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tort the elements, for new difcovcapital, infested and overrun with eries, useful only to the specula- a diffolute horde of lazaroni, prey. tive theorist, and prized only for ing upon the wealth of individu. the labor they cost. His element als, and levying an enormous tar was man. The advancement of on a too generous public, to which focial happiness and order, his ob- they had become, not only bur. ject. In this he has done, not so densome, but formidable. When much as a nation of philosophers, we see this miserable rabble, al. of a very different cast, have un- ways viewed with contempt, comdone, but perhaps more than has monly, by a fatal error, as past rebeen performed by any of his con- form, fit only for the gloomy tentemporaries, of whatever descrip- ants of a prison,and subjects for letion.
gal punishment- When we fee The man, who should discover them, not by a miracle, but by the process, to extract a whole- the most consummateeffort of hufome, nutritive liquor from the man prudence, reclaimed from dregs and fæces of a foul calk, their abandoned habits, to the would be justly entitled to lasting cheerful paths of honeft inpraise. How much more then is dustry,adding wealth and strength due to him, who has discovered to the community, to which they and executed the plan of purify. had been an insupportable burden ing the dregs of society, and ren- -in short, regenerated from li. dering them capable of preserv. centious beggars, to honest, indufing themselves, and adding trious citizens-When we conftrength, fpirit, and duration, to template this truly interesting the whole? Of harmonizing its scene, we cannot withhold from waring elements, and calling the principal actor, the highest enorder out of its chaos? This has comiums, which man can bestow been the happy and honorable on man. This seene has been acte employment of Count Rumford, ed in Bavaria. It has certainly and it was worthy his pursuit. more intrinfic merit-is more inNature made him a nobleman: teresting to rich and poor, rulers and a generous, and discerning and ruled, than all the dramas Prince, was proud to mark her that ever drew the involuntary distinction with the ceremonial of bursts of applause, from an ap. his seal.
proving audience, To the hon. The Essays of Count Rumford or of America, its author, and are fraught with maxims, moral, principal actor, was Count Rumprudential and politic, at once ford, a native of our foil. While profound and practical. Had he Europe may justly consider him only projected, what he has actu. as one of her greatest benefactors, ally put in execution, he would we have only to regret, that he have been entitled to the respect did not make his native country of mankind, to the veneration due the scene of those improvments, to a found philofopher. When which his correct and elegant pen we take a survey of the Electorate has given us in narrative. But if of Bavaria, especially Munich its we have not the benefit of his
great and benevolent exertions, pecially to those responsible genwlay should we not profit by his tlemen, who are appointed everlaudable example? It is worthy feers of the poor. This respectaour emulation. Easily reduced ble class of citizens, might juftly to practice, especialy in New Eng- consider them as necessary to the land.
Where it is more difficult, faithful discharge of their functhere is greater neceflity for put- tions, as the laws, prescribing ting it in execution. In almost their duty. They would find in every county town, even in the them the greatest stimulus, and Northern states, there are some the best directions for puttiug fickle unfortunate, idle inhabitants those laws in execution. The regwho need only the ineans of em ulations of many focieties of the ployment, and the parental au Friends or Quakers, in this counthority of active, judicious over try, especially at Philadelphia, seers, to teach them that “hon- prove that the example of Count esty is the best policy," and in Rumford is not impracticable in dustry the constant and rational America. Were the most humfource of pleasure. In most of ble town to pursue this example our sea ports, there are many dif- with spirit and perseverance, it solute vagabonds, who need only would raise itself to an envious proper institutions, and the exer distinction. Were our capital seation of respectable, active and in- ports feriously to adopt the meaterested citizens to restore them sutes pursued at Munich, they to themselves and to fociety. The would become the worthy patterns disease is increasing. The cure
of imitation for the country. Excan never be attempted with ample would produce emulation; greater probability of success then emulation a happy reform. The at present. The laws have in- most formidable opposers of our velted every town with powers government will ever be found in ample for the purpose. The par- the higher ranks of life; their ticular, methodical and conspic- most dangerons instruments in the uous account of the plan, execu lowest grades of society. Its filtion and success, pursued by Count thy dregs will ever fofter the tools Rumford, at Munich, on a large of faction, and its outlaws afford ger scale, minutely detailed in his a standing corps of jacobins.--Effays, may serve in many re Count Rumford'has discovered a fpects, as a model for our muni- method of training up these in cipalities, on a smaller plan. the discipline of order, the Ichool Those Effays in every point of of utility, more sure, more safe, view, are so congenial to the ge- more. honorable to humanity, and nius of America-the pursuit of more useful to fociety thin the useful objects that they cannot discipline of the whip, the prison, be too highly recommended to or the pillory. It is, first to make every class of citizens, more ef- them happy, then virtuous.
[EXTRACT FROM ST. PIERRE.] REPLIES TO THE OBJECTIONS AGAINST DIVINE
EWTON, who pursued his which the model is not in nature.
Nature 10 profoundly, never pro- the reasons which nature has fupnounced the name of God, with- plied. God must, therefore, ne out moving his hat, and other- cessarily exist, were it but for this, wise expressing the most devout shat man has an idea of him. But respect. He took pleasure in re if we attentively confider, that ev. calling this fublime idea, even in ery thing, neceflary to man, exists his moments of conviviality, and in a molt wonderful adaptation to considered it as the nutural bond his necessities, for the Atroiigest of of union among all nations. Cor- all reasons, God likewise must er. neille le Bruyn, the Dutch pain- ist, he who is the universal adaptater, relates, that happening to dine tion of all the societies of the huone day at his table, in company with several other foreigners, New But I should wish to know, in ton, when the dessert was served what way, the persons who doubt up, proposed a health to the men of his existence,on a review of the of every country who believe in works of nature, would desire to God. This was drinking the be assured of it? Do they will health of the human race. Is it that he should appear under a possible to conceive, that so many human form, and assume the fignations, of languages and man ure of an old man, as he is paintners lo
very different, and, in ma ed in our churches? They would ny cases, of an intelligence fo con- say, this is a man. Were he to tracted, should believe in God, if invest himself with some unknown that belief were the result of some and celestial form, could we in a tradition, or of a profound, met- human body support the fight? aphysical difquisition ? It arises The complete and unveiled diffrom the spectacle of nature fim- play of even a single one of his ply. A poor Arabian of the works on the earth, would be sufdesert, ignorant as most of the ficient to confound our feeble orArabians are, was one day asked, gans. For example, if the earth How he came to be assured that wheels round its axis, as is suppo there was a God? “ In the same fed, there is not a human being way," replied he, “ that I am a. in existence, who from a fixed ble to tell, by the print impressed point in the Heavens, could view on the sand, whether it was a man the rapidity of its motion without
a beast which passed that horror; for he would behold rit. way."
ers, oceans, kingdoms whirling It is impossible for man, as has about under his feet, with a ve been said, to imagine any form, locity almost thrice as greatas tha: or tu produce a single idea of of a cannon ball. But even the
(wiftness of this diurnal rotation is When fome striking truth, or a mere nothing : For the rapidi- fome affecting sentiment, happens ty, with which the globe describes to lay hold of the audience at a its annual circle, and hurls us theatre, you
see some melted into -sound the sun, is feventy five times tears, others almost choaked with greater than that of a bullet shot an oppreffed respiration, others from the cannon. Were it but quite in a transport, clapping their pollible for the eye to view thro' hands, and stamping with their the skin, the mechanism of our feet ; the females in the boxes acown body, the fight would over- tually fainting away. Were these whelm us.
Durit we make a violent agitations of spirit to go single movement, if we saw our on progressively but for a few blood circulating, the nerves pul- minutes only, the persons fubject ling, the lungs blowing, the hu- to them might lose their reason, mours filtrating, and all the in- perhaps their life. What would comprehensible allemblage of fi- be the cafe, then, if the fource of bres, tubes, pumps, currents, piv all truth, and of all feeling, were ots, which sustain an existence, at to communicate himself to us in a once so frail and fo presumptuous. mortal body? God has placed us
Would we wish, on the contra at a suitable distance from his in. ry, that God should manifeft him finite majesty ; near enough to self in a manner more adapted to have a perception of it, but not so his own nature, by the direct and near as to be annihilated by it. immediate communication of his He veils his intelligence from us intelligence, to the exclufion of under the forms of matter; and every intervenient mean?
he restores our confidence respectArchimedes, who had a mind ing the movements of the matericapable of such intense application, al world by the sentiment of his as not to be disturbed from his intelligence. If at any time he is train of thought, by the fack of pleased to communicate himself Syracuse, in which he lost his life, in a more intimate manner, it is went almost distracted, from the not through the channel ofhaughfimple perception of a geometri- ty science, but through that of our cal truth, of which he suddenly yirtue. He discloses himself to caught a glimpse. He was pon- the simple, and hides his face dering, while in the bath, the from the proud. means of discovering the quantity “ But,” it is asked, “ What of alloy which a rascally gold- made God? Why thould there smith had mixed in Hiero's gol- be a God? Am I to call in quefden crown ; and having found it, tion his existence, because I am infrom the analogy of the different capable of comprehending his orweight of his own body, when in igin? This style of reasoning the water,and out of it, he sprung would enable us to conclude, that from the bath, naked as he was, man does not exist : For, who and ran like a madman through made men ? Why should there the streets of Syracuse, calling out, be men? Why am I in the world I have found it! I have found it ! in the eighteenth century? Why
did I not arrive in some of the a- would be impossible to suppose ges which went before ? And, that any thing had been derangwherefore should I not be here in ed: Every brook, every plant, those which are to come ? The ex- every animal, would always be in istence of God is at all times ne its place. Indolent and haughty ceffary, and that of man is but Philosopher, who presumest to decontingent. Nay, this is not all ; mand of nature, wherefore there the existence of man is the only should be a God, why demandelt existence apparently superfluous thou not rather wherefore there in the order established upon the should be men ? earth. Many islands have been All his works speak of their audiscovered without inhabitants, thor. The plain which gradualwhich presented abodes the most ly escapes from my eye, and the enchanting, from the disposition capacious vault of heaven which of the valleys, of the waters of the incompaffes me on every fide, woods, of the animals.
convey to me an idea of his imlone deranges the plans of nature: mensity; the fruits suspended on He diverts the current from the the bough within reach of my fountain ; he digs into the side of hand, announce his providential the hill; he sets the forest on fire; care ; the voice of the tempeft be massacres without mercy every proclaims his power ; the com thing that breathes ; every where itant revolution of the seasons he degrades the earth, 'which displays his wisdom ; the variety could do very well without him. of provision which his bounty
The harmony of this globe makes, in every climate, for the would be partially destroyed, per- wants of every thing that lives haps entirely so, were but the the stately port of the forests, the smallest, and, seemingly, most in- soft verdue of the meadow, the fignificant, genus of plants to be grouping of plants, the perfume suppressed ; for its annihilation and enamel of flowers, and infiwould leave a certain space of nite multitude of harmonies, ground deftitute of verdure, and known and unknown, are the thereby rob of its nourishment magnificent languages which the species of infect which there speak of him to all men, in a found the support of life. The thousand and a thousand differ. destruction of the infect, again, ent diale&ts. would involve that of the species Nay, the very order of Nature of bird, which in these alone finds is superfluous : God is the only the food proper for their young ; Being whom disorder invokes, and so on to infinity. The total and whom human weakness anruin of the vegetable and animal nounces. In order to attain the kingdoms might take its rife from knowledge of his attributes, we the failure of a single moss, as we need only to have a feeling of may see that of an edifice com. our own imperfections. Oh! how mence in a small crevice. But sublime is that if the human race existed not, it congenial to the heart of Man,