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course would have supplied. For latterly In conclusion we will quote a passage which he had withdrawn himself from court, and is prefixed to the works before us,

and had resigned his magisterial office as soon credited to the Edinburgh Review. We as by his brother's death he had become select it among many because it conveys in the head of the family. But it chanced that a few brief words a not inadequate idea of every one of those apparent disqualifications the obligations we owe to the father of moinvested his writings with a pecular charm. dern essayists : Solitude made him original. Indolence made him concise and pointed. His bad “Montaigne seems to have a distinct charmemory led him to quote most accurately acter as a philosopher. As Machiavel was with the originals under his eyes, whilst to the first who discussed grave questions in a this conscious ignorance we are indebted for vulgar tongue, and created a philosophy of histhat delightful style, half prattle, half elo- tory, so Montaigne was the first conspicuous quence, that inimitable naiveté of manner, phized on the common concerns of men, and

writer who, in a modern language, philosoand that vivid strength of expression which the ordinary subjects of private reflection and will continue to make him a favorite for conversation. The degree which nature claims many generations.

in the diversity of talents, the efficiency of It was our intention to offer our opinions education, the value of the learned languages, as to the degree of influence which Mon- the usages of socie y, the passions that actutaigne exerted

upon his and

ate private life, the singular customs of differliterature of his own and other countries. in his essays. In the period from Socrates to

ent nations, are the subjects chiefly handled We had also proposed to ourselves the Plutarch, such questions had been well treatpleasing task of following the elegant es- ed before. But Montaigne was evidently the sayist on his journey beyond the Alps. founder of popular philosophy in modern But our limits compel us to forbear enter- times." ing upon those branches of our subject.

upon the


During a valetudinary journey on horse- | dress of an husbandman indicated his ocback, through the central parts of New cupation ; but his invitation to enter was England, some years ago, I turned aside given with a voice that showed an early refrom the highway to enjoy the greenness of finement and a knowledge of hospitality. a country road which wound under the His countenance, showed lines of characarches of a forest, towards the bases of ter blended with the injuries of grief and steep and rugged hills. Coming upon a melancholy, and somewhat impaired by steep ascent I fastened the bridle of my the timidity of a long solitude. I enhorse to the swinging arm of an oak, and tered, and accepting the sole chair, while pursued the ascent by a rocky ravine, my entertainer seated himself on the frame through which a stream rushed full and work of boards which served him for a bed, foaming The branches that grew far a conversation ensued, such as is usual beabove, interlaced a green canopy, which tween travellers and rustic entertainers. made the color of the rushing waters of the The situation of his farm, the character of purest emerald. Stepping from rock to the soil, the splendor of the scenery, for a rock, I ascended. The waters came down while engaged us, and soon, as if forgetful by a succession of slender cataracts, les- of himself, and after he had set before me sening toward the summit. Here was some temporary refreshment, he began to an open and cultivated space, forming a speak of other scenes in other lands. His ring of green fields, surrounding a lake, accent and a certain vivacity of manners out of which these waters flowed. Deep showed that he was of foreign birth. From forests rose around, on the sides of pre- a beam in one corner of the room, among cipitous hills. A narrow footway led along a collection of dried gourds and bunches the edge of the forest to a clearing beyond of maize, hung, neglected and covered with the lake, where a farm house of the small- dust, a suit of regimentals, and by a gold est dimensions indicated a master whose chain the star of an order, and the cross poverty, or whose misanthropy led him to of the Legion of Honor. prefer a life of solitary, unassisted labor. Seeing my attention attracted by these The entire cultivated space lying about the marks of former though evidently not forlake did not exceed perhaps ten acres. It gotten glory, a melancholy smile overwas not more than could have been rudely spread his features, which communicated tilled by the hand of one man. A footway to them an expression of regret, though leading from the house to the lake, went not unmixed with pride. out upon the water, by a pier of planks You have served,” I said, “ in the arand stones, showing that the owner could mies of the Emperor.” “Yes,” he ancontent himself with the turbid and insipid swered, “ from the age of sixteen till that waters of what must have been, most time, of twenty-five. After the defeat at Watera standing pool. Rude implements of loo I renounced the military profession, and husbandry were laid on the bare earth be- came to America. I brought with me a mofore the door. A lean horse bit the her- derate fortune—what you here call a combage near by, and a dog of savage appear- petency; and what was more, I brought ance saluted me with a surly, inhospitable hope, and even enthusiasm. The fortune growl.

I have still left me. "

A pause followed The door opened slowly and suspiciously. I began to have a strong desire to know A man evidently advanced in years made something of the history of this recluse his appearance, of a stature tall and per- Wishing to open an avenue to further and fectly erect. His head was bald, but a freer conversation, I asked how it was,

that beard of snowy whiteness flowed from his in possession of wealth, he had chosen the face, almost to the girdle. The rough hard conditions of poverty.

be Among our most frequent visitors was a

"Merely to live,” replied he carelessly, setts, who was wintering in New Orleans, “ is perhaps necessary while God pleases; I made a formal offer of myself in marbut for happiness, I know of but one kind; riage, and was accepted. and that is, to have a mind free from re- An unexpected happiness ensued. As morse, a conscience void of offence. The my opinion of the other sex had been life I have chosen is that of a monk, of a formed by the rude experience of a solpenitent,” he said bowing his head meekly; dier, and not much improved by the inter"and even in that I can find, if not happi- course of a frivolous society, the virtues of ness, at least content.”

my sweet companion were

a new and Respect forbade my pressing this digni- delightful discovery. We soon became fied ascetic with questions of his life ; but attached by the most ardent affection. he said, “Your countenance is one that The year after our marriage was passed in most men would confide in, and as it is not the enjoyment of the most innocent and my fortune to meet often with such, for heavenly delights. So absorbing was our here I am visited only by rustics, let me attachment, it became more agreeable confess that it would be a pleasure to me to us to withdraw into a comparative to relate what you seem desirous to hear.” seclusion, in order to find more leisure

I assented. We went out and took seats for the enjoyment of each other. Our upon greensward, under the shadows of felicity was the envy and the admiration of a neighboring oak. After a pause of some those whom we admitted to our society. minutes, during which he seemed to be collecting his thoughts, the stranger began gentleman of my own age, an American, as follows :

and a Northerner by birth, but educated, “Living solitary, I have perhaps fallen as I had been, in a French university . into childishness, which is one of the ef- Foreign travel had improved the naturally fects of solitude ; and at intervals I feel easy and agreeable manners of my friend, a desire to relate my history. This de- (for as such I was soon obliged to regard sire once indulged requires a second in him,) to a great refinement. His bold dulgence.

bearing was tempered with an acquired "At the age of twenty-five, in the full mildness, which only added fear to the reenjoyment of youth, health, and fortune, spect with which he was regarded by his I landed at New Orleans, with the resolu- inferiors. The name of this gentleman tion, as I touched your shores, of becoming was Eustis. He was of good extraction, in every sense a citizen of your country and prided himself upon the antiquity and As I had faithfully served the Emperor in virtue of his family, and on a character war, so I wished to serve the Republic in uncontaminated by any meanness. His peace. Provided with letters of introduc- Northern blood appeared in the metaphystion, and accustomed to your language, in ical and calculating habit of his mind. * Éna little time I found myself accepted in joying the reputation and the business of cultivated and influential circles, with a a popular advocate, he could yet find leisprospect before me of realizing my ambiti- ure to engage in speculative adventures, ous hopes. I shunned the company of Euro- and though his losses were often equal to peans. I mingled especially with persons his gains, he preserved the equanimity and politically influential. I brought with me calmness of a man whose confidence in his the frank ambition of a soldier: I learned resources never deserts him. from them something of the shrewdness and With me it had been always a necessity too much of the scepticism and the policy to have a friend, and even an intimate; of those who seek power for its own sake.” and until the powerful passion of love made

After living for a time an easy and some- him seem less necessary to me, Eustis had what dissipated life, into which I entered | been to me all that one man can be to anwith the desire of familiarizing myself with other, a friend, a social intimate, a skillful the character and social habits of your adviser in business, and a means of introcountrymen, I began to contemplate a more duction to good society. There was noserious and settled course of existence; and thing in him, one would have thought, that being taken with the manners and the he would desire to conceal, and his morality beauty of a young heiress from Massachu- surpassed the standard of my own.

It was especially by this latter advan- danger. In the midst of the first, I had tage, which he had by his Puritan educa- landed. The second and third year safely tion, that Eustis acquired a great control passed. The fourth now approached and over my sentiments. What seemed right prostrated me. I fell violently ill with the to him, seemed right to me. Morally fever of the country, and my life was desspeaking, he was my master, though to paired of. others I appeared his superior in every ex- Notwithstanding the little preparation I ternal advantage.

had made for death, I was unconscious of My wife, on the contrary, who was a fear. Only one anxiety possessed me, to distant connection of his, and had been his ensure the worldly comfort, and if possible playfellow in childhood, conceived for him the happiness, of my wife and child. Una strong aversion, which, notwithstanding der the advice of Eustis, my fortune had her devotion to my wishes, increased almost been judiciously invested in valuable planto a passion during the first year of our tations. To secure it to its right owners, married life. As Eustis and I were con- I had only to make my friend the guardian stantly exchanging visits, I very soon dis- of my child, and the executor of my will. covered her sentiments in regard to him, Believing that it was only an affectionate and did all in my power to change or soften jealousy that excited her hostility toward them, but with consequences the reverse of him, I had no hesitation in placing her unwhat was intended.

der his care and direction. In the exciteAt a little distance from the city I had ment of the time, my confidence in Eustis purchased a plantation, adjoining that of acquired a romantic character, and it bemy friend, who was unmarried, in order to gan to seem necessary (for it was way

fault make our social intercourse more free and to mistake impulses for necessities), that frequent. I learned from him the arts of in the event of my decease, my widow agriculture and economy, as then practised, should become the wife of my friend. He and what was more difficult, acquired, by who has so loved me, thought I, will surely assiduous inquiry on my own and skillful love my child; at least, for my sake, he instruction on his part, a good knowledge will be kind and just to it. As for my of the history and political constitution of poor Ellen's hostility to him, it is the effect the country. These obligations bound me of jealousy, and will wear off as soon as closely to my friend. We maintained a she finds herself dependent upon his

gendaily intercourse. We did every thing in erous nature. The design once formed, I our power to make our homes agreeable to thought it impossible to die in peace until each other, by society of the choicest, and it was made sure. I caused a will to be conduct the most hospitable.

executed in which, after disposing of the Eustis was too quick an observer, not to body of my property to my wife and child, comprehend at once the excellence of my I bequeathed a valuable share of it to wife, and to think he understood the hos- Eustis. I then wrote a paper, containing tility with which she regarded him. “When an injunction upon him, and upon my we were children together,” he would widow, if they wished for the continued sometimes say, "Ellen and I were excel- affection and approbation of the departed lent friends; but now, she is jealous of soul (which, from its place of rest or of me. She wishes to absorb you entirely. torment, would continue to sympathize with Some women are as jealous of a male as their happiness and their misery), to unite of a female rival.” This explanation themselves with each other in marriage, seemed very agreeable, and heightened my after the lapse of not more than two years regard for both.

from my decease. With this exception, I remember no- After the making and witnessing of the thing that happened amiss during the first will, I called Eustis to my bed-side, and three years of my marriage. At the end with difficulty, so near did I seem to dissoof the first year, my wife brought me a lution, laid upon him the solemn injunction daughter, who is still living, in enjoyment that the document, urging the marriage, of the fortune which I have long since re- should not be opened, under any condi

A vigorous constitution carried | tions, until two years had elapsed from my me unacclimated through two seasons of decease; and that if, at the end of that time, it appeared that the consent of the ent, insisted on a farther examination, and other party could not be obtained for the soon discovered signs of life in the body. marriage, the paper should be destroyed, The first effects of this astounding inand its contents remain a secret with him- telligence was to produce a stupefaction of self.

my senses, changing quickly into the delirAlthough my eyes at that moment were ium of fever, which lasted, almost without somewhat dimmed with the film of a threat- intermission, until we had gone far out on ened dissolution, I remember well the flush the Atlantic. A gradual convalescence of astonishment and pleasure which passed enabled me, at length, to collect my over the features of my friend when he thoughts, and resolve upon a course of learned the contents of the papers.

A conduct which I afterward pursued with a dreadful misgiving smote upon my heart strength of resolution natural to me, and with such violence, my very life seemed to wholly independent of all scruples of confail under it, and from that instant all was science. Indeed, such, until then, had a blank.

been my way of life, that ideas of right and On rousing from this tranoe, which had wrong had hardly made their appearance lasted I knew not how long, I found my- in my thoughts. I was a man of honor, a self lying in the cabin of a ship, attended firm friend, a dangerous enemy, and a by a French surgeon. The change of sit- keeper of promises, and that seemed to be uation, so apparently instantaneous, though enough. My own will, and my proper I learned afterwards that a full week had fame were the gods of my adoration. elapsed, affected me like the loss of per- The surgeon communicated every parsonal identity. And for some time I was ticular of the funeral. He described the speechless, and trembled with fear and pale and almost deathful countenance of astonishment. The surgeon began to my wife, the dignified grief of Eustis, the speak to me in French, calling me by lamentations of my faithful slaves, the sinname, with many respectful and soothing cere sorrow of the neighbors. In regard expressions. Soon, I recognized his fea- to all, I questioned him so closely and retures and voice as those of an old friend peatedly he at length grew weary of the and companion in the army. As I grad-topic, and refused to advert to it. I beually acquired strength to bear it, he ex- came dissatisfied, and finally a suspicion plained to me my situation.

made a lodgment in my brain, that the It was supposed that I had died. After dignified sorrow of Eustis was, at best, the second day, fearing putrifaction, Eustis but a sham, and that my death had been had commanded my corpse to be sealed up desired by him, and was rejoiced over in in a leaden coffin. It was thought proper

secret. that my body should be sent to France, to

Ellen abhorred the man. Why did she be placed with those of my ancestors, in so ? Faultless herself, could she feel a the family tomb at Aix, where I was a native. groundless abhorrence? Was it an idle My obsequies were celebrated with great bias, or a well founded dislike? Perhaps, magnificence, and the coffin placed on ship nay, probably, the latter. What a thrice board on the third day, the ship setting sodden ass was I, then, to entrust her hapsail that very hour. The third day after, piness in the keeping of one for whom she while in the gulf, they met a violent storm, had a real cause of hatred! It was food which the mariners superstitiously attrib

for bitter and exquisite regret. uted to the presence of a corpse on board. But why, ah, why! if that was so, did A mutiny was raised in consequence, and she not open to her poor, deluded husit was thought necessary to throw the cof- band, the reason of her dislike? Was it fin with its contents into the sea. In just ? was it kind? This, then, was a attempting, however, to bring it up from fault in my reputed angel. the cabin, the sailors were terrified by a “But, stay. Women are frail. Weakmovement within, and let their burden fall ness and wickedness are sister and brother. down through the companion way. It Perhaps my angel had another fault, grossburst open with the shock, and discovered er and more heinous;" and with that, a dark the face of a person in a trance, but evi- suspicion crossed me. Her aversion had dently not dead. The surgeon being pres- been only feigned, as a cover to something

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