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dians'; th at he was not deliberately chokedfounded on the humiliation of Labor, as necessary to death, while half insane, half idiotic, for

to the perfection of a chivalrous Republic. The

party of Freedom maintains universal suffrage, an offence of which he had no moral con

which makes men equal before human laws, as sciousness, is due to the persevering fidelity they are in the sight of their common Creator. and self-forgetting humanity, of William The party of Slavery cherishes ignorance, beH. Seward.

cause it is the only security for oppression. The The hum of preparation for the contest party of Liberty demands the diffusion of knowof 1848 again summoned Gov. S. to the ledge, because it is the only safeguard of Republi

can institutions. political arena. Early convinced that Gen. The party of Slavery patronizes that Labor Taylor combined with eminent fitness for which produces only exports to commercial nations the station, an unequalled popularity among

abroad, tobacco, cotton and sugar, and abhors the

Protection that draws grain from our native fields, those who are not decided partisans, but

lumber from our native forests, and coal from our whose votes, as they are cast into this scale

native mines, and ingenuity, skill and labor from or that, determine the result of an election, the free minds and willing hands of our own people. he was, though not prominent in the can- “ The party of Freedom favors only the produc

tions of such minds and such hands, and seeks to vass, a decided advocate of the nomination

build up our Empire out of the redundant native of Gen. T. up to the assembling of the

materials with which our country is blest. Whig National Convention at Philadelphia, “ The party of Slavery leaves the mountain, ravine and thenceforth an ardent and assiduous and shoal to present all their natural obstacles to champion of his election. Though he spoke internal trade and free locomotion, because Rail

roads, Rivers and Canals are highways for the esfrequently in our State, the certainty of an

cape of bondmen. overwhelming Whig triumph here rendered

The party of Liberty would cover the country speaking well nigh superfluous, and he with railroads and canals to promote the happiness therefore accepted

invitations to address the of the people, and link them together with the inWhigs of Pennsylvania and of Ohio, to set

dissoluble bonds of friendship and affection. forth the reasons which induced him-ar

“ The party of Slavery maintains its military

defences, and cultivates the martial spirit, for it dently devoted to the preservation of every knows not the day, nor the hour, when a standing inch of Free Territory from the irruption army will be necessary to suppress and extirpate of Slavery and hoping for the Emancipa- the insurrectionary bondinen. tion of the Enslaved universally—to unite

“ The party of Freedom cherishes peace, be

cause its sway is sustained by the consent of a in the support of Gen. Taylor. The fol

happy and grateful people. The party of Slavery lowing extract from his speech at Cleve- fortifies itself by adding new slave-bound domains, land, Ohio, will convey a fair idea of his on fraudulent pretext and with force. views and positions:

“ The party of Freedom is content and moder

ate, seeking only just enlargement of Free Terri“ There are two antagonistical elements of So. tory through fear of change. ciety in America-Freedom and Slavery. Free- “ The party of Slavery declares that institution dom is in harmony with our system of Govern- necessarily beneficent, and approved by God, and ment, and with the spirit of the age, and is there- therefore inviolable. fore passive and quiescent. Slavery is in conflict “ The party of Freedom seeks complete and uniwith that system, with justice and with humanity, versal emancipation. You, Whigs of the Reserve, and is therefore organized, defensive, active, and and you especially, Seceding Whigs, none know perpetually aggressive.

so well as you that these two elements exist, and “Freedom insists on the emancipation and'eleva- are developed in the two great National parties of tion of Labor; Slavery on its debasement and the land as I have described them. That existence bondage. Slavery demands a soil moistened with aud development constitute the only reason you tears and blood ; Freedom, a soil that exults un- can assign for having been enrolled in the Whig der the elastic tread of Man in his native majesty. party, and mustered under its banner, so zealously

“ These elements divide and classify the Ameri- and so long. And now, I am to contend that can People into two parties; each of these parties the evil spirit I have described has possessed one has its court and its sceptre. The throne of the party without mitigation or exception, and that one is amid the rocks of the Alleghany mountains, the beneficent one has on all occasions, and fully, the throne of the other is reared on the sands of directed the action of the other. But I appeal to South Carolina. One of these parties, the party of you, to your candor and justice, if the beneficent Slavery, regards disunion as among the means of spirit has not worked chiefly in the Whig party, defence, and not always the last to be employed. and its antagonist in the adverse party.” The other maintains the Union of the States, one

Gen. Taylor was chosen President and and inseparable, now and forever, as the highest duty of the American people to themselves, to

Mr. Fillmore Vice-President in the elecposterity and to mankind.

tion which soon followed, and in this State “ The party of Slavery uphold an aristocracy the Whig ascendancy, owing to the bitter feud and nearly equal division of the ad- gress of protecting and shielding the Terverse host into supporters of Van Buren ritories of the United States from the inand Cass respectively, was overwhelming, trusion of Human Bondage. While thus The Whig plurality on the Electoral and maintaining his own principles-sometimes State tickets was nearly 100,000 votes, in a minority of two or three only—he has and the Assembly exhibited nearly or quite studiously refrained from giving personal one hundred Whig majority out of one offence to others or taking offence at any hundred and twenty-eight Members. Tao sallie3 01 malevolence and impertinent de Senate had been chosen the previous year, traction. Never moved from his natural when the feud was much less definitive and equanimity by the insults or taunts of the universal, and stood twenty-four Whigs to few who hoped to commend themselves to eight opponents of both sections. On the local favor and eclat by scurrilous attacks Legislature thus composed—the most de- on the representative in that body of Three cidedly Whig that New-York had ever Millions of Freemen—the undoubted, unseen, embracing representatives of the party faltering champion of the Right of All Men from nearly every neighborhood in the State to Freedom and its attendant blessings-devolved the duty of electing a United he has kept due on in the straight path States Senator, in place of John A. Dix, lighted before him by the sentiment of Huwhose term would expire on the 4th of manity and by his convictions of Truth, March then ensuing. A very eager and Public Policy, and Christian duty. His animated canvass early and naturally votes and his speeches have been, all as one, sprung up among the friends of our promi- on the side of Justice, Equality and Benenent Whig Statesmen, by any of whom the ficence. From his speech of March 11th, post might justly be regarded as the goal of on the Admission of California, in connecan honorable ambition. This canvass was tion with the Slavery Question—a speech closed on the evening of the 1st of Febru- which posterity will recognize as the memary, 1849, when the Whig Members of the orable incident of the Session of 1850, and Legislature assembled to designate the can- of which already Half a Million copies didate of their choice for Senator. The have been printed without satisfying the vote on the first informal ballot stood- demand for it—a single extract will close William H. Seward, 88; Jobn A. Collier, this Memoir : 12; all others, 18; blanks, 4. Gov. Seward having nearly three-fourths of the “ The Union, the creation of necessities physical, whole number, was unanimously nominated, moral, social and political, endures by virtue of the without proceeding to a formal ballot, and

same necessities; and these necessities are strong

er than when it was produced, by the greater on Tuesday the 6th ensuing, he was elect

amplitude of territory now covered by it ; stronger ed a Senator of the United States, for six by the six-fold increase of the society living under years from the 4th of March then ensuing,

its beneficent protection ;-stronger by the augby a vote of 121 for him to 30 for all

mentation ten thousand times of the fields, the others.

work-shops, the mines and the ships of that socie

ty, of its productions of the sea, of the plow, of Gov. Seward took his seat in the Senate

the loom, and of the anvil, in their constant circle on the day of Gen. Taylor's Inauguration, of internal and international exchanges ; stronger (March 5th, 1849,) and is understood to in the long rivers penetrating regions before unhave withdrawn from the labors of his pro

known stronger in all the artificial roads, canals

and other channels and avenues essential not only fession, so far as his engagements would

to trade but to defense ; stronger in steam navigapermit, in order to devote himself thorough- tion, in steam locomotion on the land, and in teloly to the duties of his station and to those graph communications unknown when the Conof the responsible private trust already al- stitution was adopted ;stronger in the freedom luded to. Heartily concurring with and

and in the growing empire of the seas stronger

in the element of national honor in all lands, and supporting the general views and mea

stronger than all in the now settled habits of venesures of the illustrious Patriot now happily ration and affection for institutions so stupendous filling the Executive Chair of the Nation, he and useful, has yet vindicated his integrity to his own

“ The Union then IS, not because merely that

men choose that it shall be, but because some Goconvictions by a uniform affirmance of the

vernment must exist bere, and no other GovernRight of Petition, the natural Equality of

ment than this can. If it should be dashed to all Men, and the duty devolving on Con- atoms by the whirlwind, the lightning, or the

earthquake to-day, it would rise again in all its yet been made! If the trial of faction has not been just and magnificent proportions to-morrow. made, it has not been because that faction has not

“I have heard somewhat here, and almost for always existed, and has not always menaced a the first time in my life, of divided allegiance-of trial, but because faction couldfind no fulcrum on allegiance to the South and to the Union of al- which to place the lever to subvert the Union, as it legiance to States severally, and to the Union. can find no fulcrum now; and in this is my confiSir, if sympathies with State emulation and pride dence. I would not rashly provoke the trial, but of achievement could be allowed to raise up an- I will not suffer a fear which I have not to make other sovereigu to divide the allegiance of a citizen me Compromise one sentiment, one principle of of the United States, I might recognize the claims truth or justice, to avert a danger that all experiof the State to which by birth and gratitude I be- ence teaches me is purely chimerical. Let those, Jong-to the State of Hamilton and Jay, of then, who distrust the Union make Compromises to Schuyler, of the Clintons and of Fulton-the State save it. I shall not impeach their wisdom, as I which, with less than 200 miles of natural naviga- certainly cannot their patriotism, but, indulging no tion connected with the ocean, has, by her own such apprehensions myself, I shall vote for the adenterprise, secured to herself the commerce of the mission of California, directly, without conditions, Continent, and is steadily advancing to the com- without qualification, and without Compromise. mand of the commerce of the world. But for all For the vindication of that vote I look not to the this, I know only one country and one Sovereign verdict of the passing hour, disturbed as the public

-the United States of America and the American mind now is by conflicting interests and passions, People.

but to that period, happily not far distant, when “ And such as my allegiance is, is the loyalty of the vast regions over which we are now legislating, every other citizen of the United States.

shall have received their destined inhabitants. As I speak he will speak when his time ar- “ While looking forward to that day, its countrives; he knows no other country and no other less generations seem to me to be rising up and sovereign ; he has life, liberty, property, and pre- passing in dim and shadowy review before us. cious affections and hopes for himself and for his And the voice comes forth from their serried posterity, treasured up in the ark of the Union ; he ranks, saying, “Waste your treasures, and your knows as well and feels as strongly as I do, that armies, if you will; raze your fortifications to the this Government is his own Government; that he ground; sink your navies into the sea ; transmit 10 is a part of it; that it was established for him, and us even a dishonored name, if you must; but the that it is maintained by him; that it is the only soil that you hold in trust for us, give it to us Free! true, wise, just, free, and equal Government that You found it free and conquered it to extend a has ever existed ; that no other Government could better and surer freedom over it. Whatever choice be so wise, just, free and equal; that it is safer and you have made for yourselves, let us have no parmore beneficent than any which time or change tial freedom ; let us all be free ; let the reversion of could bring into its place.

our broad domain descend to us unincumbered and “ You may tell me, Sir, that although all this free from the calamities and the sorrows of human may be true, yet that the trial of faction has not bondage."



Two aged men stood near a moss-clad tomb

That marked a battle of an olden day; A rusted sword lay in the rank green grass,

And answered not the noontide sun's bright ray.

One gently touched the ancient sepulchre,

And mused, and deeply sighed, and shed a tear ; Then, in the faltering tone of mourning love,

Poured these sad words into his comrade's ear:

“ Moss grows on the old monument of stone,

And acts a tender, charitable part:
I had a faithful Friend : he, like the Moss,

Guarded me well, and bound my crumbling heart.”

The other peeled the rust from the old sword,

And marked its ravage on the blade of death; Then, with a shudder, let the relic fall,

And spake with trembling voice and gasping breath :

“ Rust gathers on the stricken warrior's sword,

And acts the savage part of a rude foe: I had an enemy: he, like the Rust,

Devoured my heart of steel, and laid me low."

They said no more, but, arm in arm, walked on;

I marked their aged forms, so bent and weak, Beheld the rusted sword and moss-clad tomb, And, as I gazed, a tear rolled down my cheek.

G. M. P.


Our readers know our opinion in rela- to set Mr. Whitney to work. It is singution to Mr Whitney's plan of rail road lar that the world should have been so long, to the Pacific. We embrace, with plea- for ages, magnifying the importance of a sure, the opportunity of giving place in ship canal across the Isthmus, when, as our columns to the following letter to would seem from this document, it can be the London Times, inasmuch as it pre- of so little benefit to commerce. Even sents some of the most forcible rea- with that canal, the great desideratum, to sons we have ever yet seen, even from wit, a shorter and less expensive route to Mr. Whitney's hand, in favor of that Eastern Asia, would still be wanting. great enterprise, to which he has devoted Mr. Whitney speaks truly of the stuhis life. The whole world will be surpris- pendous effects of changes of routes in the ed at the announcement of the bold propo- great channels of commerce, on the destiny sition, that, “should the Pacific Ocean of states and empires ; and his own great burst its bounds, and mingle with its sister conception is well developed in his averAtlantic, opening a Strait from Panama to ment, that there can be but one more Tehuantepec, the commercial world would change of this kind, to wit, a cheap way of not be particularly benefitted by it.” If this transport across the American continent, be so, it must be obvious that a canal, or rail as far north in the United States, as may road, or both, across the Isthmus, will only be be convenient, in the two items of saving of temporary importance, but inadequate, of distance, and of finding the means of in the end, to establish a new route of building the road in the wild lands on the commerce, of material benefit to the world. route. Providence seems clearly to have Mr. Whitney's facts and reasons on this indicated the route of these provisions. point, if we do not mistake, will be regard- There they are, and no where else. All ed with interest. Any person can test one Mr. Whitney asks is : let me have those of his main points by taking a string, and means, which would otherwise lie dormant, measuring the distances on the surfaces of and be good for nothing to anybody, and I the globe, as he prescribes. His facts, in will build the road, without one dollár's exconnection with his reasons, demonstrate a pense to the country, and with an incalcuprofound consideration of the general sub- lable benefit to the people of the United ject, and if susceptible of thorough vindica- States, and to the world. We submit the tion, naturally will constitute the pivot of letter : that powerful lever, which he has already

WASHINGTON City, Jan. 10, 1850. applied to the public mind, to move it to

To the Editors of the London Times. the consummation of his proposed scheme

GENTLEMEN—I am not a little surprised at of a rail road across this continent. Th

the frequent remarks in the London Journals, letter might, perhaps, properly be put for- on the subject of a communication between ward as the text and basis of his great en- the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans at Panama, terprise. It is the text, as the best ho- Nicaragua, and Tehuantepec. These speculamily yet given of its importance, and a

tions seem to have led the world astray, as well basis as constituting the platform on which in Europe as America. But your merchants, his general reasoning rests. If the sub- who are acquainted with the commerce of the stance of the statements in this letter be and your navigators, must see, if they will také

world, your men of science, your geographers, correct, the argument is concluded, and a globe, measure it, and examine the subject, nothing remains but for the Government that, should the Pacific Ocean burst its bounds

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