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diffused, or more solidly estab- they tread on claffic ground, on lished,

the ashes of heroes and patriots, If it had been in the nature of unconscious of their ancestry, igman that we should enjoy liberty, norant of the nature, and almost without the agitations of party, of the name of liberty, and insenthe United States had a right, uro lible even to the passion for it. der these circumstances, to expect Who, on this contrast, can forit: but it was imposible. Where bear to say, it is the modern there is no liberty, they may be Greece that lies buried, that sleeps exempt from party. It will seem forgotten in the caves of Turkish strange, but it scarcely admits a darkness ? It is the ancient doubt, that there are fewer male Greece that lives in remembrance, contents in Turkey, than in any that is still bright with glory, still free (tate in the world. Where fresh in immortal youth. They the people have no power, they are unworthy of liberty, who enenter into no contests, and are not tertain a less exalted idea of its anxious to ksow how they fhall excellence. The nisfortune is, use it. The spirit of discontent that those who profess to be its becomes torpid for want of em. most passionate admirers have, genployment, and fighs itself to rest. erally, the least comprehension of The people feep foundly in their its hazards and impediments : chains, and do not even dream of they expect that an enthusiastic their weight.

They lose their admiration of its nature will recturbulence with their energy, and

oncile the multitude to the irkbecome as tractable as any other someness of its restraints. Deluanimals : a state of degradation, five expectation ! WASHINGin which they extort our scorn, TON was not thus deluded. We and engage our pity, for the mise. have his folemn warning against ry they do not feel. Yet that heart the often fatal propensities of libis a base one, and fit only for a erty. He had reflected, that men Tave's bosom, that would not are often false to their country and bleed freely, rather than submit to their honor, false to duty and such a condition; for liberty with even to their interest ; but mulall its parties and agitations is titudes of men are never long false more desirable than slavery. Who or deaf to their passions ; these would not prefer the republics of will find obstacles in the laws, asancient Greece, where liberty sociates in party. The fellowonce sublified in its excess, its de ships thus formed are more iotilirium, terrible in its charms, and mate, and impose commands more glistening to the last with the imperious, than those of society. blaze of the very fire that consum Thus party forms a state withed it ?

in the state, and is animated by a I do not know that I ought, rivalship, fear, and hatred, of its but I am sure that I do, prefer fuperior. When this happens, those republics to the dozing flave. the merits of the government will ry of the modern Greece, where become fresh provocations and ofthe degraded wretches have suffer fences ; for they are the merits of ed scorn till they merit it, where an enemy.

No wonder then, that


as soon as party found the virtue to express, though my thoughts and glory of WASHINGTON teem with it, my deep abhorrence were obstacles, the attempt was

of that revolution ; its despotism, made, by caluniny, to surmount by the mob or the military, from them both. For this, the great- the first, and its hopocrify of morest of all his trials, we know that als to the last. Scenes have passhe was preparedHe knew that ed there which exceed description, the government must poffefs fuf- and which, for other reasons, i ficient strength from within or will not attempt to describe ; for without, or fall a victim to fac- it would not be poilible, even at tion. This interior strength was this distance of time, and with the plainly inadequate to its defence, sea between us and France, to go unless it could be reinforced from through with the recital of them, without by the zeal and patriot- without perceiving horror gather, ism of the citizens ; and this lat- like a frost, about the heart, and ter resource was certainly as ac almost stop its pulse. That revocessible to President WASHING- lution has been constant in nothTON, as to any chief magistrate ing but its viciffitudes, and its that ever lived. The life of the promises ; always delusive but alfederal government, he confider- ways renewed, to establish philofed, was in the breath of the peo- ophy by crimes, and liberty by the ple’s nostrils : whenever they sword.' The people of France, should happen to be so infatuated if they are not like the modern or inflamed as to abandon its de- Greeks, find their cap of liberty fence, its end must be as speedy, is a soldier's helmet : and, with and might be as tragical, as a con

all their imitation of dictators and ftitution for France.

consuls, their exacteit similitude * While the President to these Roman ornaments, is in thus administering the government, their chains. The nations of Euin so wise and just a manner, as

rope perceive another resemblance, to engage the great majority of in their all conquering ambition. the enlightened and virtuous citi But it is only the influence of zens to co-operate with him for that event on America, and on the its support, and while he indulged measures of the President, that bethe hope that time and habit were longs to my subject. It would be confirming their attachment, the ingratefully wrong to his characFrench revolution had reached ter to be silent in respect to a part that point in its progress, when of it, which has the most signally its terrible principles began to ag- illustrated his virtues. itate all civilized nations. I will The genuine character of that not, on this occasion, detain you revolution is not even yet so well

understood The Government of Mafsachusetts has manifested more than once, and so lately as the last year, a wife discernment of the pernicious tendency of certain ufurping claims by States, and of changes proposed to abolish, under the namo of amending, the Constitution.

The example has had its proper weight to produce, in other States, a like zealous and prompt support of the national Government.

Long may such patriotic zeal continue, and ever may its efforts obtain a like {uccess!


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understood as the di&tates of self. the French revolution has been, preservation require it should be, from the first, hostile to all right The chief duty and care of all and justice, to all peace and order governments is to protect the in fociety; and, therefore, its rights of property, and the tran- very existence has been a state quillity of society, The leaders of warfare against the civilized of the French revolution, from world, and most of all against froe the beginning, excited the poor and orderly republics, For such against the rich : this has made the are never without factions, readyrich poor, but it will never make to be the allies of France, and to the poor rich. On the contrary, aid her in the work of destruction. they were used only as blind in- Accordingly, scarcely any but reAfruments to make those leaders publics have they fubverted. Such masters, first of the adverse party, governments, by shewing in prac, and then of the State, . Thus the tice what republican liberty is, depowers of the State were turned tect French impofture, and shew round into a direction exactly con what their pretexts are not. trary to the proper one, not to, To fubvert them, therefore, preserve tranquillity and restrain they had, besides the facility that violence, but to excite violence by faction affords, the double excitethe lure of power, and plunder, ment of removing a reproach, and and vengeance. Thus all France converting their greatest obstacles has been, and still is, as much the into their most efficient auxiliariese prize of the ruling party as a cap Who then, on careful reflectured ship, and if any right or tion, will be furprised, that the pofíeffion has escaped confifcation, French and their partizans inthere is none that has pot been stantly conceived the desire, and liable to it,

made the most powerful attempts, Thus it clearly appears that, in to revolutionize the American its origin, its character, and its government? But it will hereafter means, the government of that leem strange that their excesses country is revolutionary; that is, should be excused, as the effects not only different from, but di- of a struggle for liberty, and that rectly contrary to, every regular fo many of our citizens should be and well-ordered society. It is a fiattered, while they were insultdanger, similar in its kind, and at ed, with the idea, that our examleast cqual in degree, to that with ple was copied, and our principles which ancient Rome menaced her pursued, Nothing was ever more enemies. The allies of Rome false, or more fascinating. Our were slaves ; and it coít some hun- liberty depends on our education, dred years' efforts of her policy our laws, and habits, to which and arms, to make her enemies even prejudices yield į on the her allics. Nations, a: this day, dispersion of our people on farms, can trust no better to treaties ; and on the almost equal diffusion they cannot even trust to arms, of property ; it is founded on mounless they are used with a spirit rals and religion, whose authority and perseverance becoming the reigns in the heart, and on the in magnitude of their danger. For fuence all these produce on pub


governs rulers.

lic opinion before that opinion ed amiable, but the revolutionary

Here liberty is justice of Paris ; nothing terrible, restraint, there it is violence ; here but the government and justice of it is mild and cheering, like the America. The very name of Pan morning sun of our summer, tripts was claimed and applied in brightening the hills, and making proportion as the citizens had alithe valljes green ; there it is like enated their hearts from America, the fun, when his rays dart pesti- and transferred their affections to lence on the sands of Africa. their foreign corrupter. Party American liberty çalms and re. difcerned its intimate connexion Krains the licentious passions, like of interest with France, and conan angel that says to the winds fummafed its profligacy by yieldand troubled ļas; be fill. But ing to foreign influence, bow has French licențiousness


The views of these allies requipeared to the wretched citizens of red that this country thould en. Switzerland and Venice? Do not gage in war with Great-Britain. their haunted imaginations, even Nothing less would give to France when they wakę, represent her as all the means of annoying this a monster, with eyes that flash dreaded rival: Nothing less would wild firę, hands that hurl thunder- ensure the subjection of America, bolts, a voice that shakes the foun, as a fatellite to the ambition of dation of the hills ? She stands, France : Nothing else could make and her ambition, measures the a revolution here perfectly inevi. earth; she speaks, and an epide- table, mic fury seizes the nations.

For this end, the minds of the Experience is loft upon us, if citizens were artfully infiamed, we deny, that it had seized a and the moment was watched, large part of the American Na- and impatiently waited for, when. tion. It is aş sober, and intelligent, their long heated paflions should as free, and as worthy to be free, be in fusion, to pour, them forth, as any in the world; yet, like all like the lava of a volcano, to other people, we have passions and blacken and consume the peace prejudices, and they had received and government of our country, a violent impulse, which, for a The systematic operations of a time, mised us,

faction under foreign influence. Jacobinism had become here, had begun to appear, and were as in France, rather a fect than a successively pursued, in a manner. party ; inspiring a fanaticism that

too deeply alarming to be soon was equally intolerant and conta forgotten, Who of us does not gious. The delusion was general remember this worst of evils in enough to be thought the voice of this worst of ways ? Shame would the people, therefore claiming au- forget, if it could, that, in one of thority without proof; and jeal- the States, amendments were propus enough to exact acquiescence pofed to break down the Federal without a murmur of contradiction. Senate, which, as in the State Some progress was made in train Governments, is a great bulwark ing multitudes to be vindiétive and of the public order. To break ferocious. To then nothing seem- down another, an extravagant ju


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diciary power was claimed for life was unspotted like his fame, States. In another State a rebel- and how his death was worthy of lion was fomented by the agent his life, are so many diftinet fubof France : And who, without jects of instruction, and each of fresh indignation, can remember, them fingly more than enough for that the powers of Government ap elogium. I leave the task howwere openly usurped ; troops levi ever to history and to pofterity ; ed, and ships fitted out to fight they will be faithful to it. for her? Nor can any true friend · It is not impoflible, that some to our Government confider with will affect to consider the honors out dread, that, soon afterwards, paid to this great patriot by the the treaty making power was nation, as exceflive, idolatrous, boldly challenged for a branch of and degrading to freemen, who the government, from which the are all equal. I answer, that reconititution has wisely withhold-fusing to virtue its legitimate hon

ors would not prevent their being I am oppressed, and know not lavished, in future, on any worthhow to proceed with my subject- less and ambitious favorite. If WASHINGTON, blessed be this day's example should have its God! who endued him with wis- natural effect, it will be falutary. dom and clothed him with power Let such honors be so conferred

-WASHINGTON issued his only when, in future, they shall Proclamation of Neutrality, and, be so merited : Then the public at an early period, arrested the in- sentiment will not be misled, nor trigues of France and the paffons the principles of a juft equality of his countrymen, on the very corrupted. The best evidence of edge of the precipice of war and reputation is a man's whole life. revolution.

We have now, alas ! all WASHThis act of firmness, at the haza INGTON's before us. There ard of his reputation and peace, has scarcely appeared a really great entitles him to the name of the man, whofe character has been first of patriots. Time was gain- more admired in his life time, or ed for the citizens to recover their less correctly understood by his virtue and good fenfe, and they admirers. When it is comprefoon recovered them. The crisis hended, it is no easy task to dewas passed, and America was sav. lineate its excellencies in such a ed.

manner, as to give to the portrait You and I, most respected fel both interest and resemblance. low-citizens, should be sooner tir. For it requires thought and study ed than satisfied in recounting the to understand the true ground of particulars of this illustrious man's the superiority of his character life.

over many others, whom he reHow great he appeared, while fembled in the principles of ache administered the Government, tion, and even in the manner of how much greater when he retir- acting. But perhaps he excels all ed from it, how he accepted the the great men that ever lived, in chief military command under his the steadiness of his adherence to wife and upright fucceffor, how his his maxims of life, and in the uni


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