Elements of Chemistry, Band 1

T. Maccliesh & Company, 1801

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Seite 76 - In the thermometer chiefly used on the continent, the space between the freezing and boiling points of water is divided into 100 equal parts, and the graduation begins at the freezing-point, which is marked 0°, or zero. According to this thermometer, which is called the centigrade, water freezes at 0°, and boils at 100°.
Seite 147 - Ten degrees of caloric, therefore, had been absorbed by the quantity of vapour that escaped. Mr. Watt, by heating water under the pressure of a strong iron vessel, raised its temperature to 400°; yet still when the pressure was removed, only part of the water was converted into vapour, and the temperature of this vapour, as well as that of the remaining fluid, was no more than 21-2°. There were therefore 188 degrees of caloric absorbed in an instant, by the formation of the vapour, which had no...
Seite 142 - Water occupies a lefs fpace in the fluid than in the folid ftate, and the contraction takes place juft before it reaches the point of congelation. Its capacity or bulk has therefore been diminifhed, rather than enlarged, as this theory neceflarily fuppofes. " It is argued, that we know no chemical combination in which the properties of one of the bodies combining are entirely loft, while thofe of the other are unaltered.
Seite 76 - Fahrenheit's scale is equal to 3 of a degree on Reaumur's ; if, therefore, the number of degrees on Fahrenheit's scale, above or below the freezing of water, be multiplied by 4, and divided by 9, the quotient will be the corresponding degree of Reaumur.
Seite 220 - ... product still exists in the gaseous state; and, in others, the quantity of caloric evolved bears no proportion to the degree of condensation. Philosophers ascribed this to a change of capacity ; for, in different bodies, the difference in the proportion of the capacities before and after combustion, is by no means uniform ; and hence the difference in the quantities of caloric extricated in various cases of combustion. This being premised, it remains to explain the origin of the light emitted...
Seite 102 - ... that steam and flame are non-conductors of Heat. I shall now lay before the public an account of a number of experiments I have lately made, which seem to show that water, and probably all other liquids, and Fluids of every kind, possess the same property. That is to say, that, although the particles of any Fluid, individually, can receive Heat from other bodies or communicate it to them, yet among these particles themselves all interchange and communication of Heat is absolutely impossible.
Seite 246 - It dissolves in two parts of water at 60°, and in an equal weight of boiling water. It is sublimed by heat, but is partially decomposed at the same time.
Seite 152 - All the effects of heat, according to this theory, depend therefore entirely on the vibratory motion of the particles of bodies. According as this is more or less intense, a higher or lower temperature is produced ; and as it predominates over, is nearly equal, or inferior to the attraction of cohesion, bodies exist in the gazeous, fluid, or solid state.
Seite 218 - ... action on each other, it becomes a priori, equally probable that the products may be derived from either of them ; consequently the light and heat evolved might proceed either from the one or the other. "Whether they proceed from the atmosphere or from the combustible body, they must be separated at the part where the combination takes place ; that is, upon the surface of the burning body itself ; and consequently it appeared luminous and heated, while the air being invisible, escaped observation....
Seite 152 - ... idea of any thing, capable of being excited and communicated, in the manner the Heat was excited and communicated in thefe Experiments, except it be MOTION.

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