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If they cannot provide substitutes, let them follow the ex. ample of a he noble Earl (Moira) who offers to take his fand in the private ranks, and fall, it' fate Thould fo ordain it, with honourable wounds in front, amid his gallant countrymen in defence of the general cause He was only forry that so much time had been loft, he should wish to see the people now under arms, and he could congrátulate the country on having a very valuable acquisition in those officers who belonged to the 2d battalion that had been disbanded ; on their merit, knowledge of difcipline, and services, he placed great reliance; but very little indeed could he depend upon those officers who came from the East Indies, after having amassed fortunes, or with a view to recruit their impaired contticurions for the term of three years the first of them in coming, and the other two they spend in a state of culivalescence. But will it be said that this measure is strong? So it ought to be. This is an uncommon time; 'the exigency is imperious indeed. With the change of times we must alter our measures.

Tempora mutantur, et nos muramur in illis." Away, then with this idle cant and objection to regular armies. No danger is to be apprehended from an arıny of Englishmen now-a-days; but without it'we should have every thing to dread from France. This is our shield when we are to defend ourselves, and our Sword when we are lo draw and affert our independence and protect our rights,

* The Duke of Richmond rose, and began his speech in a very low tone of voice. He took notice of what had been said of continental alliances, and he thought that in a war with France, it was a wise and proper thing; if the Government could have willing and able allies, they ought to obtain them, but they were not always to be, had. Continental allies had in former wars served to preserve, what no longer existed, the balance of power in Europe. Had we had firm and powerful allies, we might have prevented the present state of Germany, and have preserved Hanover, a loss, which he deeply regretted, not only from the fincere forrow he felt, that his Majesty should be deprived of his electorate, but also on account of the vast accession of power it put into the hands of France. The French were, exclusively of other advantages, by the possession of the electorate of his Majesty, enabled to remount their cavalry with some of the finest horses on the continent, at a moment when they were molt in need of frelh. horses, as the breed of horses was exhausted in France, and


such as they had in the use of their cavalry, were miserably broken down and jaded. With regard to the measure, the outline of which had been opened by the noble Secretary of State, he had some doubt of its practicability. Let noble Lords recollect, that the country had already been called upon within a few months, to ballot for two diftinct numbers of militia; if they were now to be again called upon to raise 40,000 addicional men by ballot, he feared they must be ta. ken chiefly from the agriculure of the kingdom, and that could noi but be attended with very prejudicial consequences. He should have thought men might have been raised by levy and bounty,as was usual for the army, and applied togeneral service, as an illustrious Duke had recommended. A force calculated for general service might equally be employed in defenfue measures or offensive operations, as the nature and circum stances of the war might require. The Duke recommended it 10 Minifters to employ a number of cavalry in the defence of the country. Our roups of horse were very fine ones, and the horses of this kingdom, of which we had great pleniy, some of the finest in Europe, whereas the men to be raised w re all infantry. Now, he thought cavalry, the most efficient force that could be opposed to the enemy in such a country as England, particularly where no invading general could derive such fame as Dumourier did, from the tactics he displayed in the forest of Ardennes ; or, Moreau, in the retreat which will immortalise his name. He would also sug geft the propriety of augmenting the horse anillery. It was a force too obviongly useful to be neglected by Government. With regard to the raising 40,000 men by ballot, his Grace repeated it, that he doubted of its practicability. The lalt Supplementary militia regiments were not yet complealed. His own regiment was deficient two hundred men, and they were extremely difficult to be got. Oiher regiments, 10 his knowledge, were equally incomplete. He endeavoured 10 get eighty men, and fixty of them paid the rol. per man for sheir exemption, so that in fact you raised money and not men, wlien a farthes attempt was made to raise more men by ballot. In such a war as we are engaged in, men's opinions and prejudices ought to be attended to. We ought to take the heart and good will of the country with us; but diftreffing the agriculture, for there the pressure would be molt felt, was not the best means of securing that imporiant ob. je&. Having added several other ob ervations, the Duke said, that he had risen when he did, because he could not fit


out a long debate, being a very old man, and very infirm.. He concluded with declaring that he should vote for the address

The Earl of Limerick felt it incumbent upon him to' apologise for trespassing upon their Lordships' patience whilst he delivered his sentiments : sentiments which had been already expressed to a certain extent, by a noble Earl (Moira) whose eloquence was unequalled, whose glowing and patriotic spirit and feelings would, he had no doubt, pervade the country, and call forih iis utmost energy. He differed, however, from the noble Eail in some things, and regretted extremely to be of a different opinion from the illustrious Duke who spoke third in the debate. What, though iroops are sent, or even if it will be so, forced to the East or West Indies, or elsewhere, they have befure them those rewards which never fail to animate the truly generous breast. They have honour, laurels, and the approbation of their country; they are enrolled for ļhe service like freemen, and not like the flaves of a neighbouring country, who are compelled to quit their homes, their wives, their children, their fathers and mothers, in obedience to an arbitrary and tyrannical mandate. He lamented that he did not sec a noble Earl, who had spoken early in the debate (the Earl of Caernarvon) as he wilhed to make a few observa. tions on some parts of his speech, which he owned had a good deal surprised him. The noble Earl, he said, no man could personally respect more than he did, but he could not but iake notice of one or two extraordinary things which had fallen from him. He had complained strongly and warmly against the measure, the vuiline of which had been given by the noble Secretary of State, and had said, that railing more regiments by balloi, was picking the pocket of individuals, initead of paying for the force, as it ought to be paid for, out of the public purse. He could not agree to that poGrion, but what most astonished him was, 10 hear the noble Earl declare, that if the 40,000 men proposed were raised by ballot, the measure would not be submitted 10, and i hat both in and out of that House, he would continue to oppose it. Surely the expresion, the words of which he Lord Limerick) took down at the rime, must have fallen from the noble Earl in the warmıh and hurry of debate, and on cool reflection the noble Earl would regret that he had made use of it. Such opinions and wishes could only lead in the defeat of all our plans for securing our independence and rights, Vol. IV. 1802.3.



and furnith to our inveterate foe the furest means of succeeding in his desperate enterprise. Having spoken to iwo or three other points in the Earl of Caernarvon's speech, his Lordship proceeded to fay a few words as to his own opinion of the measure, to which the Address referred. He owned he thought Ministers entitled to his thanks for having, propofed it ; he thought the coming. forward with such a measure, taken together with the various other measures of preparation, which Ministers had brought forward within ihele ihree months, was a series of proofs not of procrastination and delay, but of activity, energy, and vigour. With regard to recruiting the army, a soldier, like a woman, felt a difficulty in prevailing on himself to take the first step, but having once put on a red coat and become a soldier, he would always be a soldier. He thought the mode of raising the men excellent in every point of view; but more especially, as the men were not restricted to serve in their respective counties, or countries the only difficulty he saw' was one, and that was, to get the clothes on the recruit, for when once he was drelled in a red, blue, or grey coat, he feared no danger; the man who before would dread to cross a brook, would shen stem the torrent without dismay; give him facings and a cockade in his hat, then he flies a way to glory. He apo proved the raising the men by ballot, because our home des fence was necessarily the objc&t first to be provided for. He had risen, however, chiefly to take notice of what had fallen from the noble Earl, whom he did not now fee in the House. He had only to add, that he fhould vote for the Address.

Earl Fitzwilliam obferved, that the effect of raising so many mililia, exclusive of the difadvantage of their not being applicable to general service, put an end to the regular recruiting service of the arıy; it was impossible that the two services thould go on together; and, upon the prefent occasion, he fhould have thought it a much wiser, and more effectual proceeding, to have fufpended the completing the supplementary militia, and applied themfelves wholly to adding to the regular army by every possible means. The army was a sufficient disposeable force, and could be sent any where. His Lordfhip took notice of what the Duke of Richmond had said, #zfpecting the two hundred men being deficient in his regiment of militia; the same was the case, he said, in the regiments for the North and West Ridings of the county of York. The men held back in hopes that the price of substitutes would be raised, and therefore they would not come forward for the militia. At any rate it would, he was persuaded; be wiser to repeal the act for the supplementary moilitia, or suspend it, and recruit the army. He rofe, his Lordship faid, to stare, that recruiting and raising the mia: litia in greater numbers could not be done at one and the same time.

forward pact

Lord Grenville agreed with the noble and illustrious Duke, in his defcription of the real and proper use of a militia, a deseription which the illustrious Duke had given with the utmost accuracy and correctness. He could not but join with those noble Lords who had complained of the want of adivity of Ministers in not coming earlier forward with this or some more efficient measure of defence. The noble and eloquent Lord below him (Lord Rawdon) had said, they knew. of the approach of war on the 8th of Mareh, and it was now the latter end of June ; but that was not all, they knew ever fince the signing of the Treaty of Ainiens, that every one act of the French Goverment had been an act of aggrellion and insult. They knew this for a whole year, and yet they did not preserve in existence a force, of which they might, on the declaration of war, iminediately have availed themfelves, but they contrive to call out the militia, at the very time it was necessary to recruit the army. The two services, as his noble friend had well observed, could not go on together." With regard to the whole conduct of Ministers, it was of a piece ;' it was all part of a system of negled and protraction. Without striking one blow themselves, toi annoy the enemy, since the 8th of March, they have done nothing, but suffered the enemy to seize upon Hanover, and the next mew's that I would arrive would be the thuta ting up of Hamburgh, the Elbe, the Wefer, and all the ports in the north of Germany With regard to the present measure, although he thought recruiting the army would be preferable, he would not oppose it, for' fear that the Ministers would not propose any other measure if the present were not received. He should, therefore, in the fuiure operation of paffing the bill through the House, give them his affistance, as he would not, onder such circum: Itances of the country, do any thing to embarrass or impede the measures of Government. With respect to what had fallen in debate on the subject of conseription, how ever unpopular the opinion might be, he was willing to bear his own share in the uripopularity, in avowing that it vas of the very essence of all governments, and the very comI i2

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