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Alps, continue perpetually to increase in Reasonings of this kind are supported bulk. At certain times, in the ice moun- by the greatest names, and countenanced tains of Switzerland, there occur fissures, by the authentic reports of the best in. which show the immense thickness of the formed travellers. Mr. Bradley attributes frozen matter; some of these cracks have the cold winds and wet weather, which measured three or four hundred ells deep. sometimes happen in May and June, to

The great islands of ice, in the northern the solution of ice islands accidentally seas bordering upon Hudson's Bay, have detached and floating from the north. been observed to be immersed one Mr. Barham, about the year 1718, in his hundred fathoms beneath the surface of voyage from Jamaica to England, in the the sea, and to have risen a fifth or sixth beginning of June, met with some of part above the surface, measuring, at the those islands, which were involved in such same time, about a mile and a half in a fog that the ship was in danger of strikdiameler. It has been shown by Dr. ing against them. One of them measur. Lyster, that the marine ice contains some ed sixty miles in length. salt, and less air, than common ice, and On the 22d of December, 1789, there that it therefore is more difficult of solu- was an instance of ice islands having been tion. From these premises, he endea- wafted from the southern polar regions. vours to account for the perpetual aug. It was on these islands that the Guardian mentation of those floating islands. By a struck, at the commencement of her celebrated experiment of Mr. Boyle, it passage from the Cape of Good Hope has been demonstrated that ice evaporates towards Botany Bay. These islands very fast, in severe frosty weather, when were wrapt in darkness, about one hunthe wind blows upon it, and as ice, in a dred and fifty fathoms long, and above thawing state, is known to contain six fifty fathoms above the surface of the times more cold than water, at the same waves. In the process of solution, a degree of sensible coldness, it is easy to fragment from the summit of one of them conceive that winds sweeping over islands broke off, and plunging into the sea, and continents of ice, perhaps much caused a tremendous commotion in the below northing on Fahrenheit's scale, and water, and dense smoke all around it. rushing thence into our latitudes, must These facts were strongly urged upon bring most intense degrees of cold along public attention in the autumn of 1817,* with them. If to this be added the as grounds of not only curious and interquantity of cold produced by the evapo. esting, but likewise of highly important ration of the water, as weil as by the speculation. A supposed change in the solution of ice, it can scarcely be doubted temper, and the very character of our but that the arctic seas are the principal seasons, was deemed to have fallen within source of the cold of our winters, and the observation of even young men, or at that it is brought hither by the regions least middle-aged men; and upon this of the air blowing from the north, and supposition, it was not deemed extravawhich take an apparently easterly direc- gant to anticipate the combined force of tion, by their coming to a part of the the naval world employed in navigating surface of the earth, which moves faster the immense masses of ice into the more than the latitude from which they origi- southern oceans; while to render the nate. Hence, the increase of the ice in notion more agreeable, and to enliven the the polar regions, by increasing the cold minds of such as might think such matters of our climate, adds, at the same time, to of speculation dull or uninteresting, the the bulk of the glaciers of Italy and project was laid before them in a versified Switzerland.

garb, characterising the arctic regione
There in her azure coif, and starry stole,
Grey Twilight sits, and rules the slumbering pole;
Bends the pale moon-beams round the sparkling coast,
And strews, with livid hands, eternal frost !
Theie, Nymphs ! alight, array your dazzling powers,
With sudden march alarm the torpid hours;
On ice-built isles expand a thousand sails,
Hinge the strong helm, and catch the frozen gales;
The winged rocks to feverish climates guide,
Where fainting zephyrs pant upon the tide ;

• See M. Chronicle, 4 Net, '81?

Pass where to Ceuta Calpe's thunder roars,
And answering echoes shake the kindred shores ;
Pass where with palmy plumes Canary smiles,
And in her silver girdle binds her isles;
Onward, where Niger's dusky Naiad laves
A thousand kingdoms with prolific waves,
Or leads o'er golden sands her threefold train
In steamy channels to the fervid main,
While swarthy nations crowd the sultry coast,
Drink the fresh breeze, and hail the floating frost;
Nymphs ! veil'd in mist, the melting treasures steer,
And cool with artic snows the tropic year.
So from the burning line, by monsoons driv'n,
Clouds sail in squadrons o'er the darken'd heav'n,
Wide wastes of sand the gelid gales pervade,
And ocean cools beneath the moving shade.

Darwin.

NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.

this kind which have hitherto appeared in Mean Temperature ...35.05. the work, however signed by initials or

otherwise, have been so authenticated to

the editor's private satisfaction, and he January 16.

is thus enabled to vouch for the genuine

ness of such contributions. HOGMANY.

To the Editor of the Every-Day Book. Mr. Reddock's paper on this subject, Sir. at page 13. has elicited the following In your last number appeared a very letter from a literary gentleman, concern amusing article touching some usages and mg a dramatic representation in England customs in Scotland, and communicated similar to that which Mr. Reddock in- from

from Falkirk. In the description of the stances at Falkirk, and other parts of boys' play, ingeniously suggested as North Britain. Such communications are

typical of the Roman invasion under particularly acceptable; because they show

Agricola, we, however, read but a varied

them to what extent us.iges prevail, and wherein edition of what is enacted in other parts they differ in different parts of the coun.

besides Scotland, and more particularly try. It will be gratifying to every one in the western counties, by those troops who peruses this work, and highly so to of old Father Christmas boys, which the editor, if he is obliged by letters from are indeed brief chronicles of the times. readers acquainted with customs in their

eir I mean, those paper-decorated, brickown vicinity, similar to those that dust-daubed urchins, 'yclept Mummers. they are informed oi in other counties,

To be sure they do not begin, and particularly if they will take the trouble to describe them in every particu- “Here comes in the king of Macedon;" lar. By this means, the Every. Day Book but we have instead. will become what it is designed to be a Here comes old Father Christmas, made,-a storehouse of past and present

Christmas or Christmas not, manners and customs. Any customs of I hope old Father Christmas never will be any place or season that have not already

forgot." appeared in the work, are earnestly solicited

And then for the Scottish leader Galgacus, from those who have the means of fur. nishing the informatior. The only con

we find, dition stipulated for, as absolutely indis

Here comes in St. George, St. George

That man of mighty name, pensable to the insertion of a letter re.

With sword and buckler by my side specting facts of this nature, is, that the

I hope to win the game.” name and address of the writer be communicated to the editor, who will subjoin These “western kernes" have it, you see, such signature as the writer may choose Mr. Editor,“ down along," to use their His letter should bear to the eye of the own dialect, with those of the this:le. public. The various valuable articles of Then, too, we have a fight. Oh! how

beautiful to my boyish eyes were their with a description of a “ metrica, play," wooden swords and their bullying gait! which seems to be the same with whicb --then we have a fight, for lo

is the subject of the preceding letter. “ Here's come I, the Turkish knight, Coine from the Soldan's land to fight,

Being on the popular drama, and as And be the foe's blood hot and bold

the topic arose in Mr. Reddock's commuWith my sword I'll make it cold."

nication from Scotland, a whimsical dra

matic anecdote, with another of like kin A vile Saracenic pun in the very minute from that part of the kingdom, is here subof deadly strife. But they fight-the joined from a Scottish journal of this cross is victorious, the crescent o'erthrown, month in the year 1823. and, as a matter of course, even in our pieces of mock valour, duels we have

New Reudings of Burns. iherein--the doctor is sent for; and he is We were lately favoured with the peruaddressed, paralleling again our players of sal of a Perth play-bill, in which Tam “Scotia's wild domain," with ·

OʻShanter, dramatized, is announced for “ Doctor, doctor, can yon tell

performance as the afterpiece. A ludiWhat will make a sick man well ?”

crous mistake has occurred, however, in

the classification of the Dramatis Perand thereupon he enumerates cures which

sonæ. The sapient playwright, it would would have puzzled Galen, and put Hip

appear, in reading the lines pocrates to a “ non-plus;" and he finally agrees, as in the more classical drama of

“ Tam bad got planted unco richt, your correspondent, to cure our unbeliever

Past by an ingle bleezin' finely,

Wi' teaman' swats that drank divinely," for a certain sum.

The “ last scene of all that ends this very naturally conceiving ream an' swats, strange eventful history' consists in the from the delectable style of their carousentrance of the most diminutive of these ing, to be a brace of Tam's pot compaThespians, bearing, as did Æneas of old, nions, actually introduced them as such, mis parent upon his shoulders, and reciting as we find in the bill that the characters this bit of good truth and joculation (per- of “ Rear” and “ Swats" are to be per. mitting the word) by way of epilogue: sonated by two of the performers ! “ Here comes I, little Johnny Jack,

This reminds us of an anecdote, conWith my wife and family at my back, nected with the same subject, which had Yet, though my body is but small,

its origin nearer home. Some time ago I'm the greatest rogue amongst ye all; we chanced to be in the shop of an elderly This is my scrip—so for Christmas cheer bookseller, when the conversation turned If you've any ihing to give throw it in here." upon the identity of the characters introThis may be but an uninteresting tail. duced by Burns in his Tam O'Shanter. piece to your correspondent's clever com

The bibliopole, who had spent the early munication, but still it is one, and makes par

part of his life in this neighbourhood, asthe picture he so well began of certain

sured us that, “exceptin' Kerr, he kent usages more full of point.

every body to leuk at that was mentionI doat upon old customs, and I love

ed, frae Tam himsel doun to his mare hearty commemorations, and hence those

Maggie.This being the first time we pimics of whom I have written - I mean

had ever heard Mr. Kerr's cognomen althe mummers.--are my delight, and in the

luded to, in connection with Tam O'Shanlaughter and merriment they create I for

ter, we expressed considerable surprise. get to be a critic, and cannot choose but

and stated that he undoubtedly must have laugh in the fashion of a Democritus,

made a mistake in the name. “It may rather than weep worlds away in the style

be sae, but its a point easily sattled," said of a Diogenes.

he, raring down a copy of Burns from I am, &c. &c.

the shelf. With “ spectacles on nose," J. S. jun.

he turned up the poem in question. “Ay, Little Chelsea,

ay," said he, in an exulting tone, “ I Jan. 4, 1826.

thocht I was na that far wrangIn the preface to Mr. Davies Gilbert's

Care mad to see a man sae happy,

E'n drowned himself amang the happy." work on “Ancient Christmas Carols," there is an account of Cornish sports, Now, I kent twa or three o' the kerr's

that leer't in the town-head, but I never faction, from an acre of snow : the effects could fin' out whilk o' them Burns had in of the load thus given to the air were soon his e'e when he wrote the poem.". perceptible. On the 17th, a small bril

siant. meteor descended on the S. E. To Thespian ingenuity we are under

horizon about 6 p. m. On the 18th,

though the moon was still conspicuous, an obligation for an invention of great

the horns of the crescent were obtuse. simplicity, which may be useful on many

On the 19th appeared the Cirrus cloud, occasions, particularly to literary persons

followed by the Cirrostratus. In the who are too far removed from the press to avail themselves of its advantages in

afternoon a freezing shower from the east

ward glazed the windows, encrusted the printing short articles for limited distribu

walls, and encased the trees, the garments tion.

of passengers, and the very plumage of

the birds with ice. Birds thus disabled A Dramatic Printing Apparatus.

were seen lying on the ground in greai Itinerant companies of co edians fre

numbers in different parts of the country. quently print their play-bills by the fol

Nineteen rooks were taken up alive by lowing contrivance : The form of letter is

one person at Castle Eaton Meadow, placed on a flat support, having ledges at

Wilts. The composition of this frozen each side, that rise within about a thir

shower, examined on a sheet of paper, teenth of an inch of the inked surface of

was no less curious than these effects. It the letter. The damped paper is laid

consisted of hollow spherules of ice, filled tipon the letter so disposed, and previously

with water; of transparent globules of inked, and a roller, covered with woollen

hail; and of drops of water at the point cloth, is passed along the ledges over its

of freezing, which became solid on touchsurface; the use of the ledges is to pre.

ing the bodies they fell on. The thervent the roller from rising in too obiuse

mometer exposed from the window indian angle against the first letters, or going

cated 30,5°.' This was at Plaistow. The off too abruptly from the last, which would

shower was followed by a moderate fall cause the paper to be cut, and the im- of snow. From this time to the 24th. pression to be injured at the beginning there were variable winds and frequent and end of the sheet. The roller must falls of snow, which came down on the be passed across the page, for if it moves 22d in Aakes as large as dollars, with in the order of the lines, the paper will sleer at

sleet at intervals. On the 24th a steady bag a little between each, and the impres rain from W. decided for a thaw. This sion will be less neat.t.

and the following night proved stormy:

the melted snow and rain, making about NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.

two inches depth of water on the level, Mean Temperature ...35.65.

descended suddenly by the rivers, and the

country was inundated to a greater extent January 17.

than in the year 1795. The River Lea

continued rising the whole of the 26th, Snow, &c.

remained stationary during the 27th, and

returned into its bed in the course of the On the 16th and 17th of January, 1809, two following days. The various chan Mr. Howard observed, that the snow ex- nels by which it intersects this part of the hibited the beautiful blue and pink shades country were united in one current, above at sunset which are sometimes observa mile in width, which flowed with great able, and that there was a strong evapora- impetuosity, and did much damage. From tion from its surface. A circular area, of breaches in the banks and mounds, the five inches diameter, lost 150 grains troy, different levels, as they are termed, of from sunset on the 15th to sunrise next embanked pasture land, were filled to the morning, and about 50 grains more by the depth of eight or nine feet. The cattle, following sunset; the gauge being exposed by great exertions, were preserved, being to a sinart breeze on the house top. The mostly in the stall; and the inhabitants, curious reader may hence compute for driven to their upper rooms, were relieved himself, the enormous quantity raised in by boats plying under the windows. The those 24 hours, without any visible lique- Thames was so full during this time, that

no tide was perceptible; happily, how• Ayr Courier. # Dr. Aihin's Ath.orum.

ever, its bank suffered no injury; and the

recession of the water from the levels pro- closed with squally weather; which, witli ceeded with little interruption till the 23d the frequent appearance of the rainbow, of February, when it nearly all subsided. indicated the approach of a drier atmoNo lives were lost in these parts; but sphere, a change on few occasions within several circumstar.ces concurred to render Mr. Howard's recollection more desirable. this inundation less mischievous than it Numerous inundations, consequent on might have been, from the great depth o. the thaw of the 24th, appear to have presnow on the country. It was the time of vailed in low and level districts all along neap tide; the wind blew strongly from the east side of the island: but in no the westward, urging the water down the part with more serious destruction of proThames ; while moonlight nights, and a perty, public works, and the hoses of the temperate atmosphere, were favourable to husbandman, than in the fens of Camthe poor, whose habitations were filled bridgeshire: where, by some accounts. with water. On the 28th appeared a 60,000, by others above 150,000 acres of lunar halo of the largest diameter. On land, were laid under deep water, through the 29th, after a fine morning, the wind an extent of 15 miles. Ii is a fact worth began to blow hard from the south, and preserving, that about 500 sacks filled during the whole night of the 30th it raged with earth, and laid on the banks of the with exc.. sive violence from the west, Old Bedford river, at various places, doing considerable damage. The baro- where the waters were then flowing over, meter rose, during this hurricane, one. proved effectual in saving that part of the tenth of an inch per hour. The remainder country from a general deluge. of the noon was stormy and wet, and it

[graphic][subsumed][merged small]

It's a custom at Highgate, that all who go through,
Must be sworn on the horns, sir !--and so, sir, must you !
Bring the lious ! shut the door!-now, sir, take off your hat !..
When you come here again, don't forget to mind thul!

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