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this faction of no principle proclaimed separate sovereignties risen from thirteen their purpose to be the conquest and absorp- to thirty. Seventeen new sovereignties tion, of the entire continent. There have been added to the Union, each were colonies of armed settlers on the one able and efficient to represent and Northern frontier who were to begin defend itself. But with the increase a war with England for the acquisition of is augmented also the power of increase. Canada. By the exercise of a wisdom, The addition of every new state heightwhich, embodied in one man, represents ens the probability of the addition of the prudence of the American people, that others. Every new State, formed upon a danger was averted. A second effort saved new territory, acts upon the territory beus à second time-during the boundary yond it, and colonizes another state. The altercation with England about the North- addition of Texas prepares the way for ern territories on the Pacific side of the Con- the addition of three others, to be formed out tinent. In their third attempt, the insti- of the territory of Texas. The establishgators of war were more successful : ment of a new state on the Pacific, acceleinstead of purchasing from Mexico what rates the formation of four more, two in the she would freely have sold to us had we Northern, and two in the Southern and approached her in a spirit of peace and middle parts of the continent. The or conciliation, we trod rudely upon her flow of population from New Mexico, Cafrontiers, and roused her to a spirit irre- lifornia, and the territories of Texas, raconcilably hostile, and that refused nego- pidly Americanizes the Northern sections tiation. Late in the day, after a prodigi- of the Mexican Republic. The absorbing

. ous expenditure of blood and treasure, we re- and attractive power of our institutions, covered ourselves, and began to see reason the same power which draws an annual and right again, as before ; and we pur. emigration of half a million from Europe, chased the territory which our war faction which empties entire European villages of would have had us seize for a conquest. their inhabitants, acts with an effect still And now the same faction are beginning more intense upon the nations that suragain, a fourth time, or, rather, å fifth, round us.

a round us. By this attractive influence, —for we recognize them first at the time powerful revolutionary parties are generaof the annexation of Louisiana,—and they ted in every nation, sufficiently civilized are preparing for us a series of alarming and contiguous, to feel directly the infludifficulties; their aim is universal empire, ence of our institutions. These revolutionby conquest, on the new continent. They ary parties desire to have their governments know the movements and desires of the incorporated with, and under the protection more restless portion of the people, and of the Union. It is idle to protest against with the bayonet they point the way. these effects; the causes are too creditaTheir designs look not far into the future, ble to ourselves that we should make the not beyond an age. They have it in their effects a subject of lamentation. power to create causes of war that shall And yet we have no policy of colonizabe inevitable; and they know that, as a tion, of a just, and peaceful, and benefination, we recognise no settled colonial cial colonization. We refuse to look at system.

facts. We deny ourselves the benefits of Since the adoption of the Constitution the future ; or, rushing into the other ex

territories have been at intervals treme, we grasp madly at consequences, added to the Union, until the middle third and, by unjust means, accelerate the moveof the continent has come under the Go- ment of events. vernment of the United States. Im- It is reported that an armed expedition, mense portions of territory, sufficient organized by private adventurers, in league to sustain many millions of population, with a revolutionary portion in the Spanish are added by each distinct effort, and, Island of Cuba, is, at this moment, landin comparatively short spaces of time are ing upon the shores of that island, with a divided into States, so that, in rather more view to assist in displacing the Cuban than half a century, the extent of inhabi- Despotism. The Government of the table and cultivatable territory has been in- United States, it is said, in conformity creased three fold, and the number of' with those laws, and with those treaties

new

war.

with foreign nations, by which a strict neu- and the defenders of the Island. Between trality is made a part of the national sys- these new colonists and the revolutionary tem, have ordered a naval armament to faction there is a strong sympathy: and, watch this expedition, and forbid their after a time, matters come to a crisis ; the landing. This order of the Executive is Island makes a sudden effort, and throws struck at by certain Democratic Senators, off her allegiance to Spain. Spain, either and others, as an anti-republican order of her own motion, or aided and instigated The Executive, we know, cannot lift a by England, maintains a furious and definger toward the execution of a law, with structive war upon the Islanders. Ameout being anti-republican, or, rather, anti- rican volunteers pour in to aid their Democratic : for, it is the maxim of the countrymen, and share the spoils of vicwar-and-conquest faction, that the best go-tory. Reverses follow : Spain is too powvernment is that which fails oftenest in erful for her rebellious subjects. Citizens of the execution of the laws : in their view, the United States, taken in arms against the “ that is the best government which go- Government, are executed without trial, or verns least :” which is as if one should say, thrown into dungeons. Then begins the that is the best teacher, who teaches least; movement at home. An universal sympathy that is the best mason, who builds least ; with these suffering and adventurous spirits, or the best clergyman, who preaches least ; moves the national heart. Hostility to Spain, or the best captain, who commands least the oppressor and her allies, becomes a test effectually; or the best agent, who attends of patriotism. In the tempest of popular least to the orders of his employers. By enthusiasm all parties are carried away. this creed, the present Executive is like to Negotiations with Spain are managed in prove a very defective agent. The law- such a manner, under the excitement of makers, with us, are the people ;—the Ex- the time, as rather to hurry on the catasecutive is their agent;—the less he attends trophy; and there is danger of a general to the commands of those who put him in office, the more pleasing will he be to the Such is the first cause, or line of causes, Democratic, or no government, faction. upon

which the faction rely for ultimate This movement of adventurers upon the

Of their particular and persoIsland of Cuba has thrown out, into strong nal object in creating the war, and carrying relief, the two colors of the peace and war out the system to which it appertains, it is parties in America. The party of red, the unnecessary to speak at present. aggressive faction, are watching eagerly the The second train of causes upon which progress of events in the South. This they rely is of a more subtle, and much Cuba business is, doubtless, to them, the less appreciable character. It is a line of first movement in a line of conquest, by support derived from the attitude taken by which Mexico and the West Indies are to non-extensionist party, and which places be absorbed.

them, and the entire conservative body of The chances are greatly in favor of their the nation, at the mercy of the war facsuccess: they have everything to hope, tion. It begins in the fact that the conand nothing to lose : they rely upon two servative and constitutional peace party causes to promote their final success : refuse to adopt a colonial system ; wherefirst, the onward movement of population, as they, the war party, have a system, aided by that spirit of military adventure, and a very effective one it is, and apand colonization, which is congenial to our peals, upon occasion, to the passions of people, and which, at certain moments, the people with such force as to overwhelm takes possession of the entire nation. Im- all opposition ; and the unjust and destrucagine a series of events like the following: tive spirit of war has its own way, with The present, or some future expedition consequences infinitely to be deplored by effects a landing, and succeeds in coloni- the friends of freedom and legitimate prozing a portion of the Island of Cuba. The gress. enterprise, managed with prudence, and Ab initio, in the very beginning, the well supported at home, could hardly unconditional opponent of extension begins fail. Then follows a season of hosti- by declaring his want of faith in the Constilities, and a truce between the colonists tution itself, and predicts the ruin of the

war

success.

The ene

nation by its growth. He has no faith Events move on. The war is begun. in the expansive power of a Republic. It becomes necessary to sustain the honor He has faith in a despotic, but none in a of the nation. Millions have to be voted; republican or free expansion. He thinks five, ten, fifty, a hundred millions, -army that the best government is the least after army is sent into the field. capable of extending its dominion. He my, who might have been made friends and reverts to the happy thirteen colonies ;- allies, with vast loss and great glory are forgetful of the fact, that it is found a subdued. The people grow weary of the much easier task to nationalize thirty than war, and begin to calculate the cost. Tbe thirteen, sovereigh and independent States. war party falls into disrepute, and go out Of the thirteen the best that could be made of office. Negociations ensue for the purwas a rotten federation, and then a feeble chase of territories already conquered. It and uncertain Union ; but now, out of the is a point of honor and of honesty to purthirty, is there one that can erect itself chase them. The empire of freedom was against twenty-nine? This error is one not founded by robbers. Would IT NOT which a contemplation of the facts ought HAVE BEEN BETTER TO HAVE PURCHASED at once to dissipate. It is the power of the BEFORE THE WAR? separate sovereignties of which conserva- Of all the systems of policy that have tism should be jealous, and over which it been pursued for national aggrandizement, should exert a constant care ; it is they that that of the forcible or fraudulent seizure of are in danger, and not the general system. the territories and property of others, has

Again ; no sooner does it appear that led those who have adopted it the most rathe tide of population and enterprize is be- pidly to their own destruction. Public imginning to overflow the boundaries of some morality, originating in the vice and ambineighbor State, all that we have to offer is tion of a few demagogues, who have the art a cry against the unmanageable growth of to inspire, in the masses, a spirit of viothe empire,—the unwieldly bulk it has at- lence, reacts unhappily upon the character tained, and the formidable dangers that of individuals, leading them to a general must ensue from the increased patronage of disregard of social and moral obligations. the Executive. We throw down the reins As a just war elevates and strengthensand the steed goes whither he will ; anoth- an unjust, aggressive war, depresses and er hand snatches them up, and we are corrupts, a people. With ourselves, proud plunged into a war.

as we are of our strength, and confiding in Colonization, meanwhile, goes on rapid- the undoubted superio,ity of our arms, the ly. Bands of armed colonists and depre- temptations to aggression are extraordinary dators swarm across the frontier, urged and —the ablest statesmanship of the age has encouraged by those who, if they confide but been exercised in averting the omens of war. little in the constitution, trust implicitly to It is not always in the power of a single man the timely passions of the people. The to meet or avert the storm. It is wisdom crisis arrives. It becomes necessary to ne- to anticipate the danger and prevent its gotiate for the protection of our citizens, access by measures of progress and of now colonists upon a hostile territory. We conciliation, providing equally for the are at a loss what to do. The people, im- growth, education and unity of our future patient of our hesitation and delay, cry out empire. for violent measures.

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SIR JOHN FRANKLIN AND THE ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS.

A period in every age of the world has consists, but every attempt to reach it has been marked for its spirit of adventure ; failed. The broad Pacific, with its innueither for the discovery and exploration of merable islands, has been the field for unknown countries, or for the colonization maritime expeditions for more than two and settlement of countries previously cent es. In this, the United States has known. Curiosity is, doubtless, the first entered into competition with other nations, principle which directs human footsteps to and has contributed her share to the geopenetrate where they had not before trod-graphy, and the natural and physical science den ; to scan the broad ocean in quest of of this region. In the Antarctic exploranew lands; or to explore the depths of the tion we have also done our part. Besides African continent, and amid her burning these several portions of the earth, where sands, and her pestilential climate, to trace the love of adventure and the promotion of the sources of her mysterious rivers. science has led the traveller, there are Again, it leads him into the icy regions of others in Africa, Asia, and America, into the Poles, to search for a north-west pass- which he has also found his way, and age across the American continent, or to where he has been amply rewarded for his reach those imaginary points which are the labors. centre of the earth's axis. Without going During the present century, in fact since back into the earlier periods of history, the year 1818, the most remarkable zeal when the love of adventure was as great and interest has been awakened in Engas in our time, it will suffice to speak of land for explorations in the Arctic regions it, as it has been exhibited to us.

of America. They originated, first, in a During the present century maritime desire to solve the problem of the existand inland adventure, and discovery, bave cnce of a north-west passage, second, to both been prominent. For several years reach the North Pole; and, finally, when the desire was to penetrate into the interior neither of these ends could be accomplished, of Africa, to discover the source of the it resolved itself simply into a desire to mark river Niger. Mungo Park was the first out the geographical features of these dreary adventurer in this field, as well as the first and inaccessible solitudes, and to make cervictim to its deadly climate. Successive tain observations connected with physical expeditions were sent out by the British science. The discovery of a north-west Government, which only terminated with passage, it is known, would possess no the late attempt to ascend the Niger, with advantage, in a commercial point of view; steam vessels, from its mouth. To dis- nor would the feat of reaching the axis of cover the sources of the Nile has recently the earth's rotation, be likely to confer a been the object of several expeditions, and benefit on mankind; but every lover of although traced almost to the centre of science, every bold adventurer, in fact, the continent, its head waters have not every one at all imbued with the rational yet been discovered, A vast region re- curiosity of knowing the physical condition mains unexplored within this continent, of this inaccessible portion of our globe, and several adventurers are, at the present feels a desire to see these questions solved. moment, pressing forward to penetrate it. The world would rejoice if the daring and In another quarter of the globe there has noble Franklin might yet be the means of been a great curiosity to know of what the solving these problems. No one has done centre of the vast island of New Holland more to earn these laurels than he, and

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