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And he eyed the young rogues with so charm- valued him highly, resorted to the ing aa air,
authority of the lord chamberlain. "AcThat this waterman ne'er was in want of a cordingly upon his complaint, a messenfare.
ger was immediately despatched to Nor. What sights of fine folks he oft row'd in his wich, where Dogget then was, to bring wherry !
him up in custody. But doughty Dog'Twas clean'd out so nice, and so painted get, who had money in his pocket, and
the cause of liberty at his heart, was not He was always first oars when the fine city in the least intimidated by this formidable ladies,
He was observed to obey it In a party to Ranelagh went, or Vauxhall : And oftentimes would they be giggling and
with a particular cheerfulness, entertain.
ing his fellow-traveller, the messenger, all leering, But 'twas all one to Tom, their gibing and the way in the coach (for he had protested
against riding) with as much humour as *For loving, or liking, he little did care, a man of his business might be capable of For this waterman ne'er was in want of a tasting. And, as he found his charges fare.
were to be defrayed, he, at every inn, And yet, but to see how strangely things hap- could afford, or a pretended weak appe
called for the best dainties the country pen, As he row'd along, thinking of nothing at tite could digest. At this rate they jollily all,
rolled on, more with the air of a jaunt He was plied by a damsel so lovely and than a journey, or a party of pleasure charming,
than of a poor devil in durance. Upon That she smiled, and so straightway in love his arrival in town, he immediately he did fall;
applied to the lord chief justice Holt for And, would this young damsel but banish his his habeas corpus. As his case was some
thing particular, that eminent and learned He'd wed her to night before to-morrow : And how should this waterman ever know notice of it: for Dogget was not only
minister of the law took a particular care, When he's married and never in want of a
discharged, but the process of his confine fare?
ment (according to common fame) had a
censure passed upon it in court." Tom Tug wins Dogget's coat and “ We see,” says Cibber, “how natubadge under the eyes of his mistress, who rally power, only founded on custom, is sits with her friends to see the rowing- apt, where the law is silent, to run into match from an inn window overlooking excesses; and while it laudably pretends the river; and, with the prize, he wins to govern others, how hard it is to govern her heart.
DOGGET. Colley Cibber calls Dogget“ a prudent, celebrated performer, but through Cibber,
Scarcely any thing is known of this honest man," and relates anecdotes highly with whom he was a joint patentee in to our founder's honour. One of them is Drury-lane theatre.
They sometimes very characteristic of Dogget's good sense
warmly differed, but Cibber respected his and firmness.
The lord chamberlain was accustomed integrity and admired his talents. The to exercise great power over actors. In logy,” are exceedingly amusing, and ine
accounts of Dogget in “ Cibber's Apoking William's reign he issued an order book is now easily accessible, for it forms that no actor of either company should the first volume of “Autobiography, a presume to go from one to the other collection of the most instructive and without a discharge, and the lord cham- amusing lives written by the parties berlain's permission; and messengers themselves;"—a work printed in an ele actually took performers who disobeyed the edict into custody. Dogget was under gant form, and published at a reasonable
price, and so arranged that every life may articles to play at Drury-lane, but con
be purchased separately. ceiving himself treated unfairly, quitted
Cibber says of Dogget, “ He was a the stage, would act no more, and ferred to forego his demands rather than golden actor.—He was the inost an origihazard the tediousness and danger of the nal, and the strictest observer of nature, law to recover them. The manager, wbo
• Autobiography, 182, 18mo. vol. 1. p. 203.
of all his contemporaries. He borrowed ally to raise the price to a 1001. He from none of them; his manner was his settled in Pall-mall in 1774, with fame own; he was a pattern to others, whose and fortune. great merit was, that they had sometimes Gainsborough, while at Bath, was chotolerably imitated him. In dressing a sen a member of the Royal Academy on character to the greatest exactness he was its institution, but neglected its meetings. remarkably skilful; the least article of Sir Joshua Reynolds says, “whether he whatever habit he wore, seemed in some most excelled in portraits, landscapes, or degree to speak and mark the different fancy pictures, it is most difficult to dehumour he presented; a necessary care
termine.” His aërial perspective is unin a comedian, in which many have been commonly light and beautiful. He detoo remiss or ignorant. He could be ex- rived his grace and elegance from nature, tremely ridiculous without stepping into rather than manners; and hence his paintthe least impropriety to make him so. ings are inimitably true and bewitching His greatest success was in characters of Devoted to his art, he regretted leaving lower life, which he improved from the it; just before his death, he said, “he delight he took in his observations of that saw his deficiences, and had endeavoured kind in the real world. In songs and to remedy them in his last works." particular dances, too, of humour, he had No object was too mean for Gainsbono competitor. Congreve was a great rough's pencil; his habit of closely admirer of him, and found his account in observing things in their several particuthe characters he expressly wrote for him. lars, enabled him to perceive their relaIn those of Fondlewife, in his Old Bat- tions to each other, and combine them. chelor,' and Ben, in Love for Love,' By painting at night, he acquired new no author and actor could be more obliged perceptions: he had eyes and saw, and he to their mutual masterly performances.” secured every advantage he discovered.
Dogget realized a fortune, retired from He etched three plates; one for “ Kirby's the stage, and died, endeared to watermen Perspective;" another an oak tree with and whigs, at Eltham, in Kent, on the gypsies; and the third, a man ploughing twenty-second of September, 1721. on a rising ground, which he spoiled in
“ biting in :" the print is rare. NATURALISTS' CALENDAR,
In portraits he strove for natural chaMean Temperature ...64.77.
racter, and when this was attained, seldom proceeded farther. He could have
imparted intelligence to the features of August 2
the dullest, but he disdained to elevate
what nature had forbidden to rise; CHRONOLOGY.
hence, if he painted a butcher in his SunThomas Gainsborough, eminent as a day-coat, he made him, as he looked, a painter, and for love of his art, died on the respectable yeoman; but his likenesses second of August, 1788. His last words were chiefly of persons of the first quality, were, “We are all going to heaven, and and he maintained their dignity. His Vandyke is of the party.” He was buried, portraits are seldom highly finished, and by his own desire, near his friend Kirby, are not sufficiently estimated, for the very the author of the Treatise on “ Perspec- reason whereon his reputation for natural tive,” in the grave-yard of Kew chapel. scenery is deservedly high. Sir Joshua
Gainsborough was born at Sudbury, in gave Gainsborough one hundred guineas Suffolk, in 1727, where his father was a for a picture of a girl and pigs, though clothier, and nature the boy's teacher. its artist only required sixty.* He passed his mornings in the woods Gainsborough had what the world calls alone; and in solitary rambles sketched eccentricities. They resulted rather from old trees, brooks, a shepherd and his his indulgence in study, than contempt Alock, catile, or whatever his fancy seized for the usages of society. It was wel on. After painting several landscapes, for Gainsborough that he could disregara he arrived ir. London and received in the courtesies of life without disturbance structions from Gravelot and Hayman: to his happiness, from those with whom he lived in Hatton-Garden, married a lady manuers are morals. with 2001. a year went to Bath, and painted portraits for five guineas, till the demand for his alent enabled him gradu
A series of “ Studies of Figures” from mense collections. He was reduced to Gainsborough's “Sketch Books," are cre- poverty by the revolution. The French cuted in lithography, in exact imitation invited him to join it as a member; he of his original drawings by Mr. Richard answered," he had no shoes.” This pro Lane. Until this publication, these draw. cured him a small pension, whereon he ings were unknown. Mr. Lane's work subsisted till his death * is to Gainsborough, what the prints in Mr. Otley's “ Italian School of Design," are to Raphael and Michael Angelo.
So early as thirteen years of Each print is so perfect a fac-simile, that son began to write notes on the natural it would be mistaken for the original histories of Aristotle and Pliny; but soon drawing, if we were not told otherwise. quitted books to study nature. He made This is the way to preserve the reputation a collection of thirty-three thousand exist of artists. Their sketches are often bet- ences, which he arranged in a series of ter than their paintings: the elabo- his own. This was the assiduous labour ration of a thought tends to evaporate of eight years. Five years spent at Senegal, its spirit.
gave him the opportunity of augmenting
bis catalogue. He extended his researches NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.
to subjects of commercial utility, explored
the most fertile and best situated districts Mean Temperature . . . 64. 95.
of the country, formed a map of it, fol. lowed the course of the Niger, and
brought home with him an immense colAugust 3,
lection of observations, philosophical, po
litical, moral, and economical, with an CHRONOLOGY.
addition to his catalogue of about thirty Michael Adanson, an eminent natura- thousand hitherto unknown species, which, list of Scottish extraction, born in April, with his former list, and subsequent addi1727, at Aix, in Provence, died at Paris tions brought the whole number to more on the third of August, 1806. Needham, than ninety thousand. at one of his examinations, presented Adanson, then a child, with a microscope, and the use of the instrument gave the The arrangement of Adanson's “ Faboy a bias to the science which he dis- milles des Plantes,” is founded upon the tinguished as a philosopher. His parents principle, “ that if there is in nature a destined him for the church, and obtained system which we can detect, it can only a prebend's stall for him, but he abandon- be founded on the totality of the relations ed his seat, made a voyage to Senegal in of characters, derived froin all the parts 1757, and published the result of his la- and qualities of plants.” His labours are bours in a natural history of that country. too manifold to be specified, but their magThis obtained him the honour of corres- nitude may be conceived from his having ponding member in the Academy of Sci. laid before the academy, in 1773, the plan ences. În 1763, his “ Famille des Plantes" of his “Universal Natural Encyclopædia," appeared; it was followed by a design of consisting of one hundred and twenty an immense general work, which failed manuscript volumes, illustrated by sefrom Louis XV., withholding his patro- venty-five thousand figures, in folio. In nage. He formed the project of a settle- 1776, he published in the “Supplement of ment on the African coast for raising the first Encyclopædia,” by Diderot and colonial produce without negro slavery, D'Alembert, the articles relative to natuwhich the French East India company ral history and the philosophy of the refused to encourage : he refused to sciences, comprised under the letters A. communicate his plan to the English, who, B. C. In 1779, he journied over the after they had become martyrs of Senegal, highest mountains in Europe, whence he applied for it to Adanson, through lord brought more than twenty thousand speNorth. He declined invitations from the cimens of different minerals, and charts courts of Spain and Russia, and managed of more than twelve hundred leagues o as well as he could with pensions derived country. He was the possessor of the from his office of royal censor, his place most copious cabinet in the world. in the academy, and other sources inadequate to the expense of forming his im
• General Biography, vol. i. 17.
Adanson's first misfortune from the gal, Adanson was exceedingly sensible of revolution was the devastation of his ex cold and humidity; and from inhabiting perimental garden, in which he had cul a ground floor, without cellars, in one of tivated one hundred and thirty kinds of the lowest streets in Paris, he was conmulberry to perfection; and thus the tinually labouring under rheumatic affecabour of the best part of his life was tions. The attitude in which he read sverthrown in an instant. One privation and wrote, which was that of his body succeeded another, till he was plunged in bent in an arm-chair, and his legs raised extreme indigence, and prevented from high on each side of the chimney-place, pursuing his usual studies for want of fire contributed to deposit humours upon his and light. “ I have found him in winter loins, and the articulations of his thighs. (says his biographer) at nine in the even. When he had again got a little garden, ing, with his body bent, his head stooped he used to pass whole days before his to the floor, and one foot placed upon plants, sitting upon his crossed legs; and another, before the glimmering of a small he often forgot, in the ardour of study, to brand, writing upon this new kind of go to bed. This mode of life occasioned desk, regardless of the inconvenience of an osseous disease in the right thigh. In an attitude which would have been a tor- January, 1806, as he was standing by his ment to any one not excited by the most fire, he perceived his thigh bend, and inconceivable habit of labour, and inspired would have fallen, had he not been supwith the ecstacy of meditation.”
ported by his devoted domestic. He was Adanson's miserable condition was put to bed, the limb was replaced, and somewhat alleviated by the minister Be- he was attended with the utmost assiduity nezech; but another minister, himself a by the faithful pair, who even tore up man of letters, Francois de Neufchateau, their own linen for his dressings. Except restored Adanson to the public notice, his surgeon, they were the only human and recommended him to his successors. beings he saw during the last six months The philosopher, devoted to his studies, of his life-a proof how little he had culand apparently little fitted for society, tivated friendship among his equals. Nasought neither patron nor protector; and poleon informed of his wretched situation, indeed be seems never to have been sent him three thousand livres, which his raised above that poverty, which was two attendants managed with the greatest often the lot of genius and learning in fidelity. Whilst confined to his bed, he the stormy period of the revolution. His continued his usual occupation of reading obligations to men in power were much and writing, and was seen every morning less than to a humbler benefactor, whose with the pen in his hand, writing without constant and generous attachment deserves spectacles, in very small characters, at honourable commemoration.
arm's length. The powers of his underAnne-Margaret-Roux, the wife of Simon standing were entire when he expired.* Henry, who, in 1783, at the age of twentyeight, became the domestic of Adanson, and from that time to his death, stood in
NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. the place to him of relations, friends, and
.... 04. 25. fortune. During the extremity of his distress, when he was in want of every necessary, she waited upon him during
August 4. the day, and passed the night, without
Long Bowls. his knowledge, in labours, the wages of wbich she employed in the purchase of On the fourth of August, 1739, a farmer coffee and sugar, without which he could of Croydon undertook for a considerable do nothing. At the same time, her hus- wager, to bowl a skittle-bowl from that band, in the service of another master in town to London-bridge,about eleven miles, Picardy, sent every week bread, meat, in 500 times, and performed it in 445 + and vegetables, and even his savings in money, to supply the other wants of the philosopher. When Adanson's accumu
NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. lated infirmities rendered the cares of the
Mean Temperature . . 63.72. wife insufficient, Simon Henry came and assisted her, and no more quitted him.
From the time of his residence at Sene + Gentleman's Magazine
• Dr. Aikin's Athen æum.
Bray, a privy counsellor to king Henry
VI. In the first year of Richard III. St. Jaxes's Day, Old Style. Reginald had a general pardon,
for having It is on this day, and not on St. James's He favoured the advancement of the earl
adhered, it is presumed, to Henry VI. day new style, as mistakingly represented of Richmond to the throne as Henry VII., in vol. i. col. 878, that oysters come in.
who made him a knight banneret, probably OYSTER DAY.
on Bosworth field. At this king's coro
nation he was created a knight of the For the Every-Day Book.
bath, and afterwards a knight of the Greengrocers rise at dawn of sun
garter. August the fifth-come haste away!
Sir Reginald Bray was a distinguished To Billingsgate the thousands run,
statesman and warrior. He served at the 'Tis Oyster Day:-'tis Oyster Day! battle of Blackheath in 1497, on the Now at the corner of the street
Cornish insurrection under lord Audley, With oysters fine the tub is filled ; part of whose estates he acquired by The cockney stops to have a treat
grant. He was coustable of Oakham Prepared by one in opening skilled. castle in Rutlandshire, joint chief justice
of the forests south of Trent, high steward The pepper-box, the cruel,-wait
of the university of Oxford, chancellor of To give a relish to the taste;
the duchy of Lancaster, and high treaThe mouth is watering for the bait Within the pearly cloisters chased.
surer. Distinguished by the royal favour,
he held the Isle of Wight for his life Take off the beard-as quick as thought at an annual rent of three hundred marks,
The pointed knife divides the flesh;- and died possessed of large estates, under What plates are laden—loads are bought a suspicious sovereign who extorted large And eaten raw, and cold, and fresh!
sums from his subjects when there was Some take them with their steak for sauce,
very little law to control the royal will. Some stew, and fry, and scollop well;
His administration was so just as to proWhile, Leperello-like, some toss;
cure him the title of “ the father of his And some in gutting them excel.*
country.” To his skill in architecture we
are indebted for the most eminent ecclePoor creatures of the ocean's wave!
siastical ornament of the metropolis—the Born, fed, and fatted for our prey ;- splendid chapel founded by Henry in his E’en boys, your shells when parted, crave,
lifetime at Westminster; and he conducted Perspective for the“ Grotto day."
the chapel of St. George, at Windsor With watchful eye in many a band
palace, to its completion. The urchina wights at eve appear ; They raise their “ lights" with voice and hand
NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. A grotto comes but once a year !"
Mean Temperature .
.... 63: 47. Then, in some rustic gardener's bed The shells are fixed for borders neat;
August 6. Or, crushed within a dustman's shed,
TRANSFIGURATIon. Like deadmen's bones 'ueath living feet.
*. *. P. For this denomination of the day see • See the supper scene in “ Don Giovanni," - also
vol. i. col. 1071. he Irishman's joke of eating the oysters and taking It is alleged that this festival was his master the shells. Speaking of " Oysters"—the observed at Rome in the fifth century, song sung by Grimaldi senior, “An oyster crossed in love," has been very popular.
though not universally solemnized until in 1457 pope Calixtus III. ordained its
celebration to commemorate the raising CHRONOLOGY.
of the siege of Belgrade by Mahomet II.S Sir Reginald Bray, the architect of king Henry the seventh's chapel, died
NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. August 5, 1503. His family came into
Mean Temperature ...63 • 37. England with
the Conqueror, and Aourished in Northampton and Warwick. shire. He was second son to sir Richard
• Butler. Brady.