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Sect. II.

Observations on the use of connectives in combining sentences.

“ on the other hand, supposing that”--Who sees not, that “ If, on the contrary"_would express the same connection with more energy, as well as brevity? When a speaker interlards his discourse with such accumulated connectives, he always suggests to a judicious hearer, the idea of one who wants to gain time, till he cast about for something to say. Yet this fault is certainly more pardonable in speaking than in writing. The composer may take his own time, being under no necessity of writing faster than he can provide and dispose his materials. The slowness of his invention will not be betrayed to the reader by any method more readily, than by that which the speaker is sometimes forced to use in order to conceal it.

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THIRDLY, as to those cases in which propriety itself forbids the concurrence of two conjunctions, it is impossible we should fall into a mistake. They are always distinguished by some repugnancy in the import of the words which even common sense shows to be incompatible. Such are a copulative with a disjunctive, a causal with an illative, a particle expressive of resemblance, with one expressive of contrariety.

FOURTHLY, as to those cases in which idiom alone forbids the concourse. These are to be learned only by practice. Thus idiom permits the junction of a copulative with an illative particle, but never with a causal. We may say, and therefore, but not and for. We are not to seek the reason of this difference in the

Of the connectives employed in combining the sentences in a discourse.

import of the terms, but in the custom of applying them. Again, idiom permits the use of two copulatives, but not of every two. We may say, and also, and likewise, but not also likewise. Two causal conjunctions are now associated, as for because, nor two illatives, as therefore then. Yet in the dialect which obtained in the beginning of the last century, these modes of expression were common. Indeed, some of those heavy connectives which are now but little used, as moreover, furthermore, over and above, are all but combinations of synonymous particles, and flow from a disposition which will perhaps ever be found to prevail where style is in its infancy.

THE fifth and last observation I shall make on this subject, is, that it is not necessary that all the sentences in any kind of composition should be linked together by connective particles. I know of no rules that have ever been laid down for our direction in this particular. But as it always hath been, so, for aught I can perceive, it always will be, left to taste alone to determine when these particles ought to be used, and when omitted. All that occurs to me as being of any service on this head, may be comprized in the two following remarks. The first is, that the illative conjunctions, the causal and the disjunctive, when they suit the sense, can more rarely be dispensed with than the copulative. The second is, that the omission of copulatives always succeeds best, when the connection of the thoughts is either very close or

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Sect. II.

Observations on the use of connectives in combining sentences.

very distant. It is mostly in the intermediate cases that the conjunction is deemed necessary. When the connection in thought is very distant, the copulative appears absurd, and when very close, superfluous. For the first of these reasons, it is seldom that we meet with it in the beginning of a chapter, section, or even paragraph, except in the Bible; and for the second, that it is frequently dropt in familiar narrative, where the connection is so obvious as to render it useless.

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Page II. to page 23. bead-line, for obscurity read obscure.

20. Reference, for 30 read 20.
28. last line, for synonimo read synonima.
25. Reference, for * insert t, and vice versa.

5 after of, read half.
77. II for humbler read humble.
79. 8. .. unlearned read learned.
85. 25 - physiology read physchology.

perfections resa perfection.
148. 9. expressions read expression.
209 14. ·motions read motion.


from read some. 244.

12. ecclestical read ecclesiastical. 253

3. exceptionable read unexceptionable.

2. darticle read particle.
254. II. emplowed read employed,

I. after digressed read from,
275. Note, for



line 9. Afier another read manner.
310. Note, for araws read al205.
330. line 19. For propositions read prepositions,
334. 10 Note, for member read nuniber.
363 3. Note, efter short read to.

24. For father read fathers.
384. 5. After are read not.
271, , .

7 - 278.

note, . 3, )



בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ .note, 1- 3, 4, r .211 ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחר I. 7, read

נפלה נפלה בבל noie, 1. 3, rcad



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