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Its specific gravity is also the over the great Atlantic Ocean, fame with distilled water. This paffing, before they reach Lon. water, as well as the other, is , don, over part of Great Britain carried in wooden pipes under for about two hundred miles, the streets into the houses of the and over Ireland when they veer inhabitants.

to the north. They are gener: There are fprings found on ally moist, although much drier digging every where in the town, than when they arrive at the weft which might yield large quanti- coast of the inland, The ba. ties of water ; these were for . rometer is generally low when merly used, but are now little they blow. They are commonemployed, because the supply ły moft prevalent in February, Sep from the Thames and New Riv- tember, November and December er is much cheaper. The waters The easterly winds blow over the of these springs contain a small large continent of Europe ; they portion of sea salt, and a larger are always dry, The barometer quantity of magnesia vitriolata, is high when they blow. They to as to be fenfible to the taste, are most prevalent in January, and so as, in some places, to act March, and the beginning of as a purgative. They also con- April.

April

. They are cold, excepe tan gas; sometimes in quantity fometimes when they blow in fufficient to give them briskness, July and August while the and render them agrecable to the wefterly winds are almost always taste.

warm, except in November, if Rain water is never ufed, be they verge to the north. ing always very impure, from the The heat of the air is very duft which it washes from the variable, feldom remaining equal tops of the houses. The whole for many days; and every year supply of water, from aqueducts differing entirely from the preand engines, is 109,440 cubic ceding ones, not only in heat, feet in an hour,

but also in moisture and rains. The valley through which the Sometimes the winter is feverely Thames runs, is gravelly, gener.. cold, with froft from November ally dry, and not marshy till till May, with little interruption. about a mile below the town, Sometimes the water is not the water in the river being con- frozen for more than ten or fined between its banks. The twelve days. Most commonly, hills or risings, on which the there is a litęle frost in Novem. principal part of the town stands, ber and December, but otherwise are mofly a mixture of clay and these months are usually very fand, the fand or gravel general. foggy and moist

. The princily being in rather the largeft pal froft generally is in January. proportion. In some places the February is commonly a mild, soil is gravel.

open, moist month. March is The winds from the southwest generally cold and dry. The to northwest, and from southeast summer months vary as much : to northeast, are the most preva. Sometimes there are three months lent. The wefterly winds blow very warın; sometimes not more

than

than a week : the latter half of great communication seldom lessJuly, is commonly the hottest. than thirty in the old part of the In August, heavy rains often fall, town; in the new part, most of especially the last half of the them are not less than forty.In month. The thermometer some- several places there are squares times rises to above 80° of Fah- of a considerable size, i. e. from renheit's scale, very rarely to about 100 to 1900 feet square. 86°, but the most common fum- The streets are well paved, and mer heat is from 65 to 70°; it clean, notwithstanding the imfometimes falls in the winter to mense quantity of horse-dung 15° ; it has been known to fall constantly falling upon them. below the point marked O, but The houses, except most of very rarely. The most common those in the oldest part of the winter heat when it freezes, is town, which are not more than between 29 and 30°; the most a quarter of the whole, have a frequent when it does not freeze, ftory funk under the level of the between 40 and 50°..

street. This contains the kitch, ,: The air when dry is always en and other offices. Below the loaded with, and often obscured level of the bottom of this story by dust, which consists of ashes a covered canal is dug under the and foot arising from pit-coal, street, with which there is a the fuel which is commonly communication from the houses, burnt ; horse-dung, produced and by which putrescent matters and ground to small powder, by fufficiently fluid are carried off. the numerous carriages drawn Ashes, bones, &c. are conveyed · by horses, with which the streets away in carts twice a-week. The are always crowded ; powder of greatest part of the houses are of granite and fints, which form a uniform structure ; in each stothe streets and roads, and are sy a large room in front ; a ground extremely fine by, the smaller room and the stair-casę wheels of the carriages. — These occupy the back part ; and there powders, with various others, is frequently a smaller room adpenetrate the houses every where, ded behind. There are conand undoubtedly enter the tra- monly four stories, beside the chea, adhere to the surface of the one under the level of the street. lungs, and not uncommonly pro- The town is fully inhabited ; duce cough, with difficulty of there is hardly a house unoccubreathing in people first coming pied. from the country.

The number of inhabitants is The streets are generally wide, very little known : calculations few of them so narrow as to pre- of various kinds have been made vent two carriages from pasling, by many authors, but these have

of them wide enough been founded on elements ento allow five or more to pass; tirely conjectural, and are there, especially in new parts of the fore of no use. As far as my town, which form more than own opinion goes, and nothing half of it, they are from sixty better than opinion can be formto twenty feet wide ; those of ed in this case, they are about a

million.

and many

million. They consist of classes not a little to the spreading of living in very different manners, this infection.

this infection. Notwithstanding The first clafs includes those the diseases of the women of living on their paternal fortune, this class are frequent, yet they or riches suddenly acquired, are seldom fatal, so that they of comprehending a few merchants. ten live to a great age. The women of this class live The men of the first class are almost constantly in their houses, much in the air in the morning, which are very close, although and use exercise. They live in the rooms are spacious, and the the country part of the year, whole house perfectly clean and when they are often occupied in neat, or in carriages, with no hunting and shooting. With labour, and little exercise. This fome exceptions, they are of gives them a delicacy in their constitutions fufficiently strong ; appearance, hardly to be de- are seldom diseased ; their dirfcribed. As a lower brought cases are strong and marked, and forward' by the cherishing heat they bear the operation of pow. of a conservatory, where it is de erful remedies. fended from the nipping winds, The men, who are menial ferexceeds any thing produced by vants of this class, like the donature alone, like it, they toomestic slaves of the ancients, are have a tenderness of constitu- idle, lazy; use little exercise ; tion, which fubjects them to dif none when they can avoid it ; ease from the lightest exposure they are thus rendered irritable; in any cause.

and being often exposed to all Their situation, however, pre- the inclemency of the weather vents them from being often ex- in the winter season, often till posed to infection or sudden cold, three or four o'clock in the which are the greatest causes of morning, they are exceedingly violent diseases in the metropo- subject to diseasc, particularly of lis. Their complaints therefore the thorax ; and few of them are generally flight, and very ir- attain to any great age, except regular ; nor can they bear medi- those of the higher ranks. The cines in any way of a rough na. women-fervants resemble, in their ture: their disorders must there constitutions, their mistresses. fore be touched with the flight The clergy are fewer here eft hand. This has often pro- than in almost any other country duced an imbecility of practice, in Europe. They are very apt not only in London, but through- to be affected with hypochonout the kingdom, which first in- driacal complaints ; but being in feets the medical people, who general regular in their manner are immediately employed in dif- of living, they often attain to a orders of this class. Although great age.-The lawyers who there may sometimes perhaps be are occupied in business, are offound one or two among these, ten, from their great attention who are not the most learned or and labour of mind, weak, and judicious practitioners, yet they disordered in the prima via, are the richest, which contributes (stomach and bowels) those who

are

are not employed, may be con ner of life, but they are muchi Gidered as in the same state with confined to their houses, especial the independent gentlemen. ly the women of this class, which

Physicians are so few, that it is renders them irritable, and subhardly worth enumerating them. ject to disease, often violent and

There are not much above two fatal. Nor is that part of the hundred in all, and not near men, whose business calls them half that number are employed abroad, lefs subject to morbid in practice. Except when they affecțion, so that they rarely atare cut off by infectious fevers, țain to great old age. before they are habituated to in The laft class consists of the fection, although often diseased, working part of the manufacphysicians generally attain a con- turers, and labourers of all deliderable age.--Attornies and nominations ; who, with some apothecaries are to be consider- exceptions, are the most disored, in their manner of life and derly, profligate, debauched set constitutions, in the order of of human beings perhaps on the tradesmen.

whole earth; working hard, and Merchants and traders of con- being dexterous in their occupafequence form the next class. tions, and of course earning

The women of this class live a large sums of money, which regular life, going to bed gener- they spend in drinking, expofally before midnight, and rising ing themselves at the fame time about nine in the morning. Moft to the inclemency of the weather; families have villas near town, always idle while they have any where the women pass much of money left, so that their life is their time, efpecially during the spent between labour and attenfummer feason. They are much tion above their powers, and permore in the air, and consequent- fect idleness and debauchery. ly have neither the delicacy nor Their women alfo, paffing from afthe irritability of the class we fuence to diftrefs almost every liave first enumerated; they enjoy week, are forced, although foa niuch better state of health; berly inclined, to lead a very their difeases are more regular, disorderly life. Pulmonary comand they bear the action of pow. plaints are more particularly com.. erful remedies. Of the men of mon and fatal in this class, as this class, fomo lead a sedentary well as all other diseases. life; their time is much employ London is fatal to infants in ed in writing, generally leaning general. On a comparison of on their breasts ; fuch are fubject charity children fent to be nurfto complaints in the prima vie ; ed in the environs, with those others of them ufe exercise, ef- nursed in town, it appeared the pecially on horfeback, and often lofs in town being 39, was only "fleep in the country : all of them, 29 in the fame number and time in point of eating, are luxurious. in the country. But if this lofs

The lesser tradesmen, shop- is great altogether, it is tremen: keepers, and manufacturers, are dous among the lowest claffesa fober and regular in their man the mothers being almost always

obliged

obliged to labour for their bread, which they hope to prevent their and often even robbed by their having charge of many children. husbands, have no time left to This pernicious practice goes take the care necessary for the even to some mothers of the rearing of infants, so that they ranks above this; while mothers are often left to wallow in dirt, in the higher ranks refuse the notwithstanding the general dif- natural sultenance to their inposition to cleanliness in this fants, leaving them often to the country, and can never receive

care of strangers regardless of that exercise, or purity of the motherly affection. From all air, which is requisite ; nor can thefe caufes, the loss of children their food be at all attended to. in London is more than one Add to this a pernicious practice half, before they attain the fifth of continuing to give them suck year of their age. for even two or three years, by .

TO THE EDITOR OF THE COLUMBIAN PHENIX.

SIR,

In the course of last summer I .published a series of thort Elfays, principally on American liturature, under the title of the EAGLE. I purposed to have continued them, but other avocations prevented.

I have re-assumed my pen, and send you an additional number, with those which have already appeared. Should

you
think my productions of any service to

your Magazine, they shall be continued. If you choofe to publish the series uninterrupted, you are welcome to the whole : if not, you may begin with the original number. Whether I am of any service to you or not, fuccess to your laudable efforts for the public good, will continue to be the lincere wish of

THE AUTHOR.

$

THE E A G L E. No. I. MR. RUSSELL, FOR fome time past I have continue their numbers, I thould been an attentive reader of your not think of occupying even a paper, and am highly pleafed corner in your Gazette. Whenwith the manner in which it has ever you are not furnished with been conducted. A number of materials of greater moment, the the original pieces which have productions of my pen shall be lately appeared in it, do honour at your service, if you think to the authors and their country. them worthy of a place. I canWere Laocoon, and your other not pledge myself for punctual. Late spirited correspondents,' to ity ; but you shall have no rea

fon

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