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If we have men of such tal

a fupport among us, virtue is cera ents, why are they dormant, or tainly an exotic in our foil ; it where could they be called to a is time it was hidden from its more useful station ?- If a paper, shame by the forest, and re-peo. conducted by such abilities, and pled by its native favages. on such principles, could not find

kokia ON LIBERTY. “ LIBËRTÝ has been, by losophy, or intemperate zeal, to forced and elaborate construc- guide the interpretation of this tionsfo often perverted from much-abused term ; unanimity in its rational signification, that it its definition would of neceshty niay not be unprofitable to search follow. An inquiry, therefore, for a fair and impartial definition under such aufpices; must be in: of its just and true meaning. (tructive. Led away by this fascinating « The first notion of liberty, idol, the most absurd and specula- which suggests itself to the intive theories hare been advanced quiring mind, is that which may, concerning it, by persons of su- be considered as an attribute of perior abilities: new-fangled no its existence; and which

may tions and rules of conduct have and is, collected under the opa been furreptitiously, and, indeed, posite term of the natural liberty openly introduced by artful and of mankind ;-a precious and designing men; while ignorance inestimable gift bestowed upon has eagerly adopted the one or his creatures, by the kindness of the other, as the popular ithpref- an Almighty Being, as the evifion of the moment has favoured dence of their free will ! the principles of either. Plain “ A definition, fo correct and sense and integrity mnight, if con- gratifying to the free spirit of {ulted, have readily detected the mankind, could not fail of profophiftry of refined and sub- curing profelytes in every descriptle disquisitions ; or removed tion of persons, in every station the flimsy veil of artifice and of life. And hence arise those cunning; but the generality of serious and false propagations mankind, looking no further than of systems, deducing, indeed, the surface, seemingly strewed their origin from this source, with flowers, heed not the preci- but materially varying in their pice so lightly covered. They consequences. If, indeed, reeagerly court' the ruin which flection were to lead the exo awaits them ; and eventually are amination one step farther, this surprised at their precipitate de- unqualified assumption would struction, attributing to misfor be immediately detected; for as tune that fate, which, in fact, this liberty is primarily only rewas the consequence of wilful strained by the feeble barrier of and unreflecting misconduct. If natural law, it would seem, that reason, then, were instead of phi- this almost unlimited power of

action

action could hardly be consistent ations of public utility, or genwith, or conducive to, either the eral advantage. It is surely sufgencral or private interelts officient, that his natural prerogamankind, since against this nat- tive, in all cases of importance, ural law, our pasions and inclinaa is not only respected, but estabtions are always at variance : and lished : his rights, not only deagainst which, of vcceslity, the fined and clearly ascertained, but violations would more frequent- also protected his perfon, his ly, under such circumstances, be property, and his life 'secured. practised with impunity. And, To obtain this desirable end, can indeed, the least consideration the sacrifice of a few trivial and might carry conviction of this infignificant particulars be said to truth; since

every individual be- contract his sphere of action ? ing equally entitled, as ourselves, On the contrary, it may be to the fame uncontrolled power contended, that such restraints of acting, it would inevitably fol; virtually extend, rather than low, that our enjoyments of these abridge, his privileges. A con. natural rights could neither be formity, then, to such established secure or permanent. The inef. rules of civilized society, cannot ficacy and inexpediency, there, but be conducive to our own prifore, of this species of liberty is vate interests, as they are to the clearly demonstrable upon these general advantage of that commugrounds. It has been properly pity, of which we are a compocharacterized under the term of nent part. wild and savage liberty, in con “ And liberty, true genuine tradistinction to that which is libérty, may be said to reside in called political liberty ; from that well-ordered government, which we are to enjoy the bles- whose measures are those of polings of civil liberty ; and by icy and justice ; in which our which thofe natural rights should natural rights are neither cironly be so far restrained, as to cumscribed by oppressive or unmake them fubfervient to the necessary restrictions, or by arbigeneral advantage of the com trary power ; but, on the contra. munity at large.

ry, where such legislative regula“ The sacrifice of such a por- tions only prescribe a rational tion of this natural liberty as rule of conduct, and secure the is essentially requisite for this enjoyment of those blessings of purpose, is the price which every freedom, which reason and momember of civilized society pay's rality teach and inculcate as the for the protection and participa- birthright of mankind. Libertion of the benefits such regula- ty, in such a State, may in one tions afford. It is true, in some word be defined, as the right of instances, its rules may refcind every subject.” or curtail the gratification of patticular desires or rights; but the Quodcuique facere libet nisi qua a man must be selfish, who can fo

jure prohibitur." partially consider his own private intércits as opposed to consider

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In Sweden the Swallows pafs In other places, Swallows conthe winter under the ice. At ceal themselves in caverns, or unthe approach of winter they der rocks. Between the Caen plunge themselves into the lakes, and the sea, along the river and remain there buried alleep Orme, there are many caverns, till the spring returns. On feeling where clusters of Swallows are the warmth of the sun, they im- found hanging in the form of merge and take wing. While grapes. The fame observation the lakes are frozen, if the ice has long since been made in Itabe broken where it appear most ly. Albinovanus, in the elegant black, large heaps of Swallows Elegy which he wrote on the are seen, lying buried asleep, and death of Mæcenas, describes the half dead. On taking them Swallows retiring to the rocks, as out, and carrying them near the a sign of the approach of winter. fire, or chafing them between the hands, they will revive, and Conglaciantur aqua, fcopulis fe con

dit hirundo : make a quick use of their wings. Verberat egelidas garrula, vere laThe common people entertain an opinion, that the lakes of Swe

Frost binds the streams, in rocks the den have a power of changing Swallows lie : the leaves which fall upon them In spring to cooling Itreams they in the autumn into Swallows. twittering fly.

cus.

90

BIOGRAPHY OF COUNT ALEXANDER

SUWOROW RIMNIKSKI,* Field Marfbal General in the Service of His Imperial Majesty the

Emperor of all the Rusias.

.(From a London publication.] The family of this able, ex- was rewarded by the Czars of that perienced, and fortunate Warrior, period with lands and peasants. was originally from Sweden, and Basil Suworow, the father of of a noble descent. The first of the Field Marshal, was godfon his name settled in Russia the of Peter the First. latter end of the last century ; held in high estimation for his and having engaged in the wars political knowledge, as well as against the Tartars and the Poles, extensive erudition ; and enjoyed

F * For the principal facts contained in this account we are indebted to “ The History of the Campaigns of Marshal Suworow," 2 vols. 8vo. printed for }. Wright, Piccadilly, and “ Histoire des Campagnes du Comte Alexandre Suworow Rymnikiki,” , vols. 8vo. pripted for Jordan, Hookham, New Bond-street,

He was

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at his death the twofold rank of Corporal ; two years after, he General and Senator.

obtained some farther advance. ALEXANDER BASILOWITCH ment, which was soon followed Suworow, the hero now under by his promotion to the rank of our consideration, was born in Serjeant. During this period the year 1730.

His father had he was employed as a courier in destined him to the robe ; but Poland and Germany. In 1754 his earlier inclinations impelled be quitted the guards with the him to the profeffion of a foldier ; brevet of Lieutenant of the Arand the same fpirit has conducted my. In 1756 he had the conduct him through a long and unrivals of the provisions ; was afterwards led career of glory, to attain the Lieutenant to the Auditor Gendiftinguished rank of Field Mar- eral; and appointed to the comfhal, and after having conquered mand of Memel, with the rank for his Country, to conquer for of Lieutenant-Colonel. Europe.

He made his first campaign in It is the custom for the song the feven years war against the of persons of distinction in Rus- Prussians, in 1759, and entered fia to be enrolled in the army at upon actual service under Prince a very early age ; sometimes Wolgonski. He marched against within a year after their birth. the Pruflians with the rank of But the young Suworow had at First Major ; and was at the battained twelve years before histle of Kimmerfdorf, and at the name was, fortunately for his taking of Berlin. He this camcountry, infcribed on the military paign fignalized himfelf by many roll of the Ruffian Army. He acts of valour, until the year remained, however, at home for 1762, when a truce was made

years, in order to complete between Prussia and Russia, which his education under the superin. was followed by a peace. Al. tendance of a father who was so though he was attached to the well qualified to conduct it. It Infantry service, Count Romanhas been observed, that Cornelius zow prefented him at the genNepos was his favourite Classic ; eral promotion as Colonel of Cavand he read with great avidity alry, from his fuperior knowledge and ättention the histories of in that department of the army ; Turenne and Montecuculi: but but there were certain obitacles Cæfar and Charles the Twelfth which caused that line of promowere the heroes whom he most tion to be abandoned. Soon afadmired, and whose activity and ter, the Count Panin, who comcourage became the favourite ob- manded in Pomerania, sent him jects of his imitation. History and to Peteriburg with an account of Philosophy had great attractions the return of the troops. On for him ; he studied the first in this occafion he gave him a speRollin and Hubner, and the fec- cial letter of recommendation to ond in Wolf and Leibnitz. the Empress, who prefented him

In 1742 he was enrolled as a a Colonel's commission, written fusileer in the Guards of Seimo- with her own hand. In 1747 he served as a In August 1762 he was ap

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pointed Colonel of the Regiment In the middle of the summer, of Infantry of Astrachan, which when Colonel Moschinski had was in garrison at Petersburg; gained a reinforcement, our Genand when the ceremonial of her eral gained a second victory over coronation called the Empress to him; and in the autumn of the Moscow,she ordered him to remain same year he attempted an operaat Petersburg, where she charged tion on the Vistula, but from the him with the execution of some rapidity of the current he missed very important commissions. Af- the pontoon in leaping from the ter her return, his regiment was bank, and falling into the river, sent to distant service, and was was in great danger of being replaced by the infantry of Suf- drowned. After many fruitless dal, consisting of more than a attempts'to save him, a grenadier thousand men, of which he re at length seized a lock of his ceived the command in 1763. hair, and drew him to the bank'; In autumn of the following year but in getting out of the water he went into garrison at Ladoga. he struck his breast against a ponIn 1768 he was advanced to the toon, which caused a violent conrank of Brigadier ; and as the tusion, that threatened his life, war was just commenced against and from which he did not rethe confederates of Poland, he cover for several months. Towas ordered

repair with wards the end of the year the all speed to the frontiers of that. Empress sent him the order of St. kingdom in the course of No. Anne. vember, and in the most unfa We shall not detail all the vavourable season of the year. Dur- rious exploits of the General, it ing the winter he was continual. will be sufficient to take notice ly engaged in improving his regi- of the principal of them, He ment in their manæuvres, and afterwards fought and beat the habituating them to every action army of the confederates under that would be required, and eve Pulawski and Nowisi, and the ry circumstance that might hap- Empress conferred on him the pen in a state of actual service. order of St. George of the third

In the following summer of class, as a testimony of the satis1769 these troops were stationed faction she had received from his on the irontiers of Poland, from services. whence they were sent to War A second confederation being saw, a march of eighty German formed in Lithuania, the Genmiles, which he completed in eral again defeated the army unitwelve days. He overcame Ko- der Oginisi ; and this victory telpowski, near Warsaw, and de was confidered to important that feated and dispersed the troops the Empress funt him, as conquecommanded by the twoPula wikis. ror of the Grand Marthal, the He afterwards took up his qur- order of Alexander, accompaniters at Dublin ; and the Ruiñan -ed wiih the following dispatch. army in Poland requiring the cf- wiochujor General de Suworow. tablishment of four major guncr “ In recompense for the serals, he was advanced to that rank vices which you have rendered on the ist of January, 1770. to us, as well as in your country,

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