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the line, regularly trained and well disciplined, and a number of new-raised men forming new regiments without the advantages of training or discipline. But this distinction never entered the minds of some gentlemen ; with them “ a regiment is a regiment; no matter what materials it is composed of.” When his right hon. Friend talked of these new iroops, he represented them as likely to possess all the qualirics of a regular army, because they were to be under the di. reciion of experienced officers. Now upon this point he wished the House would for a moment consider, who and what sort of men these officers were. Without meaning 10 speak any thing in disparagement of officers on the half-pay lift, he must allert, that it would not be possible to get officers from that list of the same descriprion of those who are exactly serving in regiments of the line. Undoubtedly many were put on half-pay for no other reason but because their regi. menis were reduced; others in consequence of wounds which They had received, and of being otherwise disabled. The very caure for which the latter description of officers were put on hall-pay, proved they were unfit for actual service. There were also officers, whose conduct had been such as to exclude then from the service, but who were permitted to retire upon hall-pay. What advantage then could be derived from the services of such men as these, or were they fit to be put into command again? Besides, it could not be said that officers on half-pay had the experience of those who were in constant and a&ive service, nor that they could be as useful as officers at the head of well disciplined

Therefore, considering the manner in which this force was to be brought together, he did not think it was one that could in any degree conduce to the safety of the country. With respect to the danger in which the country was placed, what was he to understand by that danger, except an invafion of this country on the part of France. Did any one know when this invasion would be attempted ? Suppose the French sbould come upon us at the end of iwo months, what fort of a fituation should we be in then, with a bill not passed ? And if it was passed and acted upon, we might have the enemy invading us in the midst of the ballor for this new militia. And if they were raised bofore the enemy came, what time Thou d we have to put the men in a state that would enable them to defend us? What could we expect from an uninformed and undisciplined mass of men, dissatisfied perhaps

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with their novel fituation ; their minds irritated at the recollection of being taken from their families? expectarion, therefore, be forined from this “ arıny of reserve ?"-a naine at which he thuddered. Better would it be to have an irregular mass at once, without any appearance of an army or of discipline. Such was the force that had for a long time prevailed in La Vendée, where the great republican arınies, that had been sweeping every ihing before them in all other places, were continually defeated. Itrength of those people confitted in their weakness. Like a reed, they bent under and withstood the force of the blast, and rose again when the storm was over. The whole of that force in La Vendée was irregular, and it withstood the armies of France until the year 1796. Let us, therefore, instead of this useless army of reserve, have an irregular force, and not a force which appeared as if it were the last resort of the country. Great, indeed, would our danger be, if we had nothing more to decide the fate of the country. Were the enemy to take the city of London, that woult not, under a proper system of national defence, decide the fate of the country. There would be much more danger to the country in the capture of our dock yards or arsenals.

He objected 10 the present measure, because ihe force about to be raised was a falle force, and ludic fa se conclusions. He obje ted to it, because men would look to others inore in themselves. These would have nothing to do but to pay down a suin of money for persons to serve in their Ited ; and then they would say, * here are men who will defend us.”

They would no longer conceive it necessary to make any exertions themselves. The French, with their immense population, had left the country almost defolate, by raising conscripts, and availed themselves of levies en masse, in a way which the government of Great Britain could not be justified in resorting to. The government must rely on the voluntary exertions of the people, which were to be used in a variety of ways. But the present measure would not only check all exertions, but create discontent in the couniry. He would inuch rather see a conscription for filling up regiments of the line : and in order to induce men to enter, there might be a provision made, that their services were not to extend beyond Europe. He was sure such a measure would be really advantageous. Let Gentlemen consider the time it would take before this force could be got ready; before it could be got out of barracks, before it could be drawn up in a line; before the men could Ss 2


have their new clothes; before they could be breeched. But whether it could or could not be got ready in time, this was certain, that there must ever be an eternal difference between the army and the militia. It was in the nature of the militia, that it could never be brought to such perfection as an effective force. As much had been donc !o improve it as poffible ; and it was astonishing that it had been so much improved as it was. The militia was a machine which had been wrought up to all the perfection of which it was capable; but it never would answer for the purpose of offensive or defensive opesations; but the present plan he would oppose, because it resembled a militia force

Mr. Pitt rose in explanation: he said his rig!ıt hon. Friend had misunderstood hiin in one or two points. What he said was, that this plan would furnith beiter means for recruiting the army, ihan any that could be adopted for two or ihree years to coine. As lo an irregular force, he had said, it was one which certainly ought to be attended to, because he was persuaded, that, belides the army now :o be raised, there ought to be another army of reserve.

Lord Casilereagh perfectly agreed with the sentimen:s which had been delivered by a right hon. Gentleman opposite 10 him (Mr. Windham), when he looked at the hoftile inteniions of the enemy; buli, when he looked at the means which they had in their power for the accomplishment of such in. tention, he considered it as nothing but pufillanimity; he considered it, in fact, as a meanness unworthy the character of the country, to contemplate that power with any degree of apprehension. He could by no means give his assent to the opinion of the right hon. Gentleman, that the poffeffion of our capital was but a secondary object; he could not for a moment enteriain the idea that the enemy were capable of making any impression on our shores. The right hon Gen. tleman had alluded to the inhabiiants of La Vendée, and yet, he confessed, he was uiterly al a loss to account for the tranfition which he had made, or by what train of reasoning he could afterwards suppose that the present force would be found inadequate to the purposes for which it was defigned. This, he confetled, appeared to him as giving a sort of colouring to his arguments which could not be supported by any regular course of reafoning. He trusted in the unanimiry, the feelings, and the established cool and determined bravery of the country; not only that they would manfully defend their invaluable free constitution, which was the admiration and


the envy of the world, but that they would resist any attempt to deprive them of that blessing in such a manner as would utterly and completely crush the invaders of our happy land, and hold out such an example as would deter others, in film ture ages, from entertaining the mad idea of making any im. preffion on a country so long pre-eminently distinguished for the bravery and freedom of its inhabitants.,. He objected in the ftrongest manner to the great preference which the righi hon. Gen:leman wished to give to the regular army; he thought thar by too strict an attention to that de. fcription of force, we would either go beyond the just terms of our financial policy in times of peace, or that we would find ourselves too weak at the outset of a war. The right hon. Gentlema ! had delivered a just eulogium on our mililia force as a conftirutional body ; but then he had expressed fomething like a desire that they thould be linited to 30,000; that was by no means dequate to the increaled population of the couniry. Under the present circumstances of the country, and considering that the amount of the inilitia we had in these islands last war was 114,000, he trusted the House would agree with him in saying that, by granting an addition of 50,000 to the 90,00orwhich h.d been already voted by Parliament, they would not go 100 far. It was the desire of many, that the milivia Mould be disposable to any place within the United Kingdom ; that desideratum was accomplished by ihe present biil, as far as respected the force which is purposed to raise. Another disfi ulty, the officering of the militia, was frequently the object of discuslion, that was in a great measure removed by the provisions of the present bill, as far as regarded the force raised by it ; the officers for that force might poftels either of the iwo qualifications, a considerable fake in the country, or that of having served many years in the regular military service of the Crown, ac. cording to the rank which they were to hold. The right hon. Gentleman, in his eagerness to defend the service of the line, had seeined to have lost all taste for the service or merits of any other class of our military forces. He should consider, however, the great number of the militia tha: had been disbanded at the conclufion of our treaty of peace, and recollect that they were vificered by many perfons of the greatest respectability, both for character and inilitary talenis, and that many of them would in taat be glad of inc opportunity which the present meafure afforded them of resuming the rank which they formerly held in his Majesty's service, and no doubt they would be found eminently useful in ihe defence of their country, if ever there thould be occafion to bring their talent into action; he had no doubt that they would be found as efficient as any body made up according to the right hon. Gentleman's prescription for making foldiers It had been supposed i hat, unless the forces of the line poffefled a monopoly of the recruiiing market, they could not hope for any success in filling up their ranks. Ex. perience had considerably tended to weaken the force of the sight hon. Gentleman's reasoning; for, at a time when we were raising the supplementary, and filling up the old militia, it was a fact that we recruited more for our regular army than at a time when they had the market completely at their disposal. In cvery point of view he believed and tufted that the House and the country would agree with him in perceive ing the neceflity of immediately giving effect to this plan, and that Englishmen would not fleep while an enemy had openly published their threats againlt our country.

Mr. Il'indian, in explanation, obterved, that what hc faid, was, it we could not bave a force completely regular, we ought to have one completely irregular.

Sir Lüyre Corte fupported the measure, and observed that, when it was the intention of the enemy io annibilate his Majesty's Government and fuhjigare the united kingdom, he was confident that Englishmen would not heftate to thew the Fitt Cupful and the world what Englishmen could atchieve in such a glorious caute.

Dr Lawrence, in a speech of contiderable length, fupported the positions of Mr. Windham. He luid, the irregu. far force of La Vendée was so powerful, that he could itale from the best authority, that more republicans had been dettroved by royalists there than hy all the combined arries. The present force he confidered wholly inadequate to the end in view. The men were to be locked up in the country, nailed like base metal to the counter, witliout being able to act utifully for the public. With respect to men going into regiments of the line; if they did to, it would only be a proof that they liked not the service they were in ; and, therefore, no great dependance could be placed on that force. Tlic learned Gentleman concluded with reading a letter, partly written and partly dictated by the late Mr. Burke in his last moments, This leller fe

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