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picable. Their separation too, and exemption during the time of these evils, must have had still greater weight. It rendered them more ready to quit a people, from whom they were in so salutary a manner distinguished ; and to embrace a better, and more rational religion, whenever it should be offered.



Ch. ix. ver. 8. And the Lord said unto Moses, and unto Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it towards the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh:

V. 9. And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt, and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains, upon man, and upon beast.

V. 10. And they took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh ; and Moses sprinkled it up toward heaven : and it became a boil breaking forth with blains, upon man, and upon

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V. 11. And the magicians could not stand before Moses, because of the boil: for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians.

1 Ελκη φλυκτιδες. Sept.

This plague, like those, which preceded, was particularly well calculated to confound the Egyptians, and to confirm the faith of the Israelites. For as the latter are not said to have been involved in the calamity, we may fairly infer, that they were exempted from it. This immunity therefore must have increased their confidence in the God of their fathers, and in his servant Moses. This instance likewise of divine punishment was of such a nature, as particularly shewed the baseness and imbecillity of the Egyptian deities, who could neither ward off the evil, when impending; nor afford any alleviation, when it was brought

Yet the Egyptians had many gods, and those of high rank, who were supposed to preside over pharmacy and medicine: and to these the people looked up with great confidence, in all those pains and maladies to which the human frame is liable. Among these deities Esculapius was held in particular honour for his skill in this science. Æsculapius deus medicinæ et medicorum. He was sup



Albricus Philos. p. 928,

posed by many to have been originally a mortal, and to have first found out the art ; and to have taught it in Egypt.

1 Medicinam Ægyptii apud ipsos volunt repertam._Æsculapius Memphitis inter primos hominum numeratur, qui opinione humanâ dii facti sunt. He was particularly worshipped at Memphis. Urbs Memphis præsentiâ numinis Æsculapii clara. Marcellinus, 1. 29. p. 257. Some make Apollo, the same as Osiris, to have invented medicine: and suppose Esculapius to have been his son: and from hence to have obtained his knowledge---Πολλα παρα τε πατρος των εις ιατρικης μαθοντα προσεξευρειν, την τε χειρ8ργιαν και τας των φαρμακων σκευασιας, και ριζων δυναμεις.

Diod. 1. v. p. 341. D. Others affirmed, that he learned the science of Apis.

Ιατρικην-Απιν, Αιγυπτιον αυτοχθονα,---(επινοησαι), μετα δε ταυτα Ασκλεπιον την τεχνην αυξησαι

Others carried the invention of medicine much higher; and supposed that Isis contributed very much to this science. 1 Την Ισιν---φαρμακων πολλων προς υγιειαν ευρετην. Her salutary influence was thought to be very

Pliny, 1. 7. c. 56. p. 414.
Clemens Alex. Strom. 1. 1.

κ. τ. λ.


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3 Diodorus, 1. 1. p. 22.

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prevalent. . • Κατα γας τες υπνες εφιστάμενης διδοναι τοις καμνουσι βοηθηματα προς τας νοσες, και τες υπακασαντας αυτη παραδοξως υγιαινεσθαι, και πολλες μεν υπο των ιατρων δια την δυσκολιαν τε νοσηματος απελπισθεντας, υπο ταυτης σωζεσθαι. συχνους δε παντελως πηρωθεντας τας ορασεις, η τινα αλλών των μερών τα σωματος, όταν προς ταυτην την θεον παταφευγωσιν εις την προυπαρξασαν αποκαθιστασθαι ταξιν. For this goddess used to reveal herself to people in their sleep, when they laboured under any disorder, and afford them relief. Many, who placed their confidence in her influence, were wonderfully restored. Many likewise who had been despaired of, and given over by the physicians, on account of the stubborness of the distemper, were reinstated by this goddess. Numbers, who had been deprived of their eyes, and other organs of their bodies, recovered them by their application to Isis. She was farther reported to have found out a medicine, that would render people immortal : and to have bequeathed all her knowledge to her son Orus; who is said ---την τε ιατρικην καν την μαντικην υπο της μητρος Ισιδος διδαχθηναι---to have learnt the science of physic as well as of prophecy from his mother


Diodorus, 1. 1. p. 22.


* Ibid.

tises upon

Isis. The Egyptians had many books of great antiquity upon this subject : many of which were attributed to Sesorthrus or rather Tosorthrus, who was supposed by some to have been the same as Esculapius above mentioned-' ος Ασκληπιος παρα Αιγυπτιοις εκληθη dsce

largixnv. There was also a king named * Athoth the son of Menis, of still greater antiquity, who is thought to have been the second prince who reigned in Egypt. It is said of him, that he was greatly skilled in all branches of physic; and to have left behind him trea

the structure of the human body.---3 Ιατρικην τε εξησκησεν, και βιβλες ανατομικας συνεγραψεν. . Euseb. Chron. p. 14. Syncellus speaks of these medicinal books of Athoth---και φερονται βιβλοι ανατομικαι, ιατρος γαρ ην. What are stiled books and treatises are supposed to have been originally hieroglyphical writings upon obelisks; or else in the syringes or sacred recesses, which were formed in rocks of Upper

· Eusebii Chron. p. 14. I. 46. See Syncellus, p. 57. * Expressed sometimes Athosthis--- Alabas.

According to Seleucus they amounted to 20,000, according to another person to 36,525. But this is a mistake of the writer, by whom we have it mentioned.-See Jamblichus, sect. 8. 4 Syncellus, p. 54.



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