beneficence gave it; for, the law of self-preser
vation being unalienable, no one can object, that “a man may part with bis natural rights, because such natural rights defeat it. So soon as persons intrusted are every man's own, and no other's pro- with power act against that trust, perty." I reply that this proposition has and by and according to their prinever yet been proved; but if it were vate wills and interests, they thereby even true, that every man's natural rights degrade themselves, perhaps into are his own property, and such as he may debtors and criminals, at least into relinquish personally, and for himself, yet single, private persons, without he cannot relinquish them for posterity; power, without command, and withand to relinquish them at all is in effect, out any right to obedience: the memat least as far as we are able, to give away bers of a society owing no obedience what belongs to posterity; and experience immediately to any other than the and history shew us, that, by tame surrenders of this kind, posterity is usually public will of the society. Lib. II. enslaved; and where otherwise, that we
Ch. xii. may however embarrass and distress pos
That, AS TO RESISTANCE, terity with such difficulties in the re- Every intrusted power, when found covery of their native rights and preroga- to be no longer a remedy against the tives, by us so sordidly conceded, as im- evils it was given to redress, but to port the highest degree of injustice dope be vainly increased without effecting them. It may be presumed, that to partits business, ought to be suppressed with the prerogatives given us by God, is
But much an act injurious to his divine bounty,'at by wise and good men. frontive to his majesty, and such as may
more ought every man's power to be obstruct his great, generous and secret
suppressed who seeks his commodity purposes in us; but it is known that, in with the injury of others, and is found condescending thus, we hurt posterity as to be aiming at interests separate from superlatively as we possibly can, for the those of the individuals or members, natural gifts of God are more valuable who are his constituents. If it be a than all other goods, potior metallis li. part of civil society to prevent their bertas. Hor. Liberty is preferable to constituents being injured, much riches. Also, posterity being daily born,
more is it so to prevent their being such injury becomes daily multiplied, re
devoured. peated, diffused, exaggerated.
Therefore when men in trust have In short, (for this point is only a corol. lary in my dispute with you, I can no
quitted their reason, avd renounced longer dwell upon it) unjust laws con- the way of peace which this teaches, tinued, being a continued act of injustice, they have revolted, from their own must amass vast guilt by continuance, and kind, to that of beasts, by making prove a crying curse in the court of force to be their rule of right; and are heaven, not only against those who insti- as liable to be destroyed as are other tuted them, but also against those whose wild beasts, or noxious brutes, with duty it is to have them abolished. And whom mankind can have neither soevery legislature mus be blind who sees not this truth so evidently as to be ani. eiety nor security. Lib. II. Ch. xv. mated with all zeal, indignation, expedi
That, AS TO WAR AND CONtion and resolution, to erase such laws at
QUEST, all events and hazards, as abhorrent to
As voluntary agreement gives a po. the will of God, (wbich is the one true litical power, and constitutes the conlaw throughout the universe) and detesta- dition of a free people, so a just forble in his sigbt.
feiture, by a state of war unjustly