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the Mosquito shore to that capital, who iards “never paid any tribute for the priwas received with great respect, is also of vilege of erecting a fort and custom-house great moment in Mr. Walker's estimation. at San Juan ;' he even thinks they never Whether they took his portrait and gave obtained the leave of the Mosquito King to him a cocked hat and sword, as we are ac- do so! customed to do at Washington, when sa- The document next in order, is a letter vage chiefs are brought there, we are not ad- from Mr. O'Leary, British Chargé at Bovised; but no doubt they gave him an abun-gota. He thinks the New Grenada claim dance of “aqua ardiente," which judging to the territory in question better than that from what we know of the tastes of the of Central America, and observes that as royal line of Mosquitia, male and female, New Grenada has no settlement between must have been more acceptable! It may Boca del Toro and San Juan, she would be thought undignified to talk in this strain, probably gladly accept that river as the in the pages of a respectable periodical! north-west boundary of her territories; and What then must be thought of a parliament- looking at the map the river San Juan, ary document containing such stuff as we would seem to afford the King of Mosquito have referred to, issued too by way of sup- a distinct and secure boundary on that porting one of the gravest measures which frontier. But,” he continued, in the strain any Government has seen fit to adopt of Mr. Chatfield's concluding paragraphs, within this century, and one which involves“ the extent and importance of the coast the highest principles of international right? situated between the mouth of the San
The remaining documents presented by Juan and Chiriqui Lagoon, cannot be orerMr. Walker prove two things : that there looked ;” and adds, " that if the pretensions was a certain extent of the eastern shore of of the King of Mosquito to this part of the Central America which was called the coast could be maintained, the Chiriqui “ Mosquito shore," but which no two Lagoon, which affords safe anchorage, authorities concurred in defining, and which would likewise form a secure frontier !" was used as a geographical designation, The circumstance of " safe anchorage" without the slightest reference to sovereign- and good harbors, must have been of high ty or jurisdiction; and second, that from importance in connection with the pretenbefore 1830 downwards, the British agents sions of the Mosquito King; regard for the in Central America, had attempted by vari- Mosquito marine must certainly have been ous acts, professedly under Mosquito autho- at the bottom of the suggestion ! Mr. rity, to acquire some shadow of claim to O'Leary concludes by suggesting “the exvarious parts of the Atlantic coast, from pediency of setting the whole question at Cape Honduras to Veragua. The impu- rest by means of a negotiation with New dence of quoting the assertions of British Grenada. officers, who at the time of writing were Thus much for correspondence and the taking the initiatives to their prospective travail of collecting “historical evidence." usurpation, as “historical evidence,” is We now come to action. On the 1st of wonderfully cool, and entirely in keeping September of the same year, (1847,) with the spirit of the whole procedure from Mr. Walker addressed an impudent letter the start. Mr. Walker concludes his letter, upon an unimportant matter to the Comnot as Mr. Chatfield had done, with a mo- mandant at San Juan, which concludes dest reservation which might be useful with the following paragraph :"I think hereafter” in perfecting and securing the it fair to tell you, as until now you can ultimate objects of the felony, but which it hardly have received the information, that would hardly do to put forward at this time; Mr. Chatfield, H. B. M. Consul-General Mr. Walker, we say, concludes his letter in Central America, has received instrucwith the unqualified assertion that the rights tions to point out to the several States the of the King of Mosquito extend from Cape boundary which the British Government Honduras to Veragua, upon a line which has determined to maintain, in right of the he traces so as to include half of Honduras, King of Mosquito, and this boundary commore than half of Nicaragua, and an equal prehends the San Juan river.” This letportion of Costa Rica! He observes, also, ter was sent by the cutter “ Sun,” comvery naively, that “ he believes” the Span- manded by Captain Watson, and bearing
the flag of the “Mosquito nation.” The ernments of Nicaragua and Honduras to design of this display is obvious. The Com- Mr. Chatfield's circular. They are not mandant of the port, under date of Sep- deficient in argument or force, and the tember 6th, replied civilly to Walker's note, subjoined extracts will be read with interest.
. concluding as follows : " I appreciate as it The Secretary of Foreign Relations of deserves, the friendly notice which you have Nicaragua, Don Sebastian Salinas, acgiven me as to the particular protection knowledges the receipt of Mr. Chatfield's which the British Crown is disposed to circular, notes its contents, and adds: afford to the Mosquito nation ; but without entering into the question of its legitimacy “You know, Sir, very well, that the estabor of its territorial limits, which is the pro- lished practice for a society which considers vince of the Governments, I can only itself capable of assuming the rank of a naobey the orders of my superiors.” At the
tion, to obtain its recognition as such, is, 10 same time this officer addressed a note to
solicit through its chief, his ministers or direct the commander of the cutter, saying that, lished States"; but this rule of international
accredited agents, the recognition of estab" although he had already informed him
law, has in no way been complied with by the that the flag which he bore was not recog. pretended king of Mosquito, who now assumes nized, and that he had told him to take it to raise questions of boundary with Nicaragua. down or leave the port, &c., yet out of
This Government has not recognized and does considerations of politeness he would allow not now recognize such a kingdom as · Moshim to remain in the harbor until he had
quito,' much less the territorial pretensions of executed his commission of receiving the which you speak. No such king has existed
or now exists. It is preposterous, Sir, that a letters of the expected steamer. He, never-
few savages wandering in the forests and theless, informed him that the vessel could wastes on the coasts of Honduras and Nicarnot again enter the harbor under the flag agua, living by the chase and fishing, without it bore, unless it had express permission houses, without a known language, without from the Nicaraguan Government.
written characters, without arts, laws, or reOn the 24th of Nov. the Rt. Hon. E.J.
ligion, without any of the elements which,
, Stanley, of the Foreign office, addressed a according to received principles, are necessary note to the Secretary of the Admiralty, savages should profess to constitute a regular
to a national existence,-that such a horde of stating that he was informed by Mr. society, or what is more an Empire ! Walker, “ that the Commandant acting for
“We are not ignorant of the fact that certhe Nicaraguan Government, at the mouth tain British subjects, under favor of the adjaof the San Juan river, had expressed his cent settlements of the Belize and Jamaica, determination not to acknowledge the flag have attempted to fix themselves in our soil, or territorial rights of the Mosquito King- associating with the Mosquitos, and causing dom,” and suggests that the commanders of the son of some favored family, to be educated any ships of war which may be in that quar
to their fashion, and thus preparing an instruter be instructed to communicate with King. This fantastic personage has not, and
ment to secure their designs, under the title of Mr. Walker, "as to the best manner in cannot be presented to the civilization of the which to resist the pretensions of the Nic- nineteenth century, nor make himself acknowlaraguan Commandant,” and establishing edged by neighboring or other nations ; such the Mosquito authorities at the mouth of an act, would be an admission of the right of the San Juan. On the 1st of September,
the savage hordes which exist in different parts however, Mr. Chatfield addressed his circu
of the world, to form kingdoms under the lar, in accordance with his instructions of
protection of other Governments, and put
ihemselves in comparison (en paragon) with January 30, to the Governments of Hon
civilized states ; thus placing limits on civilizaduras and Nicaragua, and next day he tion, and licensing universal disorders. wrote to Palmerston, informing him of "Subjects and agents of Her Brittannic what he had done, and adding, “I have Majesty are the only persons who have an. taken the precaution of inserting the words, nounced and proclaimed the leader of this tribe without prejudice to the rights of the
as a Sovereign, and an ally of the English Mosquito "King to any territory south of Government: but none of these agents has
presented, or has been able to present to any the river San Juan."
Government of Central America, credentials We may here anticipate events a little, of his appearing to be a real and direct agent and notice briefly the replies of the Gov- of the suppositious King of Mosquito; neither has Great Britain herself accredited a Chargé | the savage chief of the Moscos, and who has d'Affaires to these Governments, who might never been consulted respecting them! have moved these questions of sovereignty, "And it is equally worthy of notice, that territory, and appropriation of a Port ac- without attending to any of the means preknowledged by the whole world as the proper- scribed by the law of nations, in reference to ty of the sovereign State of Nicaragua. If these a territory, at most disputable, force should be new pretensions are well-founded, and the resorted to, as if there were no reasons to be Port of San Juan does not belong to Nicara- | heard, rights to be examined, forms to be obgua, how comes it that the Government of Her served, and jealousies to be awakened. The Britannic Majesty ordered a blockade of that nations of America and Europe, Sir, will not port by Vice Admiral Sir Charles Adams in see with apathy, or indifference, this new systhe year 1842, in order to enforce the pay- tem of acquiring territories,-unknown, and ment of $14,000, claimed of this Government contrary to the usages between Governments. by British subjects ?"
“ The Government of Honduras is weak,
and that of Great Britain is powerful, neverThe Secretary then goes on to protest theless, we shall make our rights known. against these pretensions in a strain of they were balanced between nations of equal
They will have the same importance as if mingled eloquence and irony, asserting that strength and resources. Therefore, my Gov“ Nicaragua will disallow, resist and repel ernment solemnly protests that it will use the with the force of justice and all her strength, means, which all the world employs, to preeven to the extent of disappearing from the serve the integrity of its territory, and repel face of the earth, the encroachments with aggression; and you, and the British Governwhich she is threatened, and before ob
ment must answer before heaven and earth for scure barbarians shall snatch away from
the ills which the contest must produce, and which
have provoked!". her a property which, according to the great boundaries of nature, sanctioned by
To these eloquent protests Mr. Chatlaws, international right, and immemorial field thought proper to reply, by means of possession, belongs to her alone. Thus,"
a circular, brief and pointless, and only he concludes, “my Government solemnly worthy of notice from the following extraprotests. It will denounce the spoliations ordinary passages, which, if written in with which it is menaced before all the earnest, imply the keenest impudence, or Governments of civilized nations; and the the profoundest stupidity. He says: world will see how the ambition of a few British subjects darkens the enlightened “The position assumed by your Governminds of the Cabinet of Her Britannic Ma- ment rests on a supposed hereditary right, dejesty, even to the point of placing the august rived from Spain, to whom, it is alleged, as I Queen Victoria as an equal by the side of understand, that the Mosquito territory fora despicable savage !"
merly belonged as part of the Spanish possesThe answer of Gen. Guardiola, on be
sions in America, it being assumed that the act
of expelling Spain from this continent, conhalf of Honduras, is shorter but equally to ferred upon the States which expelled her, all the point. He says:
the sovereignty and rights which Spain is
considered to have enjoyed in it! On an im"It has been repeatedly demonstrated that partial consideration of this question, I am the pretended king of Mosquito, recognized convinced that you will perceive the fallacy of as such by the British Government alone, such reasoning, and admit that no State wants the smallest shadow of dominion over can justly claim to inherit rights, or territories, any part of the territory of Honduras; and it from a nation, which does not recognize its cannot, and ought not to be considered that the political existence !" Sapient Mr. Chatfield! vagrant tribe, called Moscos, should be regarded as a nation.
To return. Before Mr. Stanley's note " It is easy to see, from the hostile manner had been acted upon by the Secretary of in which it is intimated, that a claim will be the Admiralty, His Majesty's ship of war, made on the territories of Honduras, that no
Alarm,” commanded by Capt. Granreasons will be heard, and that force alone
ville G. Loch, whose name will now frewill terminate the dispute you have raised. It is remarkable that the cabinet of St. James quently appear in this narrative, arrived o arrogates the right of making claims, and put- Bluefields, on the Mosquito coast, where ting forward intimations, which, if its own pre
it took on board Mr. Walker, and his tensions are to be credited, belong solely to protege, “the King.” They proceeded
straightway to San Juan, where they ar- the Nicaraguan establishment from San rived on 26th Nov., when they informed Juan. Besides Mr. George Hodgson, there the Commandant that the King of Mos- were imagined to be present at the council : quito was on board, and that he must be “Hon. Alexander Hodgson, Hon. H. Insaluted, or the town would be fired on. gram, Hon. James Porter, Hon. John Dixon, As this request was not complied with, an and Hon. James Green;" the last, her armed party went on shore, and as there British Majesty's Vice-Consul.” was no efficient force to resist, run up the The Government of Nicaragua had the Mosquito filag, fired a salute, and returned bad taste and worse policy to notice the on board, leaving the flag flying. This absurd document, and to reply that the dignified proceeding over, the “ Alarm,” Nicaraguan establishment would not be reand its precious freight, set sail for Jamai- moved from San Juan, and that if forcible ca, where Mr. Walker wrote a garbled measures were resorted to, force would be statement of what had been done, to used to repel the assault. Whereupon the Palmerston. It is a little singular, how- august imaginary council was again convenever, that in his account of this pro- ed, and the imaginary clerk (also a British ceeding, he makes no mention of a subse- subject!) directed to make a reply, which quent one, which was not quite so success- he did as follows, under date of Decemful. In the flush of their triumph, Mr. ber 8, 1847. Walker, and the commander of the
“ The Council passes over in silence the “ Alarm,” thought it would be a good disrespectful tone of your letter, but directs thing to go through the same performance me to forward you copies of addresses which at Truxillo, the principal seaport of Hon- His Majesty received on his recent visit to duras. Perhaps, as this is a tolerable har- Jamaica from the honorable the council and bor, they thought it would be good also to house of assembly of that island; and I am to seize it for his Mosquito Majesty. So, in that, in point of rank, intelligence, independ
that the civilized world knows proceeding to Jamaica, they made a detour
ence and wealth, the public bodies of Jamaito this point. The “ Alarm" was anchor- ca cannot be excelled in Nicaragua !" ed in the harbor, the boats were duly
This rare epistle concluded by saying manned with armed men, and Mr. Walker that the port of San Juan would be retaken and the commander went on shore. They possession of (this reminds us of reannezwere met by the officer of the garrison, ation) by British and Mosquito troops, on whom they ordered to retire, with his men, the first of January, prox.There was a to the mouth of the river Aguan. The strange mixture of puerility, villainy and
. Commandant declined to do anything of the low cunning in the proceedings of Walker
Mr. Walker then told him that and his associates, which is probably with" he should be obliged to eject him by out a parallel in any
similar transaction. force,” to which the Commandant replied
When the “ Alarm” arrived at San Juan, that" he had better try it,” falling back, as before related, the Commandant of the and ordering his men to form, the call for
made a formal protest against the pro
port the militia to be sounded in the plaza, and ceedings of its officers. His language afthe guns of the castle to be brought to bear. fords a strange contrast to the highway tone This was more than was bargained for. Mr. Walker and his associates decamped could not help deploring the attack which had
assumed by the British officials. He said he with all despatch, contenting themselves been made upon the rights of sovereignty and with elevating the Mosquito flag on a desert the integrity of the free State of Nicaragua, beach, outside the harbor.
by the commander of Her Britannic MaMeantime the plot thickened, and, to give some show of decency to their pro- jesty's frigate“ Alarm,” and as under ceedings, a grand imaginary Mosquito present circumstances the State of Nicaracouncil was held at Bluefields, the senior gua wanted other means for the defence of member of which purported to be a Mr.
* Mr. Hodgson, “ the senior counsellor," afterGeorge Hodgson, which went through the wards testified that no such council was ever held, imaginary form of addressing a letter to the and that he knew nothing of tho business, until inDirector of Nicaragua, giving him to the formed of it, subsequently, when a prisoner in Ni
caragua. first of January, within which to withdraw
The whole was the work of Walker.
her rights than those of reason and justice, , Supreme Director of the State of Nicarasustained by the moral force of the civi- gua, Don José Guerrera, issued a proclalized world, he now remonstrated and pro- mation, from which we can only, quote a tested against the proceedings of the com- few paragraphs : mander, solemnly and in the presence of “ Under favor of good feeling, the public God and the world.” The frigate, it is morality and the efficiency of the authorities, proper to add, entered the port under Bri- the agitations consequent upon our revolution, tish colors, and afterwards hoisted the so
and peculiar to the political infancy of every called Mosquito flag.
country, have been calmed. The energies of
the State are directed to the improvement of In the meantime, the Government of
its resources, and the cultivation of peace, Nicaragua, in consequence of the delay and friendship, commerce, and credit with all the uncertainty attending the transmission of civilized nations. But now, under shadow communications from Leon to Guatemala, of the colossal tower of Great Britain, profesthe residence of the Consul-General, named sing to stand first among civilized nations, our and empowered. Messrs. Duran and Lopez, repose is disturbed and our prospects darkened, singly and jointly, to act as the commis- by a scandalous attempt upon ihe integrity of sioners of the Government in Guatemala, population, the nomad tribe of Moscos, at
the territory of our State. A fraction of our with a view to the adjustment of the dis
whose head has been placed an imbecile child, putes which had arisen; omitting, it will with the title of King," surrounded by native
“ thus be seen, no means to settle affairs in ignorants and unprincipled foreign agents, a just and peaceful manner. But Mr. Chat- who direct everything to their own liking, field refused to have any communication has intimated to this Government its intention with these commissioners, and wrote to
of taking possession of the port of San Juan Palmerston, under date of December 3d, through the aid of the British Government !" that, “independent of the unfitness of these The Director goes on to set forth the inlawyers to entertain questions of this nature, disputable right of Nicaragua to the port he conceived himself without authority to
in question, in a clear and conclusive discuss the right of Mosquito"to the mouth manner, recounting in detail the agressions of the river San Juan." Mr. Chatfield which have been made, and continues : had not forgotten the epistolary contests “ Thus is it that civil war is stirred up by he had been from time to time involved in the savage against the civilized portion of Cenwith the Nicaraguan “ lawyers," and in
tral America ; thus it is attempted to wrest from which, not less from the badness of his Nicaragua her only and best port upon the cause,
than his own incapacity, he had been north, possessed by her from time immemorial, uniformly worsted. lle concludes by in- without dispute, and recognized by the acts of
Great Britain to be hers alone. quiring what regulations shall be made for
“ The loss of territory with which we are the trade of the San Juan “after the oc
threatened, will be but the precursor of other cupation of the port by Mosquito." and, if possible, more startling aggressions
The Nicaraguan Government still anx- upon the other States of Central America. ious to adjust affairs amicably, then em
The moment has arrived for losing a country powered the Guatemalean Minister of with ignominy, or sacrificing with honor Foreign Affairs to act as their Commissioner.
the dearest treasures to preserve it. As regards But Mr. Chatfield answered that matters myself, if the force which menaces us sets
aside justice, I am resolved to be entombed in had passed the period of negotiation. Still, the remains of Nicaragua, rather than survive
out of deference” to the Minister, per- | its ruin !" sonally, he was willing to receive and trans
We now return to the proceedings of mit to Her Majesty's Government, any Mr. Walker and his new coadjutors. On proposals or explanations which the Nicar- the 29th of December, the British war aguan Government may desire to make on
steamer, " Vixen," Commander Ryder, the proceedings at San Juan: Her Ma- arrived at Bluefields, where it took on jesty's Government being desirous that Ni board 65 men, Mr. Walker and the “ Moscaragua should feel assured that, in this instance, as in all others, its acts are based quito Majesty” going on board the cutter
in attendance, and both vessels started for on the BROADEST PRINCIPLES OF JUSTICE
San Juan, where they arrived on the 1st of AND EQUITY!" Admirable complacency! January.' General Munoz, the NicaragSuch was the state of things when the
uan commander, had previously withdrawn