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The sole object of this expedition, was hich latitudes. “The vallies were richly clad the discovery of a north-west passage. The with grass and moss, the birds singing, ships selected for it were the Fury of 377 butterflies and other insects displaying the tons, and the Hecla of 375 tons. Captain most gaudy tints, so that the sailors might Parry commanded the former and Captain have fancied themselves in some happier Lyon the latter vessel. They left England climate, had not the mighty piles of ice in on the 8th May 1821, accompanied by a the Frozen Strait told a different tale." transport, with stores and provisions, which Hunting parties were sent out which prowere to be transhipped on reaching the ice, cured a variety of game. where their field of explorations began. To follow the narrative of this expedi

Captain Parry, it will be remembered, tion, which abounds in events of the most in his first expedition, discovered a broad interesting character, for a polar subject, channel opening from the southerly side of would be quite beyond the limits of this Barrow's Strait, since known as Prince brief sketch. Though much more was acRegent's Inlet. This he believed com- complished in point of distance, in the first municated with the American Coast, and expedition of Parry, than in this, the numthat the lands which lay on either side of ber and the variety of incident was greater it, were islands. It was also an opinion, in the latter. Esquimaux were seen at pretty generally believed, that Repulsé many places, with whom the most friendly Bay had not been thoroughly explored by intercourse was held, and the long tedium Captain Middleton in his attempt to find of two Arctic winters was much relieved by a north-west passage in 1741—that he the contiguity of villages of these people. might have been deceived by the appear- In fact, none of the Arctic navigators have ance of the ice and by fogs, and that an had so favorable an opportunity to study opening might still be found through this the habits of the Esquimaux as Captain bay. Another point of discussion was a Parry did in this expedition, and the pages passage known as Frozen Strait. The ex- of his narrative are much enlivened by the amination of these passages or inlets interesting accounts of them. As little has were therefore prominent objects of the ex- been said in this paper of the natives, it pedition.

may not be amiss to quote a short account “After the most anxious consideration,” of a party which established themselves near says Captain Parry, “I came to the re- the ships and at whose request Captain solution of attempting the direct passage Parry accompanied them to their huts : of the Frozen Strait, though, I confess,

" When it is remembered that these habitanot without some apprehension of the risk

tions were fully within sight of the ships, and I was incurring, and of the serious loss of

how many eyes were constantly on the look time, which, in case of failure, either from

out among us for anything that could afford the non-existence of the strait, or from the variety or interest to our present situation, our insuperable obstacles which its name im- surprise may be imagined at finding an estabplies, would thus be inevitably occasioned

lishment of five huts, with canoes, sledges, by the expedition." Parry was success

dogs, and above sixty men, women, and chil

dren, as regularly, and to all appearance as ful in getting through this Strait as well as

permanently fixed, as if they had occupied the in tracing the coast beyond, and of proving same spot for a whole winter. In the conthe general correctness of the statements struction of these houses the only material of Middleton. Much time was lost in sett- used was snow and ice. After creeping ling these points, after which the expedi- through two low passages, each having its tion continued its examination of several arched doorway, we came to a small circular inlets and bays to the northward, through apartment, of which the roof was a perfectly Fox Channel to a broad opening known as

arched dome. From this three doorways, also

arched, led into as many inhabited apariments, the Strait of the Hecla and Fury. In some of these inlets there was an appearance of

one on each side. The interior of ihese pre

sented a scene no less novel than interesting. summer, such as is not common in such The women were seated on ihe beds at the

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side of the huts, each having her little fire | dow of ice, neatly fitted into the roof of each
place, or lamp, with all her domestic utensils apartment.”
about her; the children crept behind their
mothers, and the dogs, except the female ones,

Exploring parties were sent out both
which were indulged with a part of the beds, years which traced the coast to a consider-
slunk out past us in dismay. The construc-able distance in various directions, so that
tion of this inhabited part of the hut was si- much geographical knowledge was acquir-
milar to that of the outer apartment, being a ed, and the fact established that there was
dome formed by separate blocks of snow, laid
with great regularity aud no small art, each

no passage leading to the west south of

Hecla and Fury Strait. In August 1823, being cut into the shape requisite to form a substantial arch, from seven

to eight feet

high the 17th of September 1823 they entered
the ships left their winter quarters.

in the centre, and having no support what-
ever, but what this principle of building sup- Hudson's Strait, and reached England on
plied. They were lighted by a circular win- | the 18th of November.


In order to connect the Polar discoveries | age. She was so deeply laden as to destroy of Franklin eastward from Coppermine her sailing qualities and render her unRiver and the late discoveries of Parry by manageable. She reached Repulse Bay which the whole line of coast might be made near which she encountered successive gales out, the Government determined to send the of wind, and narrowly escaped foundering. Griper, under the command of Captain She was beset with the ice, enveloped in Lyon, to Repulse Bay. The expedition fogs and in a severe gale lost all her left England on the 11th June 1924. The anchors. Drifting at the mercy of the orders were to proceed to Wager River or winds and waves she was happily carried Repulse Bay ; to cross Melville Peninsula by the current out of danger. The season on foot; then to follow the western shore having passed without effecting anything, of that peninsula, and the northern shore of and not thinking it prudent to continue in North America to the extreme point reach- those boisterous regions without anchors, ed by Franklin in 1820, called Point Captain Lyon determined very prudently Turnagain.

to abandon the voyage, and make the best The Griper, although she had been em- of his way to England, where he arrived in ployed by Captain Clavering in the Green- safety on the 10th of November. land seas proved herself unfit for this voy


This voyage, although it was sent out | bergen; afterward to make the east coast for the purpose of reaching the Pole, is of Greenland, in as high a latitude as the deserving of insertion here. This expedi- barrier of ice would permit, and having got tion consisted of the gun-brig Griper, com- within the barrier, to ascend the coast to manded by Captain Clavering. Captain the northward as far as might be compatiSabine, since well known for his contribu- ble the same year, in order to obtain a tions to science, accompanied the expedi- third pendulum station for Captain Sation to make scientific experiments. The bine's experiments at the highest degree of plan of the voyage was, “to proceed to latitude that might be there obtained." A Hammerfest, near the North Cape in Nor- fourth station, if desired, was to be selectway, in the 70th degree north latitude, ed in Iceland, or any other place in the thence to a second station, in or near the same parallel, if desired. 80th parallel, on the northern coast of Spitz- Aftar visiting Hammerfest, the expedi

tion sailed on the 230 June, was in sight of returned to the station, which he reached Spitzbergen in four days, and on the 30th, on the 11th of July. rounded Hakluyt’s Headland and dropped Captain Sabine having completed his anchor. The tents and instruments were operations, and procured an abundant disembarked and set upon shore. Captain supply of rein deer for provisions, the Sabine, two officers, and six men, then ship sailed to the eastern coast of Greenlanded, to carry on their pendulum obser- land, in about the latitude of 74o the highvations. They were provided with a est known point on the coast, where they launch, six months' provisions and fuel, to landed. “Never was there a more desocarry them to Hammerfest in case of ne- late spot seen,” says Clavering, “Spitzcessity. The Griper then left, Captain bergen was, on the whole, a paradise to it." Clavering having determined to push as He then stood to the northward till stopped far northward as possible. On the second by the ice in lat., 75° 12', which he supday out he reached the pack ice, but twen- posed the N. E. point of Greenland. A ty-five miles from the island, extending party of 12 Esquimaux were found here, east and west as far as the eye could reach. with whom they held intercourse. The The latitude observed was 800 20'. expedition remained on the coast till the After tracing the margin of the ice for six- 13th of September, during which time ty miles west and finding it trending to the Captain Sabine, was enabled to complete South, and everywhere closely packed, he his operations. They then sailed for deemed it useless to proceed farther, and England.


Captain Parry was placed in command found free from ice. They had not proof a third expedition for the discovery of a ceeded far, however, before their progress North-west passage, which sailed from was obstructed by the new ice which had England on the 19th of May, 1824. already begun to make across the Strait, This expedition consisted of two ships, the Opposing winds and a strong current settHecla and Fury, the same which were em- ing eastward, tended still more to check ployed in the last expedition, the latter their progress, and in one night they vessel being placed under the command of drifted between eight and nine leagues Captain Hoppner. Their instructions were westward. On the 26th of September an to make the best of their way to Lancaster easterly wind sprang up which wafted the Sound, thence through Barrow's Strait to ships rapidly towards Prince Regent's Inlet, Prince Regent's Inlet, by which channel which they reached, and took up their it was believed he would be able to proceed winter quarters in Port Brown, on the 1st westward to Behring's Strait.

of October. The dreary winter passed off The ships entered the middle ice in as usual, and without accident. The Baffin's Bay on the 17th July. “From mercury in the thermometer did not rise this time,” says Parry," the obstructions above zero till the 10th of April, having from the quantity, magnitude, and close- remained below that point for one hundred ness of the ice, were such as to keep our and thirty one successive days. people constantly employed in heaving, As in former expeditions, parties were warping, or sawing through it, and yet sent to explore the coasts in different diwith so little success, that at the close rections before the breaking up of the ice; of July we had only penetrated seventy which took place on the 12th of July, and miles to the westward.” They narrowly on the 19th the ships got clear, and stood escaped being crushed, and it was not across to the western shore of the inlet. until the 9th of September that they suc- They followed this shore southward for ceeded in releasing themselves from this several days in the passage between the ice icy barrier. On the 10th of September and the shore, until a change of wind they entered Lancaster Sound, which they brought the ice upon them, forcing them



into shallow water, and causing them to Barrow's Strait on the 1st September. ground. They made several

They found Baffin's Bay still clear of ice, escapes here, but the Fury was so much and meeting with no obstructions, reached injured that it was necessary to take out England on the 12th of October. her stores and heave her down. After This last attempt was the least successmaking the necessary repairs, her stores ful of either of Parry's Voyages. No inwere again embarked, only to be removed formation regarding a western passage had ashore again, three days after, when the been obtained, and the additions to our ship again grounded, without any hope of arctic geography consisted in extending the getting her off

. The summer was now line of coast but a short distance beyond rapidly passing away, and prompt mea- what was previously known. The contrisures were necessary in this dilemma. It butions to natural history were equally was therefore determined to land the stores meagre. The shores of Prince Regent's of the Fury, take her officers and crew on Inlet were found to be the “ most barren, board the Hecla, and proceed at once to the most dreary and desolate, that have England.

been seen, not excepting Melville Island i It was now the 27th of August. A not merely desolate of human beings, but favorable wind enabled them to reach the almost deprived of animal and vegetable western shore of Prince Regent's Inlet, life.” Astronomical and magnetical obwhence, after a few days' preparation in servations were made as in former voyages, getting the ship ready for her voyage, she the results of which are appended to the

, sailed on the last of August, and entered | narrative of this voyage.


The fourth voyage of this distinguished on the 19th, where they took on board navigator (or rather the fifth, as his first eight rein-deer, and a supply of moss to voyage was with Captain John Ross), was feed them upon, and on the 14th of May totally different from the preceding. This rounded Hakluyt's Headland in Spitzberwas to reach the North Pole in the most


On the 8th of June the boats took direct manner; first by a ship as far as the their departure with 71 days' provisions, ice would permit, and then by travelling with a clear sea. The second day they with sledge-boats over the ice, availing reached the pack ice in latitude 81° 12' themselves of any spaces of water that 51". As the daylight is constant in these might occur.

high latitudes, the sun continually above Two boats were constructed for the ex- the horizon, during the summer season, pedition, “twenty feet long and seven broad, Captain Parry chose that portion of the flat-floored, and as stout as wood and iron twenty-fours which corresponded with could make them ; and so fitted as to con- night for travelling, and rested during the tain nautical and other instruments, bags day. The sun was higher during the day of biscuit, pemmican, clothing and other hours, and oppressive to the eyes, while stores."

A bamboo mast, a tarred duck the heat rendered it more comfortable for sail, answering also the purpose of an sleeping. “ This travelling by night,” says awning, paddles, boat hooks, &c., com- Parry," and sleeping by day, so completely pleted each boat's complement. Two offi- inverted the natural order of things, that cers and twelve men, were selected for the it was difficult to persuade ourselves of the crew of each. “ Each boat, with all her reality ; nor could we, even with pocket furniture, tools, instruments, clothing, and chronometers, always bear in mind at what provisions of every kind, weighed 3753 part of the 24 hours we had arrived.” A pounds, exclusive of four sledges.brief sketch of their mode of living may be

With this expedition Captain Parry interesting : sailed in the Hecla, on the 4th of April, “ Being rigged for travelling," says Captain 1827, reached Hammerfest, in Norway, / Parry, “we breakfasted on warm cocoa and


biscuit, then stowed the things in the boats, boats and carry their stores in several and set off on our day's journey. After tra- journeys. But the most vexatious of all velling five or six hours, we stopped an hour to dine, and again travelled four, five, or six

was, to discover, on taking an observation hours. After this we hutted for the night,

on the 30th, that they had reached no though it was early in the morning, selecting higher than 81° 23', and had consequently the largest surface of ice for hauling our boats

advanced but eight miles nearer the pole The boats were placed close alongside in five day's laborious travelling. They each other, and the sails, supported by the continued slowly to advance, working from paddles, placed over them as awnings. Dry 10 to 12 hours each day ; and in the windshoes and stockings were then put on and

ings of their journeys of 10 or 15 miles, did supper eaten. After this pipes were smoked

not advance more than two-thirds that disand the men told their stories. This part of the twenty-four hours was often a time, and

tance. On taking observations as before, the only one, of real enjoyment to us. A re- they found their actual advance northward gular watch was set during the resting time to was little more than half their apparent adlook out for bears, and for the ice breaking up vance. This was owing to a strong curaround us, as well as to attend to the drying rent setting to the South, carrying with it of the clothes. We then concluded our day the whole body of ice. On the 23d of July with prayers, and having put on our fur dresses

, lay down to sleep with a degree of they reached their highest latitude or 82comfort, which perhaps few persons would

45'. They strove in vain to reach 83o. imagine possible under such circumstances.

On this day the thermometer ranged from The temperature while we slept, was usually

31° to 360 in the shade. from 36° to 45°, according to the state of the external atmosphere; but on one or two oc

At the extreme point of our journey," casions it rose as high as 60° to 66°. After

says Parry, “our distance from the Hecla was we had slept 7 hours, we were aroused by the

only 172 miles. To accomplish this we had man appointed to boil the cocoa, when it was

travelled by our reckoning, 292 miles, of ready.

which above one hundred were performed by Our fuel consisted entirely of spirits of wine,

water previously to our entering the ice. As of which two pints formed our daily allowance,

we travelled the greater part of our distance the cocoa being cooked in an iron bojler, over

on the ice three, and not unfrequently five, a shallop lamp, with seven wicks. One pint

times over, we may safely multiply the length of the spirits of wine would heat 28 pints of

of the road by iwo and a half; so that our water, though it commenced from the tempera

whole distance, on a very moderate calculature of 32o.

tion, amounted to 580 geographical, or 678 The ice was found to be entirely different

statute miles, being nearly suficient to have

reached the pole in a direct line.” from what it was expected to be. Instead of a smooth level plain, instead of compact On the 27th of July, they turned their floes, it consisted entirely of small, loose, faces homewards and reached the Hecla on and rugged masses, obliging them “ to the 21st of August, after an absence of 61 make three journeys and sometimes four, days. During their absence, the officers with the boats and baggage, and to launch who remained with the ship were occupied several times across narrow pools of water." with scientific explorations and observaOne day they only advanced half a mile in tions. four hours; and another the ice was so On the return of the expedition to Engmuch in motion as to make it dangerous to land, Captain Parry submitted another cross with loaded boats, the masses being plan to reach the North Pole, but the Adso small.

At other times the roughness miralty did not deem it advisable to make of the ice compelled them to unload the another attempt.


The first expedition for exploring the placed under the command of Lieutenant shores of the Arctic Sea, which had been Franklin, assisted by Dr. Richardson as seen by Hearne and Mackenzie, was naturalist. They left England on the 23d

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