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He says


tempt a direct legislative action, establish- 1 It must be a shifting line, because with ing slavery where it is interdicted, both by every new addition of territory a new dinature and by circumstance.

vision must be made. Should the line be that if slavery be interdicted north of the drawn through New Mexico, and a portion line, the South will have gained nothing, of that territory given up to the South, and unless it be established by the same act, the division regarded as an equitable one, no south of the line ; but that is an impossi- sooner then shall we have added Cuba, or, bility : there could not be twenty votes got by cession from Mexico, the countries south in favor of it. It has been said, he con- of Texas, the line has ceased to be equitatinues, that non-legislation on this point, ble and must be moved farther south. We in regard to California, implies the same need not speak now of Canada, though it thing as the exclusion of slavery from that is easy to see how the addition of the two region. “ That,” says Mr. Clay, Canadian States, with the vast territories cannot help: that, Congress is not re- attached to them, would rouse the jeal

If nature has pronounced ousy of the South, who would then dethe doom of slavery upon those territories mand a re-adjustment of the line, were its -if she has declared, by her immutable position unsettled, or if not, then the purlaws, that slavery cannot and shall not be chase of more territory to maintain the balintroduced there, whom can you reproach ance on their side. but nature, or nature's God? Congress But the adoption of such a line implies we cannot ;-Congress abstains ;-Congress an idea, false, and contrary to nature, of is passive ;-Congress is non-active in the the causes of this great controversy. The plan which proposes to extend no line ;- people of the North, looking upon slavery leaves the entire theatre of these territories merely as a form of government, and which untouched by legislative enactment, either might be erected upon any soil and in any to exclude or admit slavery.” “I ask climate, have placed too little confidence again,” he continues, " if you will listen to in nature and necessity. They have not the voice of calm and dispassionate reason, considered that slavery cannot be carried -I ask of any man from the South to risé out over the prairies of the West, or into and tell me, if it is not better for his sec- the defiles of the Rocky Mountains. The tion of the Union that Congress should re-growers of cotton, of tobacco, of rice, and main passive, on both sides of any ideal of


seek out such fields as are suitaline, than that it should interdict slavery ble to the products which they cultivate ; on one side of the line, and be passive in and these are the only products to which regard to it on the other side of the line ?” slave labor can be profitably applied ; there

A compromise line adopted by resolu- is a limit to this institution, beyond which tion, is an act equivalent to the establish- if it is attempted to be forced, as it has ment of a fundamental law. Though it be been in some parts of the continent, it is not an act in a strictly legal sense, it is a depressed and extinguished by the slow something more than an act; it is more but certain operation of natural laws. effectual, because it is irreversible, irrevo- Such was the fate of slavery in Connecticable, and cannot be repealed. It is a re- cut, in New York, in New Jersey, in signation, or rather a division, of the high- Pennsylvania, and such, beyond all reaest function, that of sovereignty over per- sonable doubt, must be its fate in Delasons, by a mere majority, between two sec- ware, in Maryland, in Virginia, in Tennestions of the nation. We say, therefore, it is see, in Kentucky, and in Missouri. The equivalent to a fundamental law, and in negro laborer thrives in climates where the so far as it has any effects whatever, must white laborer perishes; negro labor is not prohave the effects of such a law.

fitable excepting under circumstances pecuA line of compromise, to be an equitable liarly favorable; the crop must be one of line, should be a shifting line ; nor should four kinds, already mentioned; for though it be a parallel of latitude, as it is a division maize and other grains are largely cultiof property,-nay, more, a division of sov- vated at the South, they are not counted ereignty; it must be drawn, if justly, with among the great sources of wealth: were regard not merely to the extent but the corn to be the only export of the South, probable value of the territory so divided. her wealth might be soon counted. The fixing, therefore, of a line of compromise offer, we must accept them too; Minesota would be, in another sense of the word, a and Oregon will have to be received ; with compromise of the laws of nature.

decency we cannot refuse them. At best, Were the line so drawn as to embrace coun- we can only defer and procrastinate ; they tries in which negro labor is unprofitable, the must come in ; they are knocking at the institution of slavery would be forced out door, and if we, the door-keepers, refuse upon territories wholly unfitted to receive them entrance, the nation will, without it-territories like New Mexico and Cali- much controversy, elect new door-keepers fornia, where the labor of white men, more hospitable than we. artizans and tillers of the soil, is not Balance of Power !—who holds it? Who only possible but profitable. Governments is it that wedges in this detestable dehave a weighty responsibility in directing lusion between the Northern and Souththe course of the emigrant; in preparing ern sides of this body of one soul and one the way for him; in showing him to what life? The States of Europe, existing lands, to what waters he should repair, -in in a condition of perpetual hatred and preserving him from the rapacity of specu- alarm, held together by no principle of lators, and from the disastrous effects of right, no declaration of liberty, but if at all, his own ignorance. But it is perhaps all in by temporary and interested alliances, convain to speak of these things in this age of fessions of mutual weakness or wickedness; “ individual enterprise.”' Governments their governments, the prize of every

mili. have now only to bury the dead, if we ac- tary adventurer; the system itself a chaos, cept the tenets of a certain school. changeful as rolling smoke clouds, which

Visions of colonial prosperity are dash- assume every instant a new figure and posied by the experience of a single man ; if tion ; to-day, a monarchy, and the affiliaone man cannot make wheat grow in the tion of monarchies ; to-morrow a revolution, deserts, a thousand never will, if rice and a demagogue changing swiftly into a dessugar abhor the climate of New Mexico, pot, and then an expansive and soon collapif cotton refuses to be profitable there, the sing empire,-in such a chaos, what can South will storm and legislate to little pur- England do for herself, but maintain a pose. The master may take his slaves Balance of Power ? England holds the into a new region, to contend there with Balance of Power for Europe ; wisely and new difficulties, but it were far better for him prudently for the most part, with a clear to give them a new discipline, to give a new head, and an unflinching resolution, she direction to their energies at home, than to watches the contending powers of the confollow a dream. But when the madness tinent, and, when the scale turns to her of the private man is stimulated by legis- own disadvantage, hurls in her cannon and lation, when he is gravely sent to his ruin her ships to make the balance again even. by Senates and Houses of Assembly, then England holds the Balance of Power for comes calamity indeed ; and the State bu- Europe ; but who holds it here? There ries her citizens in the wilderness, she buries is no analogy. America contemns, denies her treasures there, something better than and denounces this doctrine of divisions. gold,—the spirit and the energy of young Late in the day we have this new delusion adventure.

of a Balance of Power, sprung upon us by And what is the origin of this monstrous the State of South Carolina. Is she the procedure ? this attempt to force out the third party, forsooth, between the Northinstitution of slavery upon soils unfitted to ern and the Southern halves of this great sustain it ? To maintain what? The empire, of this nation of twenty millions, BALANCE of Power!

absorbing a continent, and holding the desThere are now fifteen against fifteen. tinies of arts, arms and commerce in her California, New Mexico, the coming States hopeful future? of Oregon and Minesota, and perhaps the În the closing remarks of his speech, two Canadas, will turn the scale ; and then, Mr. Clay alludes, with great force, to the what becomes of your Balance of Power consequences of a dissolution of the Union, We have admitted Texas; we are bound, or to a cecession from it, of any portion of therefore, by obligations as solemn as oaths, the slave States. Were the Union disto admit California. When the Canadas solved, it would be no remedy nor redress of grievances for the South; the territories and disastrous events which lie beyond it, would not thereby be converted into slave is too thick to be penetrated or lifted by territories. In the event of this dissolution, any mortal eye or hand.” The distinslavery would not be restored in the District guished orator declares that he is for staying of Columbia had it already been abolished within the Union, and fighting for his there. Were the several States independ rights, if necessary, within the bounds and ent of each other, slaves escaping into the under the safeguard of the Union. He non-slave holding States, could never, in will not be driven out of the Union by any any instance, be recovered. Where one portion of this confederacy. One or more slave escapes now, hundreds and thousands States have no right to secede from the would escape if the Union were dissolved, Union. “The Constitution was not made no matter where or how the division might merely for the generation that then existed, be made. The attempt to recover these but for posterity-unlimited, undefined, slaves upon the borders would keep up a endless, perpetual posterity,” and every perpetual civil war, until slavery in the State that has come into the Union has border States of the South was extinct and bound itself by indissoluble bands, “to every negro converted into an insurrec- remain within it by its posterity forever.” tionist. “In less than sixty days” after There can be no divorce-there must be such an event, war would be blazing in conciliation and forbearance. War and every part of this now happy and peaceful dissolution are inseparable—a war, terriland."

ble, exhausting, exterminating, until some But more forcible than any reasons from Philip or Alexander, some Cæsar or Naexpediency, is the well established doctrine poleon, should arise and cut the Gordian

, which Mr. Clay here enforces in his most knot, and solve at length the problem of eloquent and powerful manner, that the the capacity of man for self-government. secession of a State is impossible without In the course of the preceding argument an entire destruction of the system. Were against the expediency, first, of a direct lethat system broken up, “there would be a gislative action upon the territories, and confederacy of the North, a confederacy second of the adoption of a line of comproof the Southern Atlantic slave holding mise, we have sufficiently developed the

, States-and a confederacy of the Valley principles of the third line of policy, which of Mississippi. “My life upon it, the vast has been so ably indicated and defended population which has already concentrated, in the Message of the President and and will concentrate, on the head waters of the resolutions and speech of Mr. Clay. the tributaries of the Mississippi will never This policy neither assaults the prejudices, give their consent that the mouth of that nor compromises the principles of either river shall be held subject to the power of section. It is based upon the general opinany foreign State or community whatever. ion of the nation, that slavery is not a Such, I believe, would be the consequences system which we should desire, for its own of a dissolution of the Union, immediately sake, to see extended, and which ought in

, ensuing ; but other confederacies would deed to be restricted; but that the nespring up from time to time, as dissatisfac- cessary restriction having been already tion and discontent were disseminated made by nature, and by circumstance,-it throughout the country--the confederacy would be unwise, to say the least, to move of the Lakes, perhaps the confederacy of at the present junction, for any legislative New England, or of the Middle States. action, either by compromise, or by direct Ah, sir, the veil which covers those sad prohibition against the extension of slavery.




some scenes

These brilliant novels are written by pity, but without downright malevolence, kindred hands, and shew a marked resem- is bright and biting as a clear day in winblance of mental powers in their authors, ter. The passion of these human tigers and as strong contrasts of character. The for each other is pure love, or rather sheer knowledge displayed of the springs of hu- love. Selfish-as all love is in its essence ; man conduct, is wonderful, as is the dra- not sensual, for it is a woman that writesmatic power, which, in a few bold touches, fierce and frenzied. Their passion-plaints brings the strongest but most truthful are beautiful exceedingly." Thoroughly phases of character before us. Both wri- selfish, for they are without those traits ters, too, are wanting in that inferior crea- that re-act on love and redeem it of its seltive genius which makes mere narrative fishness. Parrhasius-like, they would have interesting. Their plots drag heavily doomed each other to hideous tortures, to along; and we bend over the pages, as

have drawn forth one gasp of passion. gold-diggers over yellow sands, in search Without the shadow of remorse for the of hidden treasures. This defect injures share he had in her fate, he lives through their power of portraiture, and

many years with his heart moaning for his are failures, plainly from inability to weave love; he hears her in the wailing winds, incident to clothe the fair conceptions of he sees her in the midnight mists; when their fancy

But this dullness of the he dies, worn out by his heated brain, the back-ground increases the vividness with hope that smiles on his brow is to have his which the main figures are thrown forward. place in the church-yard corner where she The life-like effect is indeed so great, that, lies; brighter than heaven to him, to lie by with Shakspeare's characters, no

one the side of the dead woman. doubts their existence. Jane Eyre, and Equally truthful, though less wrought Rochester, and Shirley, as well as Hamlet up, are the love-scenes in Jane Eyre and and Juliet, live, and are very well known Shirley ; less wrought up in the portrayal of to all that have once read of them; they are passion, they involve a greater knowledge choice acquaintance, and have more reality of character, and in one respect are comto us than nine-tenths of the men and plete studies. So far as they go, they prewomen we shake hands with, and salute every sent a perfect analysis of love. They point day of our lives. But not merely in char- out the mental and moral traits for which, acter do these novels excel; they are the and for which only, men and women love best love-stories we have ever read; and each other. Personal beauty is mental first in this respect-let not our fair readers beauty shining through the form and feashudder-stands Wuthering Heights. This tures. A thick opaque countenance may book tears off, roughly enough, the tinsel hide the beautiful soul within ; distorted from passion. It has no interest of plot, features may caricature it, but the assistrange of character, or the chivalric attri-ance that regular features give is negative; butes that love gives birth to, or rather they are the tabula rasa on which our displays; but we have the man, harsh, hearts write their stories. In the painting pitiless, wolfish, without a spark of kind of this inward comeliness, the writer shows ness for the woman whose passion yet fills his all her strength. She wastes no time on whole life, with less than kindness for his the mere appearance of her heroes, and in fellow-men; a human wild beast, uncom- skilful touches pictures how the hearts of mon but not unnatural, of whom there are her women are won by manly qualities many around us muzzled by society, and alone; manly qualities, not acts. The who show their fangs only in troubled purposeless lives of the men in these books times. The woman, too, equally dead to is objected to, and cited as a proof of the



writers being women. The conclusion is The materials were poor, and the good, but the objection fallacious. The author's constructive powers unequal to common error in literature is the represen- the task. The tutor, the maiden, and a tation of passive emotion by action. Feel choleric old uncle, together with the, pering is quiescent.

haps, intentional poverty of the plot, were

too much, even, for this writer. Bulwer “ As when a bell no longer swings, Faint the hollow murmur rings.”

would have worked up the same materials

to intense interest, but he never could have Character is shewn as much by the fire- given utterance to the beautiful thought side as in the battle of life; and women, that was vainly struggling in the brain of who are the quickest to perceive native the authoress of Shirley. She wished to force, see nothing of men in their struggles draw the Apollo of a heart which less than with the world. Our manners with them Apollo could hardly fill. What such a are trimmed to as unvarying a standard as heart could comprehend, it could not love. our coats or our whiskers; but a single Shirley saw that Gerard'had worth, knowlword or tone, a flash of the eye or quiver edge of men, simple dignity, and he excites of the lip, and the strong heart is bared to her woman's admiration.

She saw, too, these quick observers. The still life of his self-ignorance and narrowed sphere of these novels is well fitted for this delicate thought, and he fails to move her love. training; and admirably is it accomplish- The writer wishes to paint a man supeed. The strong soul in man is beautiful rior in every respect to this noble-hearted, to women; still more so the strong soul, noble-minded woman. Inferiority in the that is “tender and true.” Force and man, of any kind, even conventional, degentleness compel their love. Shirley, who stroys the perfection of love. This trait already knows that Gerard is a man among she paints in two words. men, unmoved by danger or disaster, self- "

My pupil,' reliant, unflagging in the pursuit of his foe, “My Master. is told by Caroline that he is, among those Before he can speak of love to her, he he loves, gentle and considerate. Shirley is escapes from their present social position, instantly struck with his personal beauty. and reverts to their former relations of

“I know somebody to whose knee the teacher and scholar. cat loves to climb; against whose knee Lamartine in Raphael forgets this point and cheek it likes to purr. The old dog when he makes his hero sit a snubbed youth always comes out of his kennel andwags in a corner, while his mistress, as a woman, bis tail, and whines affectionately when is treated with deference by the assembled somebody passes.'

Our authoress wishes to paint the "And what does that somebody do ?' ideal that is in every woman's heart.

“He quietly strokes the cat, and lets Such a man never trod the earth but her sit while he well can, and when he His story is simple and old. But must disturb her by rising, he puts her the manhood of that man has never been resoftly down, and never flings her from him peated. She could do no otherwise than fail. roughly; he always whistles to the dog, The scene between the lovers and the testy and gives it a caress.'

old uncle, ends in a caricature. Such a char“? Does he? It is not Robert.'

acter as the tutor's should hardly indulge in « But it is Robert.'

vulgar violence; at any rate, it should have “Handsome fellow,' said Shirley, with been demoniac. Heathcliff, in Wuthering enthusiasm ; her eyes sparkled.”

Heights, would have thrust the offender by The authoress has slight sympathy for the head into the burning grate. kindness ; hence the action in this picture. Caroline, is a character the masculine She is fully alive to magnanimity; hence readers of this book will delight to dwell its dramatic truth. Its deep philosophy upon. Submissive, sympathizing, truthful, comes from the heart of a woman, not the seeking support for her gentle nature, shé brain of a man.

has for Gerard all that boundless devotion The character of Louis More, and the that Shirley could also feel, but only for scenes in which he bears a part in the lat superhuman perfection. ter part of the book, are, in a degree, fail- The fervor of manly love is drawn with



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