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Why? 6. Who speak verse in this scene? Who speak prose? Why are the verse and prose divided between the characters in this way? 7. Does the play have anything to do with Marullus and Flavius after this? 8. Would an American crowd behave like this after being rebuked by a political leader? 9. Would an American political leader treat a crowd thus? 10. Picture the expression upon the face of the Second Commoner throughout this


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Act I, Scene ii. 1. State two of the principal characteristics of Cæsar that come out in this scene. 2. Of Cassius. 3. Of Brutus. 4. Of Casca. 5. In what different ways does Cassius work upon Brutus? 6. What does the incident of the Soothsayer's warning do for the play? 7. Would this incident be impressive in the acting? 8. Why does Shakespeare introduce the shouts? 9. Why do we have Cæsar's comment on the appearance and character of Cassius? Does this comment help us to understand the significance of the previous portion of the scene?

Act I, Scene iii.—1. What does this scene do for the play? 2. Is Casca a different man from what he was in the preceding scene? 3. Why does Shakespeare represent him as speaking in verse in this scene? 4. Has his language changed from that of the previous scene in any other respect? 5. Why do we have thunder and lightning in this scene? 6. Is there any preparation here for the fact that Casca is the first conspirator to stab Cæsar?

Act I. In how many cases in this act are English customs or familiar features of English life introduced into the play?

Act II, Scene i. -1. What is the reasoning of Brutus by which he convinces himself that Cæsar should be slain? 2. What do you think of this reasoning? (See the note on 1. 10.) 3. "Is not tomorrow, boy, the ides of March?" (1. 40). Why does Shakespeare make Brutus ask this question? 4. What is the advantage of putting into the play the discussion as to where the east lies? 5. What do we learn in regard to the character of each one concerned from the discussion about Cicero? 6. Is Brutus wise in refusing to have the conspirators bound by an oath? 7. Why do the other conspirators allow Brutus to have his own way? 8. Why does Shakespeare let us learn in ll. 193-194 that there is a chance that Cæsar may not come to the Capitol? 9. Why is it effective to have Lucius sleep before and after the meeting of the con

spirators? 10. What do we learn of Portia's character in this scene? 11. What is the value of the incident about Ligarius? 12. Does Brutus understand the part that Cassius has played in bringing about the conspiracy?

Act II, Scene ii. -1. How do you understand the manifestations of Cæsar's character in the first 107 lines? 2. Is Calpurnia's dream fulfilled within the play? If so, where? 3. Why does Cæsar finally decide to go to the Capitol? 4. What is the dramatic effect of Cæsar's courtesy to the conspirators? 5. Do you sympathize with Cæsar, or with his enemies, in this scene?

Act II, Scenes iii, iv. — 1. What is accomplished for the play by scenes iii and iv? 2. Why should Artemidorus read aloud something that he has written himself, and even his own signature? 3. What has happened to Portia since we saw her last? 4. Comment on Portia's conduct in scene iv. 5. Why do we not see more of Portia in the play? 6. What thing about scene iv would make it an effective scene to act? 7. Do these speeches of the Soothsayer help the play? and are they appropriate to the character of the Soothsayer? (See the note to II, iv, 20.)

Act II.-1. This act is a striking instance of a powerful dramatic effect. What is it? 2. Show that this effect runs all 3. Point out any other ways in which this act is made interesting and impressive. 4. Was Brutus wise in confiding in Portia ?

through the act.

Act III, Scene i. - 1. Why has Cæsar remembered the “dreamer" and his warning for a whole month? 2. Why are the warnings of the Soothsayer and Artemidorus introduced here (apart from the fact that they have been prepared for in the previous act)? 3. Which seems the better leader at the opening of this scene, Brutus or Cassius? 4. Why does Shakespeare make Cæsar talk in this way just before his death? 5.* Would the play have been still more powerful if the friend whom Brutus sacrifices to his love of country had been made more lovable and attractive? 6. Why does Shakespeare have Cæsar slain at the Capitol, contrary to history? 7. Is it a dramatic mistake to have the last words of Cæsar in Latin? 8. Does the prophecy of future popularity upon the stage (11. 112–115) seem natural to you? 9. Why does Antony praise the dead Cæsar warmly? Is this wise? 10. What is the danger in doing this? 11. Do we sympathize with Antony in this

scene? Why? 12. Why is the plan of Brutus concerning the funeral speeches of himself and Antony entirely unpractical? 13. What is the effect of having the dead body of Cæsar before us during the last three-fourths of the scene? 14. Is Antony's prophecy over Cæsar's body entirely fulfilled within the play? 15. What is the force of having the servant overcome by the sight of the body?

Act III, Scene ii. -1. What does Brutus try to do in his oration? 2. In what ways does he misjudge the people? 3. Since Brutus elsewhere speaks in verse, why is this speech in prose? 4. Is there any unworthy element in Brutus's speech? 5. Why was the impression of Brutus's speech so transitory? 6. Show from the nature of the approving comments on Brutus's speech that he has failed of accomplishing his main purpose. 7.* Give in outline (or in full) the speech which you imagine that Cassius made to his company. 8. Name in order the main divisions, the larger ideas of Antony's speech (do not analyze too minutely). 9. Show that each idea is effective. 10. Show that this order of the ideas is effective. Does it show climax? 11. Does the last point seem to be made by Antony, or by the facts of the case? 12. At what point does Antony first suggest by his voice that he is speaking ironically when he calls Brutus an honorable man? 13. How does Antony help himself by the pause at 1. 106? Compare this pause with that in Brutus's speech. 14. Where does Antony first suggest that the populace use violence against the conspirators? 15. Which citizen is most hostile to Antony at the beginning of his speech? Follow the attitude of that citizen through the speech, picturing to yourself the changing expression upon his face. 16. Follow each of the other citizens through the scene. 17. Could Antony succeed time after time with the same audience, as Abraham Lincoln did? 18. Indicate the main points of contrast between the speeches of Brutus and Antony.


Act III, Scene iii. 1. What seems to be the purpose of the scene? 2. Object to the presence of this scene in the play. 3. Defend it. 4. What special explanation has been suggested for the existence of the scene? (See Section IV of the Introduction.) Act IV, Scene i. 1. Does this slighting of Lepidus come to anything within the play? Why is it introduced? 2. Is there any indication here that Octavius will later prove strong enough to

overthrow Antony? 3. In view of the fact that later references make this matter of the proscription entirely plain, is there any good reason for the introduction of this scene? 4. Why is this scene placed at Rome, contrary to Plutarch?

Act IV, Scenes ii, iïï.—1. Why is Cassius made to come to Brutus, and not the reverse? 2. Is the famous quarrel scene dramatic in the full sense that it both advances the action and displays the characters of those concerned? or does it do only one of these? 3 a. What qualities of each character come out in the quarrel scene? 3 b. Does Brutus the Stoic here show some lack of self-control? If so, where does this appear most plainly? What is the cause? 4. Is Brutus consistent in his attitude toward money? 5. Is the incident of the intruding Poet helpful? or has Shakespeare borrowed this incident from Plutarch without making it dramatically effective? 6. Why is there a discrepancy in the different letters as to the number of senators proscribed? 7. Why does Brutus not tell Messala (1. 182) that he already knows of Portia's death? 8. Verity says, "Perhaps Brutus cherishes a faint hope that the report [of Portia's death] which reached him was false, and that Messala has later tidings of her being alive." Is this suggestion probable? Is it allowable? 9. Does Cassius consider the judgment of Brutus superior to his own? 10. If not, why does he yield to Brutus's judgment? 11. Is our sympathy especially with Brutus or with Cassius at the close of their interview? 12.* Does it indicate poverty of invention on the part of Shakespeare that he introduces the sleepiness of Lucius for a third time? 13. Apart from this, is the incident effective? What is its value? 14. What is the significance of the short conversation between Brutus and Varro, just before Varro and Claudius lie down? 15. In how many ways at the close of IV, iii, is Brutus presented as engaging and lovable? 16. Why are these touches accumulated at this point? 17. How do you interpret the appearance of the ghost of Cæsar? Does it symbolize a coming punishment for sin? for mistakes? Does it represent symbolically the sad conviction of Brutus that he has offered up his dear friend to no purpose?

Act V, Scene i. 1. How do you understand lines 19 and 20? What is their significance? 2. Is this parley too much of a scolding contest? 3. Why does Casca disappear from the play in Act

III, except for the reference here in 1. 43? 4. How do you explain the apparent inconsistency in Brutus's views concerning suicide?

Act V, Scenes ii, iii.-1. Can you remember where Titinius was first mentioned in Julius Cæsar? 2. How can Cassius suppose that Titinius will ride on into the midst of a hostile troop? 3. Even if Titinius is captured, what grounds for hope does Cassius still have? 4. Which had better grounds for being dismayed, Brutus or Cassius?

Act V, Scene iv. -1. Is it possible to make a battle effective on the stage? 2. What different devices do modern actors and stage-managers employ in order to make battle scenes as interesting and lifelike as possible? 3. Why is the death of young Cato an effective incident? 4. Why does Lucilius do as he does?

Act V, Scene v.-1. Should we have been told more about Statilius and the torchlight? 2. Does Brutus seem deeply concerned because the republic is hopelessly overthrown? 3. Has he seemed so anywhere in Acts IV and V? 4. Comment on the last words of Brutus. 5. Is the conversation concerning the promotion of Strato to the favor and service of Octavius an excellence or a blemish in the close of this play? 6. Is there any point near the close at which the play would end better than where it does? 7. Do you agree with Antony's estimate of Brutus?

Act V.-1. What are the most effective features of this act? 2. What seems to be represented as the most important reason why the conspirators lose the battle?


The characters will be studied more thoroughly and more helpfully if the pupil puts his results into the form of a carefully written character-sketch. Bring out clearly the leading qualities of the person studied. Note the strongest evidence in his favor and the strongest against him, first as regards moral character, second with respect to intellectual ability, wisdom, capacity for affairs, etc. Try to gather from the play all the important evidence, and to interpret the evidence fairly. A good charactersketch will base itself at every point upon the text of the play. Be especially careful to be independent; pay no attention to commentators.

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