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sequestered spot near the remains of the ancient Trabala. The eastern end of this building is terminated by a semicircle interrupted by large windows, the tall stone and brick pillars between them standing disconnected, their arches above having broken down. The octagonal erections north and south of the choir were probably baptisteries, one for the men, the other for the women. (Travels in Lycia.)

List of the bishops of Myra, according to the Oriens
Nicander (Martyr).

Nicholas III.
Nicholas I.

Nicetas (Heretic).
St. Nicholas II. (Martyr).

Theodosius I.


Theodosius II. (A.D. 1143).

Christophorus (A.D. 1166).


Theodorus I.


Christianity was early established in this city, chiefly owing to the zeal of Polycarp, who is said to have been the first bishop of Smyrna, and to have suffered martyrdom there (Irenæus, v. 34.) Few traces of the ancient city are now to be seen. The warm baths, on the declivity of Mount Corax, have scarcely a vestige of the buildings which formerly covered them, and the remains of the neighbouring Temple of Apollo have entirely disappeared. The enclosure of the ancient castle on the summit of the hill, its gate ornamented with rude sculptures, a fragment of the entrance to the theatre, and the ruins of Polycarp's church are almost the only relics of antiquity which can now be found. The stadium, of which the ground-plot only remains, is supposed to be the place where Polycarp, the disciple of John, and probably the angel of the Church of Smyrna (Rev. ii. 8), to whom the Apocalyptic message was addressed, suffered martyrdom. The Greeks of Smyrna hold the memory of this venerable person in high honour, and go annually in procession to his supposed tomb, which is at a short distance from the stadium.

At the ruins called the Baths of Diana, east of the modern town, little except the clear and copious spring is any longer to be seen. It smokes in winter, and to the hand, even in mild weather, appears tepid, but its heat, when ascertained by the themometer, is not higher than the mean temperature of the spring water in that latitude. The Rev. Mr. Arundell, who was for many years chaplain of the English Episcopal Church in Smyrna, inclines to think that this spring was the original baptistery of that city. He says :-“With all due respect for the character of Diana, I would willingly indulge in the supposition, that in later times this beautiful crystal water might have been used as a baptistery for the catechumens of the Church of Smyrna, if not in the days of Polycarp, a century or two later. At least it is evident that here was a circular enclosure, and the pillar, which is still standing, resembles in form and material those which are to be seen near the Jewish quarter in the Turkish cemetery, the undoubted site, in my belief, of the earliest, if not the first, Christian church. It was probably the church of the beloved disciple, for it is at a short distance from the present church of St. John. Numerous pillars are still erect, either entire or broken, which ran in a direction nearly north and south, above five hundred feet.”

(Discoveries in Asia Minor.)

List of the bishops of Smyrna, as collected in the
Oriens Christianus :
Aristo I.

Theodorus I.

Aristo II.


Polycarp (Martyr).

Theodorus II.


(A.D. 1166).

Georgius (A.D. 1220).



Temp. Andronic. Imper.
Ethericus (A.D. 448).

Theodorus III.

(A.D. 1334) Calloas.

Gabriel (A.D. 1575.?.

Ananias (A.D. 1721).

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SAGALASSUS. Sagalassus was one of the chief towns of Pisidia, in Asia Minor. This city is noted by Strabo, Pliny, Ptolemy, and Hierocles, and also by the Ecclesiastical Notices and the Acts of Councils, which prove it to have been a bishopric. The ruins of the ancient Sagalassus are in the vicinity of the modern village of Allahsun :

“There is, I believe, no other ruined city in Asia Minor,” says Mr. Hamilton, “ the situation and extensive remains of which are so striking, or so interesting, or which give so perfect an idea of the magnificent combination of temples, palaces, porticoes, theatres, and gymnasia, fountains, and tombs, which adorned the cities of the ancient world. Between the main portion of the town and the scarped cliff which rises to the north of it, an irregular terrace, partly natural and partly artificial, extends for nearly half a mile, following the outline of the hills, and rising gently towards the centre. Its general direction is from W.N.W. to E.S.E.; on it are the remains of several buildings, apparently temples or sepulchres ; but at the western extremity is one which appears to have been a church, extending from S.E. to N.W. At its northwest end are the remains of a portico of fluted columns, and at the other extremity is a high wall with an angular niche, and surmounted by a frieze and a cornice. Within are several shafts of fluted marble columns, some of granite very large and plain, and also many tiles lying on the ground; the length of the building is forty-five paces.

Near it are the remains of a small circular building, which may have been a fountain.” (Discoveries in Asia Minor.)

Referring to this Christian church, Rev. Mr. Arundell * says that “it is constructed of large blocks of marble; the architecture is of the richest style, the columns are fluted, with Corinthian capitals, and are two feet in diameter. The building stands east and west; its total length is about one hundred and sixty feet, and the breadth of the nave about seventy-five. The bema is not circular, but angular, its breadth as that of the nave, seventy-five feet, and the depth twenty-one. Between the bema and the nave is a transept extending sixteen feet on either side beyond the nave, making the entire breadth of this part about one hundred and seven feet. From each of these sides a doorway opened into what was probably a side portico with pillars. There were three gates or doors at the great entrance, the centre one, as usual, very large. The portico, or pronaos was twentyseven feet long, and beyond this, the walls were still extended on either side. From the number of columns lying in all directions, some fluted, others plain, it is possible that there was a nave and side aisles, but there are no foundations to support this conjecture, and the columns

* Arundell, Discoveries in Asia Minor.

may have belonged to the front and side colonnades. On the upper part of the walls, which are standing on the north-eastern end, are a number of small figures, for the most part grotesque, as masks, &c., but executed in a very spirited style. A large cross is cut deep into one of the blocks of the principal entrance. Beyond the church, on the west side, at the distance of about one hundred feet, is a large heap of enormous stones, belonging to either a circular or semicircular edifice; that which remains of the circle being towards the west, not the east, as a bema. There is little doubt that it was circular and elevated on a basement with steps to ascend to it. If there had been one on the other side, but I saw no remains, the church with those additions would have resembled the supposed church of St. John at Pergamos, supposing they had been carried to the same height. The diameter does not appear to have been more than fifteen feet. If a conjecture as to its destination may be hazarded, I should take it for a baptistery."

According to the Oriens Christianus the following were the bishops of Sagalassus, viz.:- Jovius, Forteianus, Theodosius, and Leo.

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