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feud and nearly equal division of the ad- gress of protecting and shielding the Terverse host into supporters of Van Buren ritories of the United States from the inand Cass respectively, was overwhelming. trusion of Human Bondage. While thus The Whig plurality on the Electoral and maintaining bis own principles—sometimes State tickets was nearly 100,000 votes, in a minority of two or three only—he has and the Assembly exhibited nearly or quite studiously refrained from giving personal one hundred Whig majority out of one offence to others or taking offence at any hundred and twenty-eight Members. Too sallic3 01 malevolence and impertinent deSenate had been chosen the previous year, traction. Never moved from his natural when the feud was much less definitive and equanimity by the insults or taunts of the universal, and stood twenty-four Whigs to few who hoped to commend themselves to eight opponents of both sections. On the local favor and eclat by scurrilous attacks Legislature thus composed--the most de- on the representative in that body of Three cidedly Whig that New-York had ever Millions of Freemen—the undoubted, unseen, embracing representatives of the party faltering champion of the Right of All Men from nearly every neighborhood in the State to Freedom and its attendant blessings-devolved the duty of electing a United he has kept due on in the straight path States Senator, in place of John A. Dix, lighted before him by the sentiment of Huwhose term would expire on the 4th of manity and by his convictions of Truth, March then ensuing. A very eager and Public Policy, and Christian duty. His animated canvass early and naturally votes and his speeches have been, all as one, sprung up among the friends of our promi- on the side of Justice, Equality and Benenent Whig Statesmen, by any of whom the ficence. From his speech of March 11th, post might justly be regarded as the goal of on the Admission of California, in connecan honorable ambition. This canvass was tion with the Slavery Question—a speech closed on the evening of the 1st of Febru- which posterity will recognize as the memary, 1849, when the Whig Members of the orable incident of the Session of 1850, and Legislature assembled to designate the can- of which already Half a Million copies didate of their choice for Senator. The have been printed without satisfying the vote on the first informal ballot stood- demand for it—a single extract will close William H. Seward, 88; John A. Collier, this Memoir : 12; all others, 18; blanks, 4. Gov. Seward having nearly three-fourths of the “ The Union, the creation of necessities physical, whole number, was unanimously nominated, moral, social and political, endures by virtue of the without proceeding to a formal ballot, and

same necessities; and these necessities are strong

er than when it was produced, by the greater on Tuesday the 6th ensuing, he was elect

amplitude of territory now covered by it ; stronger ed a Senator of the United States, for six by the six-fold increase of the society living under years from the 4th of March then ensuing, its beneficent protection ;-stronger by the augby a vote of 121 for him to 30 for all

mentation ten thousand times of the fields, the others.

work-shops, the mines and the ships of that socie

ty, of its productions of the sea, of the plow, of Gov. Seward took his seat in the Senate

the loom, and of the anvil, in their constant circle on the day of Gen. Taylor's Inauguration, of internal and international exchanges; stronger (March 5th, 1849,) and is understood to in the long rivers penetrating regions before unhave withdrawn from the labors of his pro

known ;-stronger in all the artificial roads, canals

and other channels and avenues essential not only fession, so far as his engagements would

to trade but to defense ; stronger in steam navigapermit, in order to devote himself thorough- tion, in steam locomotion on the land, and in telely to the duties of his station and to those graph communications unknown when the Conof the responsible private trust already al

stitution was adopted ;-stronger in the freedom luded to. .Heartily concurring with and

and in the growing empire of the seas ; stronger

in the element of national honor in all lands, and supporting the general views and mea

stronger than all in the now settled habits of venesures of the illustrious Patriot now happily ration and affection for institutions so stupendous filling the Executive Chair of the Nation, he and useful, has yet vindicated his integrity to his own

“ The Union then IS, not because merely that

men choose that it shall be, but because some Goconvictions by a uniform affirmance of the

vernment must exist bere, and no other GovernRight of Petition, the natural Equality of

ment than this can. If it should be dashed to all Men, and the duty devolving on Con- atoms by the whirlwind, the lightning, or the

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earthquake to-day, it would rise again in all its yet been made! If the trial of faction has not been just and magnificent proportions to-morrow. made, it has not been because that faction has not

“I have heard somewhat here, and almost for always existed, and has not always menaced a the first time in my life, of divided allegiance-of trial, but because faction couldfind no fulcrum on allegiance to the South and to the Union of al- which to place the lever to subvert the Union, as it legiance to States severally, and to the Union. can find no fulcrum now; and in this is my confiSir, if sympathies with State emulation and pride dence. I would not rashly provoke the trial, but of achievement could be allowed to raise up an- I will not suffer a fear which I have not to make other sovereigu to divide the allegiance of a citizen me Compromise one sentiment, one principle of of the United States, I might recognize the claims truth or justice, to avert a danger that all experiof the State to which by birth and gratitude I be- ence teaches me is purely chimerical. Let those, Jong-to the State of Hamilton and Jay, of then, who distrust the Union make Compromises to Schuyler, of the Clintons and of Fulton-the State save it. I shall not impeach their wisdom, as I which, with less than 200 miles of natural naviga- certainly cannot their patriotism, but, indulging no tion connected with the ocean, has, by her own such apprehensions myself, I shall vote for the adenterprise, secured to herself the commerce of the mission of California, directly, without conditions, Continent, and is steadily advancing to the com- without qualification, and without Compromise. mand of the commerce of the world. But for all For the vindication of that vote I look not to the this, I know only one country and one Sovereign verdict of the passing hour, disturbed as the public

-the United States of America and the American mind now is by conflicting interests and passions, People.

but to that period, happily not far distant, when “ And such as my allegiance is, is the loyalty of the vast regions over which we are now legislating, every other citizen of the United States.

shall have received their destined inhabitants. As I speak he will speak when his time ar- “ While looking forward to that day, its countrives; he knows no other country and no other less generations seem to me to be rising up and sovereign ; he has life, liberty, property, and pre- passing in dim and shadowy review before us. cious affections and hopes for himself and for his And the voice comes forth from their serried posterity, treasured up in the ark of the Union ; he ranks, saying, “Waste your treasures, and your knows as well and feels as strongly as I do, that armies, if you will; raze your fortifications to the this Government is his own Government; that he ground; sink your navies into the sea ; transmit 10 is a part of it; that it was established for him, and us even a dishonored name, if you must; but the that it is maintained by him; that it is the only soil that you hold in trust for us, give it to us Free! true, wise, just, free, and equal Government that You found it free and conquered it to extend a has ever existed ; that no other Government could better and surer freedom over it. Whatever choice be so wise, just, free and equal; that it is safer and you have made for yourselves, let us have no parmore beneficent than any which time or change tial freedom ; let us all be free ; let the reversion of could bring into its place.

our broad domain descend to us unincumbered and “ You may tell me, Sir, that although all this free from the calamities and the sorrows of human may be true, yet that the trial of faction has not bondage."



Two aged men stood near a moss-clad tomb

That marked a battle of an olden day;
A rusted sword lay in the rank green grass,

And answered not the noontide sun's bright ray.

One gently touched the ancient sepulchre,

And mused, and deeply sighed, and shed a tear ; Then, in the faltering tone of mourning love,

Poured these sad words into his comrade's ear:

“ Moss grows on the old monument of stone,

And acts a tender, charitable part:
I had a faithful Friend : he, like the Moss,

Guarded me well, and bound my crumbling heart.”

The other peeled the rust from the old sword,

And marked its ravage on the blade of death; Then, with a shudder, let the relic fall,

And spake with trembling voice and gasping breath :

“ Rust gathers on the stricken warrior's sword,

And acts the savage part of a rude foe : I had an enemy: he, like the Rust,

Devoured my heart of steel, and laid me low.”


walked on;

They said no more, but, arm in

I marked their aged forms, so bent and weak, Beheld the rusted sword and moss-clad tomb, And, as I gazed, a tear rolled down my cheek.

G. M. P.



Our readers know our opinion in rela- to set Mr. Whitney to work. It is singution to Mr Whitney's plan of rail road lar that the world should have been so long, to the Pacific. We embrace, with plea for ages, magnifying the importance of a sure, the opportunity of giving place in ship canal across the Isthmus, when, as our columns to the following letter to would seem from this document, it can be the London Times, inasmuch as it pre- of so little benefit to commerce. Even sents some of the most forcible rea- with that canal, the great desideratum, to

we have ever yet seen, even from wit, a shorter and less expensive route to Mr. Whitney's hand, in favor of that Eastern Asia, would still be wanting. great enterprise, to which he has devoted Mr. Whitney speaks truly of the stuhis life. The whole world will be surpris- pendous effects of changes of routes in the ed at the announcement of the bold propo- great channels of commerce, on the destiny sition, that, “should the Pacific Ocean of states and empires; and his own great burst its bounds, and mingle with its sister conception is well developed in his averAtlantic, opening a Strait from Panama to ment, that there can be but one more Tehuantepec, the commercial world would change of this kind, to wit, a cheap way of not be particularly benefitted by it.” If this transport across the American continent, be so, it must be obvious that a canal, or rail as far north in the United States, as may road, or both, across the Isthmus, will only be be convenient, in the two items of saving of temporary importance, but inadequate, of distance, and of finding the means of in the end, to establish a new route of building the road in the wild lands on the commerce, of material benefit to the world. route. Providence seems clearly to have Mr. Whitney's facts and reasons on this indicated the route of these provisions. point, if we do not mistake, will be regard- There they are, and no where else. All ed with interest. Any person can test one Mr. Whitney asks is : let me have those of his main points by taking a string, and means, which would otherwise lie dormant, measuring the distances on the surfaces of and be good for nothing to anybody, and I the globe, as he prescribes. His facts, in will build the road, without one dollar's exconnection with his reasons, demonstrate a pense to the country, and with an incalcuprofound consideration of the general sub- lable benefit to the people of the United ject, and if susceptible of thorough vindica- States, and to the world. We submit the tion, naturally will constitute the pivot of letter : that powerful lever, which he has already

WASHINGTON City, Jan. 10, 1850. applied to the public mind, to move it to

To the Editors of the London Times. the consummation of his proposed scheme

GENTLEMEN-I am not a little surprised at of a rail road across this continent. This

the frequent remarks in the London Journals, letter might, perhaps, properly be put for- on the subject of a communication between ward as the text and basis of his great en- the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans at Panama, terprise. It is the text, as the best ho- Nicaragua, and Tehuantepec. These speculamily yet given of its importance, and a

tions seem to have led the world astray, as well basis as constituting the platform on which

in Europe as America. But your merchants, his general reasoning rests. If the sub

who are acquainted with the commerce of the stance of the statements in this letter be and your navigators, must see, if they will také

world, your men of science, your geographers, correct, the argument is concluded, and

a globe, measure it, and examine the subject, nothing remains but for the Government that, should the Pacific Ocean burst its bounds



and mingle with its sister Atlantic, opening a From the most recent official tables, it will strait from Panama to Tehuantepec, the com- be seen that the British commerce with Chili mercial world would not be particularly bene. was, per annum, for 1842: fited by it.

54 vessels, 14,138 tons. In the first place, it will be seen, by a refer

Foreign vessels, 32

9,889 ence to a map or globe, that the range of mountains in South America which divide it,

Total, 86

24,027 and form the Atlantic and Pacific slopes, run

And it will be found that the so close to the Pacific Ocean, that there is but


voyage a small space for population, from Cape Horn

Valpairaiso to London, by Cape Horn, is shortto Upper California.

er than by Nicaragua. Is it not, therefore,

certain that, were the Isthmus swept away, Secondly-The continent running north and

this trade would continue its present route? south from Cape Horn to the Arctic Ocean,

For the same year, and from the same tables, gives to both slopes, the same climates and soils, the products of which must always be

(Parliamentary Reports,) I find that the British

commerce with Peru was: similar, and therefore exchanges on a large scale cannot take place.

42 ves.

11,989 tons. Thirdly—The commerce of the Pacific slope,



409 hitherto confined almost exclusively to South

U. S. (Treasury Rep.,

14 4,873 America and Mexico, is small, and cannot be

1846,) with Chili,? increased in these quarters, because it is un

With Peru,

4 1,045 certain, and not founded upon regular exchan


596 The most of it is now more properly an Atlantic trade, being founded by smuggling


62 18,912 merchandize over the mountains, from the Pac This 18,912 tons, then, is the amount of the cific to the Atlantic side, and must de- Pacific commerce in this quarter, which might crease as soon as steam is used on the many pass over the Isthmus by railroad or canal, rivers running into the Atlantic. The settle- and which cannot be greatly increased. The ment of the Pacific slope, north and south, question here presents itself, as to what will must, after a short time, not ily cause a di- be the products of the Pacific slope, which minution in the present amount of commerce may be wanted either in Europe or on the with Europe and the Atlantic slope of the Atlantic slope? Certainly none of the proUnited States, but lessen intercourse also; ducts of the soil; because the Atlantic slope for when the North Pacific slope becomes set- will always produce the very same, in greater tled, as it soon will be, the different parallels, abundance, at much less cost; and this view from Cape Horn to the Pacific Ocean will ex- applies to all latitudes north and south, and to change with each other, and supply each oth- all the Pacific Islands. But there is the gold, ers wants. The entire coast will exchange the silver, the quicksilver, precious stones, and with the Pacific Islands, with Japan, China the common minerals. The common minerals, and all Asia, and its commerce and principal iron, coal, copper and lead, cannot be brought intercourse will be with these parts, and its this side for a market, because, like the proown different sections.

ducts of the soil, they are cheaper here and It being a fixed law that the avails of labor the precious metals, as they do not enter largely must always return to the region of its own into commerce, except in their passage from the products, and be there consumed to the extent mines, to be employed as the medium of trade, of, and in such articles as the wants of the and to settle balances in the commercial world, producer may require; and as the wants of the will soon find their level, based chiefly upon people who may inhabit the Pacific slope can the labor which produces food for man, and generally be better supplied by natural ex- this species of labor employs more than eightchanges, and from the Pacific Islands, Japan, tenths of the population of the globe. China, &c., than from either the Atlantic The next two steamers to arrive (this letter slopes of the United States or Europe, except is dated January 10, 1850,) will probably bring ing only a small amount of manufactured from California nearly the whole remainder goods, (with which, also, they will, after a of the mines for two years. These two years little supply themselves,) it is, therefore, clear have probably been as prosperous as any that to my mind, that settlement on the Pacific

The amount received here slope, with capital and enterprize, will soon in the United States will not then probably establish for themselves a commerce and inter- exceed $11,000,000 reckoning by the mint course directly with the Pacific Islands, and amount, the only reliable source, which is acwith Asia, which will be more mutual, more tually less than the estimated amount of gold convenient, and more profitable than inter- and silver coin sent there from this quarter. course and trade with the eastern slope of the In addition to this we have sent to California United States and Europe.

may succeed.

some $20,000,000 of other property. Now,


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