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wine unadulterated with any strengthening by drugging that delicate wine with spirits. or coloring matter. It is really unac- As a warning to the consumer of Falstaff's countable that a thing in itself so excellent favorite Sack, we will in conclusion of this as good wine must needs be drugged by paper copy a paragraph from the volume meddling improvers upon the bandiwork of before us, although Mr. Wallis pleads nature. Pure wine is seldom exported guilty to limited information in the premifrom Spain or Portugal. A late writer has ses :-“No Sherry exported, not even the created almost a panic among the wine best, is a simple, unprepared production of drinkers of England by his exposition of nature. It is, all of it, the result of time, sundry secrets attending the manufacture mixture, and much doctoring. The finest of Port. We forget his statistics, nor is the growth of the district immediately have we the pamphlet at hand. But it about Xeres, and its natural purity is only would appear that the Port wine we drink violated by the admixture of something in this country is invariably an article better of the same sort. The oldest, richwhose fermentation has been stopped (coupe est, and most generous wines, are kept and the French wine-growers call it) by an ad- used especially to give body, strength, and mixture of brandy in a frightful proportion. flavor to the new ones that need them. The theory is, that all wines if allowed to The inferior qualities come from the disferment to the full extent are somewhat tricts along the coast. These last, good sharp to the taste while new, and that this enough in themselves and when left to peculiar flavor which would betray the date themselves, become any thing but nectar of the vintage can be disguised by inter- by the time they have been manufactured rupting the process of fermentation. The into sherry. Some of them, to be sure, imperfect, stunted liquor obtained in this enriched by the judicious admixture of the artificial manner, though pleasing to the vino jeneroso, become sound and respectapalate, requires some further “ doctoring” ble wines, and there is no knowing how to disguise other characteristics attendant much of homely San Lucar, and even dry upon wine insufficiently fermented. So Malaga, passes into the cellars and down that to cover up the fraud with another the throats of the Anglo-Saxons yearly, fraud, more brandy, together with coloring with the name and at the cost of the ripest matter, is added. It seems that the evil, Jerezano. But this is not the worst. Imas regards port wine, originates in the fact mense quantities prepared especially for exthat the vintage of 1824 was remarkably portation, and at cheap rates, have their successful. The wine raised that year had principal virtues given to them by the all the properties of excellent wine in its liberal use of bad brandy; and it is with utmost perfection. The inferior produce them chiefly that the sherry-drinking world of subsequent seasons found the fastidious is drugged.

A wine of fine customer wholly intractable, and the ex- quality, eight or ten years old, will cost at porters were obliged to resort to fraud in Šeres, at least four dollars the gallon. order to gratify the public (English) taste. Those who know what our tariffs are and Such is the explanation of the author of have been, and who can calculate the cost the pamphlet in question. But we think of transportation, may judge from the that the practice he refers to has been for range of prices with us." a very long time in use in most wine grow- From these hasty remarks it is easy to ing conntries.

perceive, that the American wine-drinker Sherry has probably suffered less than pays, not only from his purse, but with his most wines from this kind of adulteration. health, for the poor privilege of being acIt is generally allowed to ferment sufficient counted the possessor of a fashionable ly, and then the properties of “ age” are brand. We could name from actual excommunicated by mixture with older wines. perience, at least twenty places in the The brown sherry” is made by mixing Mediterranean where excellent pure wine is the paler kind with coloring matter. Abun- raised, of a flavor nearly equal to that of dance of brandy is added for the English Burgundy, Constance and Sherry, and in market, the Spanish merchants honestly our opinion vastly superior to that of all believing in their hearts that they cannot the Rhenish in the universe ; and yet no better please their British customers than enterprising importer is found to enlighten VOL. V. No. III. NEW SERIES.



the wine-loving community as to the exist-dent as a hopeful one for the literary profesence of these cheap luxuries. The sub- sion in our country, whose members, though ject is one of vast importance, and we may they bave had to struggle against unpararecur to it hereafter.

leled difficulties, are rapidly acquiring a We are happy to learn that Mr. Wallis standing worthy of the cause they reprehas received a mission to visit Spain in a sent and of the great nation to which they diplomatic capacity. We hail the prece- belong.

E. L.


And airs of heaven are free to stray.
'Mid frailty, thus, and sin, and woe,
Do buds of gentler promise grow ;
And thus, at times, an angel's wing,
May wake them to the genial spring.

We know not, and we ne'er may know
Another's joy, another's woe.
What yearning love, by pride concealed,
In deathless flame burns unrevealed;
What seeming vice unjustly blamed,
By sternest virtue might be claimed.
We know not what temptation lures,
What strength resists,what faith endures :
How far in error's path misled;
Or tears, how oft repentant shed.

Too often crushed, where man has trod,
The flower lies spoiled upon the sod;
Too often torn by blame and scorn,
The soul-flower dies as soon as born.
Frail human heart! And who that lives,
But owes far more than he forgives ?
Forbear thou, then, in virtue strong,
To frown on those a frown may wrong.
Alone shall God a just decree
Award to them,-to them, and thee.

The dreariest desert hath its spray;
The rudest coast its peaceful bay;
The roughest ridge some flower between ;
The wildest heath its patch of green,
Where dews may fall and sun-beams play,


MACAULAY, in the opening paragraphs | it, each by some individual vitality; an of his essay on Lord Bacon, observes that eye, an ear, or an inward questioning, that the moral character of men eminent in let- must drink in beauty and must wrestle ters or the fine arts is treated with tender- with itself, or not live; or else a strong ness by, the world, because the world is fortitude that stands like a wall against disposed to be charitable to the faults of woe and wrong, all-comprehending, allthose who minister to its pleasure; and he feeling, and all-suffering, but unmoved in proceeds to instance in his brilliant man- the faith of better things hereafter. The ner, “ Falstaff and Tom Jones have gur- inferior organizations which make up the vived the game-keepers whom Shakspeare sum of being, do not so much honor these cudgelled, and the land-ladies whom Field- nobler spirits as they beat against them, ing bilked,” &c. But if it be true that like the rain, and the floods, and the wind, the world is most charitable to the charac- against the house that was founded upon a ters of those who contribute most to its rock. enjoyment, then the world is certainly not So far, therefore, from admitting the very delicate in its charity; for could it be universality of Macaulay's law, we look ascertained, for example, that some other upon it as only one of the natural superdamsel than Anne Hathaway occupied the ficialities of an acute Scotchman. We place that should have been hers during are too deeply steeped, to relish speculathis very Shakspeare's long absence from tion which goes no deeper than this, in the her, even the telegraph lines, that give us metaphysics of Von DENCKEN, that most the twilights of the foreign news before the indefatigable of Dutch philosophers, from sunrise of the newspapers, would be put whom we will translate a paragraph for the in requisition to spread the scandal ; and benefit of readers who may not have had could a secret correspondence, arising out access to him. of some such relation, be dug out of the

"As in the material world, so the chemist British Museum, how quickly should we have it in cloth, in boards, in pamphlets of things change; the tree grows and decays;

tells us, nothing is ever lost, though the forms for two shillings, and in the columns of the fire separates the coal into its various extras for six-pence! So if we con- products; metals oxydize, and the water that sider who those are who do really contribute ascends in vapor descends in rain; so it seems most to the world's enjoyment, we shall to be in the immaterial world : of that breath easily conclude that they are the very ones

of life which was breathed into Man at the to whom it is least kind, either while they soul, not an atom has left him, though it is

creation, and whereby he became a • living are alive or after they are dead. It was not kind to Burns; it is not kind to any of of shapes. For since there is the same amount

ever manifesting its presence in such an infinity those who are the life of the world, “the of matter now in the world as there was at salt of the earth,” who season and intensify the end of the creation, why should not ana

*THE WORKS OF EDGAR A. PoE: With Notices of his Life and Genius. By N. P. WILLIS, J. R. LOWELL, and R. W. GRISWOLD. In two volumes. New York : J. S. Redfield,

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logy teach us that there is likewise the same for no such lenience exists. But the inquiring amount of life? The world may be more soul of man will not rest, where it sees aught populous now than it was in the centuries im- peculiar, until it has ascertained the whole. mediately succeeding Adam, though the names And when it sees, for instance, in a single of the patriarchs are supposed to stand for case, that 'here was a delicate and beautitribes, but even if they are for individuals, ful crystal of a being, which could not have what a developement of strength must there grown into any other shape but this, could have been in the antediluvian ages, when the not have transmitted to us any but this sombre vigor of a single human being outlasted a pe- light,' it will look into itself and observe its riod as long as might be occupied by one who own tendencies towards a similar destiny, and should have been born before the first crusade will spontaneously endeavor to master them. and have a century yet to live! And in proof Thus, what wrought unto death in the original, that their lives were as comprehensive as ours, is in the next taken as a healthful assimilant. we have the mountain-like ruins of their cit- All that the original suffered in overcoming, ies; and their maxims, their poetry, and their is saved to the next coinbination, so far as religion, have come down to us. They were that particular element is concerned. What as wise in their generation as we are in ours. a centralization of soul-vigor took place in

“But in those old, pastoral days, the changes Homer, who could master so well the beauties in the combinations of spirit and matter, in of thought, speech, and music, as to inform the humanity, did not take place so rapidly as they mind of so many nations, through so many do now when the earth is so much more sub- centuries! The fire is immortal, and will dued to man's uses. There is now a more never be extinguished by diffusion. So, too, violent ebullition, and the streams of bubbles those great English poets, whom I delight to chase each other upward, and change and study, Shakspeare and Milton; they were so shift more rapidly. Our bodies are frailer, individual, and so capable to endure so much, and we pass through our little cycles subject both of the good and evil of life, that they to infinitely more numerous pertrubing in- have imparted strength to their whole nation, fluences. At least, this is true just in these who are never weary of inquiring and thinko few civilized families, and especially in the ing of them, and of how the world must have new continent of America, to which the na- appeared to them. The real part of them, the tions are crowding.

true vitality of their souls, not the mere bodily “ Yet, even there, the process goes on, simi- power, but that by which they could endure lar to growth and decay in vegetable life, by and overcome, knowing, and looking down which nothing of the divine breath is lost, but upon it from an assumed region of thoughtit only enters into new combinations, to re-ap, this was so much more comprehensive and pear in other forms. No man can live and powerful than the same quality in any other die in any contact with his species, without writers, that they have exalted the level of all that was peculiar in him having its effect life in their whole nation. All intelligent upon, or, so to speak, combining with, his English spirits have some affinity with them. contemporaries and successors; and especial

“ Yet, a daily life," continues the philosoly in those callings which bring individuals pher, “even with gentle Will

, as they termed to be known of great numbers of their fellows, him, might not have been so pleasant as would may this be observed.

at first be thought; and, surely, one might " Let us,” proceeds Von Dencken, "consider have selected a more agreeable domestic comthe case of authors. Whoever writes a book panion than the author of Paradise Lost. and publishes it, if he has ability enough to But, whatever mere infirmities of temper these attract readers, will be sure, in the end, to men may have had, they had them in comhave all that which was real truth in it, with mon with thousands who could not have sufregard to himself, found out and duly weighed. fered half so keenly as they, nor have lifted However different his organization may have a finger to conquer. Hence it is that the been from the common one; if even all that world is sometimes thought to pardon too was easy to others was to him difficult; how easily the faults of such men; when in reality ever much his temper may have been exacer- it does not so much esteem them faults as the bated by cares that others could not feel, and necessary consequences of certain organizaviews they could neither see nor understana — tions. Milton could not but have been pasin the end, all that was singular in the com- sionate; but he teaches us to control passion. position of his spirit will be again received in- Shakspeare may have been too worldly and to the ocean of existence through the rain- unsympathetic; the danger is that he makes drop tears of joy or grief, or the silent ab- us too thoughtful and generous to rise in the sorption of the soil of kindred minds. The world. The vigor they had, lives and is imbalance of vitality will be maintained. mortal; their weakness has passed away

“And this not through any particular leni- along with the weakness of ten thousand other ence of the world to the faults of genius,' men. They have carried many souls upward in his pages.

to elevations which those souls, by their own he held bis face upward while here, through powers, could never have reached, nor maintajned-carried them there, it may be, in

much oppression and depression) but his thousands of cases, while they, by reason of

spiritual vigor being left to diffuse itself innate weakness, were ever falling into vices

among his countrymen. and crimes which would have otherwise ab

In the first place, then, Poe, in all his sorbed their whole being. Thus the growth

writings included here, appears as a pureof spirit goes on in the universe, somewhat minded gentleman-of a strange fancy, it like the Aurora Borealis, when its spires shoot is true, but never low or mean. He alup fitfully in a long line across the arctic sky; ways addresses his readers in a scholarly now and then comes one more brilliant than its fellows, but the general sum of light is

attitude. He interests them through the always the same; if we imagine an inter

better nature; he holds the mind's eye dependence among the rays, so ihat each shall with singular pictures, or draws the underoperate upon all near it in the ratio of the standing into curious speculations, but in strength of each, we shall have a perfect ex- the wildest of his extravagancies he does emplification of the manner in which the spir- not forget his native dignity. Considering its of men operate upon one another, and by

how difficult, not to say how impossible, it which a constantly disturbed, yet never chang- would have been for him to have done this ing equilibrium of the breath of life is

amidst all the excitements of his feverish maintained throughout the race of mankind.”

life, had it not been real and natural to Thus for Von Dencken. We have not him, we cannot but believe him to have quoted this illustrious philosopher here to been actually and in his very heart, what introduce our notice of Poe with an apol- he appears ogy for his faults, but to indicate the point Secondly, he seems to us to have been of view from which we design to contem- originally one of the most sensitive of men, plate him. We intend to consider him, not and subject to peculiar nervous depresas a phenomenon, as an organic human sions; at the same time so constituted that being; to judge from what we read of his his normal and healthful condition was one writings, and are informed of his life, what which required a great elevation of the was his peculiar cast of soul; and thence spirits. If we imagine an extremely sensito inquire how far he, a very feeble indi- tive boy, full of fun and harmless mischief, vidual in body, certainly, and subjected to suddenly chilled into a metaphysician, but singular accidents, played a man's part on with his early state still clinging to him, we the stage of existence. This we shall en- think we have Poe precisely. No human deavor to do through an estimate of his being can be more iĩl-fitted for the strugcharacteristics as a writer-since it is only gle of life than such an one. The realities as a writer, born with a peculiar spirit, of existence overwhelm him ; what excites and bred and living under peculiar circum- others to press onward crushes him ; their stances, that the world has any concern joy is his grief; their hope his despair; all with him. The mortal of him has re- his emotions become so intense and intolerturned to the dust ; his imperfections, able that he cannot endure them, and wildly which remain in the memories of those endeavors to stifle feeling. Charles Lamb who knew him, were better forgotten ; was constituted very much after this mansince it aids none of us to remedy our ner : he cried at weddings and laughed at own short-comings, to remember those of funerals; but he had habits of study, the others after they are gone. According to influence of strong intellects, duty to his the Von Denckenian theory, it is only sister, and, perhaps, the fear of insanity, with his peculiumthe vital part of that to restrain him. combination of spirit and matter which Besides, Lamb's mind, though clear, was erewhile walked these streets under the anything but mathematical in its tendenstyle of Poe—that we have aught to do; cies; while with Poe's, this was a marked for the reason that it is this part only, trait. Originally gifted with peculiar perthis individual vitality, to use the philoso- ceptions of the beauty of form, and of a pher's nomenclature, which can combine disposition apt to perceive symmetrical rewith new affinities and re-enter the general lations both in things and ideas, Poe, when soul of the universe—the man himself the blight came, found refuge in following having departed, (upward, we trust, since out chains of thought in harmony with the

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