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dastards, whereas he perseuered most faithfully constaunt to the ende. Many Popish parasites, and men-pleasing flatterers, haue written large commendacions and encomies of those ; but, of such noblemen as this was, very few, or in a maner none at all. Whan I sometime rede the workes of som men lerned, I meruayle not a lytle to see them so aboundaunt in vayne flatteryng prayses for matters of no value, yea, for thinges to be dispraysed rather than praysed, of menne that were

godly wyse. Polydorus Virgilius,* a collectour somtyme in Ingland of the Popes

Peter-pens, and afterwarde archdeacon of Welles, hath in this point deformed his writtinges greatly, pointinge our Inglysh chronycles moost shamefully with his Romish lyes, and other Italysh beggery. Battels hath he described there at large wyth no small discommendings of some princes, whiche were godlye; but the priue packing of prelates and craftie consciencet of the spiritualtee hath he in euery place al. moost full properly passed ouer. He was to familyar with the bise shops and toke to moch of their counsell, whan he compiled the xxvi. bokes of his Inglysh hystory. And not greatly is the land beholden vnto him in that worke, for any large prayse of crudicyon that he hath geuen it theret. A singular beautee is it to the Chrysten relygion, whan theyr auncient monumentes are garnished among others with men of freshe lyterature, which therin hath small remeinbraunce or none. Unlesse it be Gildas, Bedas, Alcuinus, Ioannes Scotus, Aldelmus, Neuburgus, and one or two more, none are in that whole worke mencioned concerning that, as though Ingland had alwaies bene most barren of men lerned. This do I not wryte in disprayse of his lerning (which I know to be very excellent) but for the abuse therof, being

a most syngular gyft of God. I wold wyshe som learned Inglysh man (as there are now most excel

lent fresh wyttes) to set forth the inglysh Chronclyes in their right shape, as certein other landes hath done afore them, al affections set a-part. I can not think a more necessarye thing to be laboured to the honour of God, bewty of the realme, erudicion of the people, and commoditie of other landes, next the sacred scryptures of the Byble, than that work wold be. For, trulye, in those they haue there yet, is vyce more aụaunsed than virtu, and Romish blasphement, in the

lamentable history here following, and such other, which hath bene - long hyd in the darke. Marke diligently the sentence of the said : Polidorus, concerning this good Lord Cobham, and therypon consider

his good woṣkemanship in other maters. In the counsell of Constance (saith heg) was the heresye of lohan Wicleue condempned, and two at the saine ty me burned in that cyte which were the chefe heades of that secte. All this is true, though the fcate handeling thereof be

altogether Italysh. But whereas he saith after, that, whan this was ones knowen to their

companyons in Ingland, they conspired in their madnesse against the whole clergye, and finally against the kinge also, for that he was than

Polidoras Anglice Historye, Lib. iv. + al. Conveyavpce. bot Italyanes. i Polidorus Anglice Historie, Lib. xxii.

No men are lorned with him,

a fauter of Christen relygion, hauing to their great captaynes Sir Iohan Oldcastell and Sir Roger Acton, he maketh a most shamfull lye: For how coulde Sir Roger, with his companye, conspire vpon that occasyon, being dead more * than iiij yeres afore? And Sir lohan Oldcastell remaining all that scason in Wales? Iohan Hus suffered death + at Constaunce, the year of our Lord, a. M. cccc. xv. in July. Hieron of Prage, in the yere of our Lord, a. M. cccc. & xvj. in May, whiche were the two heades he speketh of. Sir Roger Acton was brent with his companye in the yere of our Lord, a. M. cccc. xiij. in January, as witnesseth Walden, Fabian, and lohan Maior, in their chronycles and writtinges. Nowe reken these nombers and yeres, and marke the proper conueyance of this Romish gentelman #, the Popes collectour, to clought vp that crooked kingdom of theyrs. He can by such legerdemaine both pleasc his frindes

in Ingland, and also at Rome. Also that he followeth with lye vpon lye, as that they came than to

London, to destroy the king; that he in his own person met wyth them there in armes, that they cowardly fledde, that som were taken there, and brent out of hand, and that the Lord Cobham and Sir Roger Acton were cast into the Tower of London upon that occasyon. Semeth it not a mater somwhat lyke to the purpose (thinke ye) that men should be there burned for making such an insurrection or tumult? I trowe he hath cobled here somwhat workemanly. And whereas he saith in the end, that the king thervpon made an acte, that they from thensforth shuld be taken as traitours against his owne persone, whiche were proued to follow that secte, he maketh an abominable ly 8. For that acte was made only at the bi-shops complainte and false sute in the fyrst yere of his reigne, and by force of that acte those innocent men than suffred. More than ijij. hunidreth of such manifest lyes coude I gather out of his chronycles,

moch more than might more eyes and iudgements do. Now lett vs expend what the true cause shuld be of this godly mannes

condemnacion and death, all dreames of Papistes set a-part. The truth of it is, ihat, after he had ones throughlye tasted the Chrysten doctrine of lohan Wicleue and of his disciples, and perceived their liuinges agreeable to the same, he abhorred all the supersticious sorceries (ceremonies I shuld say) of the proud Romish church. From thensforth he brought all thinges to the touchestone of God's word. He tryed all maters by the Scryptures, and so proued their spyrites, whether they were of God or nay.ll He mainteined such preachers in the dioceses of Caunterbury, London, Rochester, and Herforde, as the bisshoppes were sore offended with. He exhorted theyr pryestes to a better waye by the gospell, and, whan that wolde not helpe, he gave them sharpe rebukes. He admonished ** the kinges, as Richard the Second, Henry the Fourth, and Henry the Fifth, of the clergyes manifolde abuses, and put into the parlament

fault of the press; because

• More than two years before the death of John Huss and Jerome of Praguc. I apprehead

been a fault of the press; because the exact time is described a few lines below. Acta Consilii Constantiensis. & Waldenus in Serinone de Funero Regis. loban, iii. 1 Thess. y. Math, vü. 1 Iohan i. - Walden, in Fasciculo Zizaniorum Wiclenii.

Polidore Virgil...

Math. vi. 1 Iohan in

house certein bokes, concerning their just reformation, both in the yere of our Lord, a. M. ccc. xcv. and in the yere a. M. cccc. x. Of the first boke, this is the beginning*: Prima conclusio. Quando Ecclesia Angliæ, &c. which I have here left oute, least thys treatyse shuld be to great. The other boke was made by one Johan Purueye, a master of art of Oxforde. Beside the xviij. conclusions that Master

Johan Wicleue had put in long afore that. In the yere of our Lord a. M. ccc. xci. this noble Lord Cobham + with

certein other more, mocioned the king at Westminster, at the time of his parlament, that it were very commodious to Ingland, if the Romish bisshoppes auctoritee extended no further than the Occeane Sea, or the bauen of Calys, consydering the charges and vnquietnes of sutes there, and that mens causes coulde not be throughlye knowen so farre of. Wherevpon the king made this acte by consent of his lordes, that no man from thensforth should sue to the Pope in any mater, nor publysh any excommunication of his, vnder payne of losing their goodes, with perpetuall imprisonnement 1. Thys and the aforenamed boke had cost him with Sir John Cheny and other more his lyfe, in the sixt yere after, at the crafty accusement of certein prelates (though it hath in the chronycles || an other colour) had not God than moost graciously preserued him. An other cause of his death, yet, besides all that hath been sayd afore, was this: He caused & all the workes of John Wicleue to be written at the instaunce of lohan Huss, and to be sent into Boheme, Fraunce, Spayne, Portingale, and other landes. Whereof Subinco Lepus, the archbisshop of Prage, caused ** more than two hundreth volumes fayre written openly to be brent afterwarde, as witnesseth Æneas Siluius, de Origine

Bohemorum. These causes knowen, with other more that I coulde reherse, consider whether the world, that is alwaies so wicked, was worthye to it holde soche a noble Chrysten warryour as this was, or naye? Consyder also the just punyshment of the Lorde for wycked lawes that were than made, with the exceding mischeues that the spiritualte 11 than vsed. And way the miserable estate that the realme was in sone after, for contempt of his eternall word. And thervpon lawd his rightuousnes, and beware of lykc contempt and plage in these dayes. In the florishyng tyme, euen in the beginnyng of the xxxvii. yere of his age Illl, which was about foure yeres after the death of thys Lord Cobham. His sonne Henry the Sixt successed in hys rome, and had the gouernaunce of this whole realme, being but a babe of cight moneth fs old, and odde dayes, What a dolour was this ynto men of rype discretyon naturally louing their countrey, and regarding the common-weltḥ therof? Yea what a plage of God was it, after the scryptures ***, to haue a yong child to their kyng? And that it shuld the more manifestly appeare to com that waye, or, of the stroke of God, he was a childysshe thing all the dayes of his lyfe,

Fabianus. + Walden, Polidorus in Histor Anglorum, Lib. xx.
Treuisa in Addicionibus Cestrensis, Polidorus.

Fabianus, Polidorus. i Waldeo. cont. Wicleui. Lib. ii. cap. 70. Acta Consilii Constanciensis Hermannus, Shedel. ++ Hebr. xi. Esay x. Nahum iii. # Viz. the clergy. Ali Waldenus in Sermone de Funere Regis, 17 Al Monethes,

*** Esay. iii,

'I shall geue you,' sayth the Lorde in his hyghe dyspleasure, Chylderen

to be your princes, and yonge infauntes without wisdome sbal haue the gouuernaunce of you.' What wretched calamities the realme suffred afterward for the space of more than fourscore yeres, and thre, tyl the dayes of King Henry the Seuenth, it is ynspeakable. Sens the preaching of Iohan Wicleue, hath the Lorde suffred the pompouse Popysh prelates to shew theinselues forth in theyr owne ryghte coulours, that they myght now in the lyght of hys gospel appeare, as they are in dede; euen spightful murtherers, ydolaters and sodoinites. Afore bys tyme, they lurked vnder the glyttering shyne of hypocresye, and coulde not be seane in their mastryes. The fryers with their charminge sophistrye threwe such a darke myst ouer the vniuersall worlde, that supersticyon coulde not be knowen for supersticyon, nor

ydolatrye for ydolatrye.. Unspeakable fylthynes of all fleshly occupieng was than called pryestes

chastitee, as it is yet, and will be tyl it come to the hyghest, that God may take ful vengeaunce. Then was whoordom + worshiped in prelates of the churche, and sacred wedlocke rekened such a detes. table vyce as was worthy in a pryest I moost cruell death. As was seane for example in Sir Wyllyam Wyghts, whiche was brent || for

the same at Norwych, in the yeare of our Lorde 1428. Thus was whight iudged blacke, and lyght darkenesse, so yll was mens syghte in those dayes. By such meanies (sayth the prophet) 'they drewe wickednes vnto them, as it were with a corde, and all kindes of synne, as yt were with a cart rope. If Englond, at that tyme, had not bene vnthankfull for the syngular benefyght that God than sent them by those good menne, the dayes of Antichryst and his beastly brood had bene shortened there longe agoo, as it is euen now, and here after lyke to be more largely. A moost orient** freshe myrrour of Chrysten manhode appeareth thys worthye Lord Cobham in our age, the veritee now open, which was, in her absens, a lampe of contempt before worldlye wyse men. In him, maye noble men beholde here plainlye a moost noble stomake and pretiouse faith, in the middes of great Antichrystes morde mustre: His corrage was of suche value that it gaue hym the victory ouer them by the clere iudgeinent of the scrypturestt, what though the worldes judgement be farre otherwise. And as for the cruel death, which he most contumeliously suffred, it is now ynto him a must plentuouse winning #1, for in the

iust quarell was it of his Lord Jesus Christ. Myght those bloudy blusterers haue had their full swaye now of late,

they wolde haue made more Oldcastells, Actons, Brownes, and Beuerlays; yea, they wolde haue made there a greater hauocke vpon Christes congregation, than euer did Paul in his raging furie llll. They ment more than they vttered, whan they approched so nigh (as did cruell Haman) to the presence of noble Assuerus 89. But, blessed be the eternall Father, whiche hath geuen suche godlye wysdome vnto our moost worthy kyng, that he, perceyuing their sleyghtes, so abated their tyrannouse fercenes. Praye noble men, pray, yea with the true clergye and comunes, that, lyke as he hath now with Duke Iosue the ouerhande of wycked Hierico *, by his onely gift, and is through that becoinen an whole perfyght kyng + within his own realme farre aboue all his predecessours, so that he may in conclusion ouerthrow her clerely. For as yet the dredefull damsell I (tirannye) that was Cayphas dore keper, dwelleth in the houses il of hisshoppes, and dayly compelleth poore Petre to deny his master. As many eyes, as cuer had vygylaunt Argus, had he nede to haue, that is compassed with soch a sort, as are the broode of the wilye serpent. Consyder what heayenly things ye haue receyued of the scryptures vndre hys permissyon, and yet pray ones again for his gratiouse continuance to the

Id. ib.

+ Apoc. xviii. u Walden in utroquc Opere. # Phil. I. Apol. i.

The Church of Rome forbids its priests to marry. Esay. " Rising up early. #1 Johan v. 1 Cor. xn Act. viii.

12 Hester v

more increace of knowledge. Amen. O Babylon, thy marchauntes were princes of the earth. And with thyne

'Inchauntementes were all nations deceyued. Apocal. xviii.

The great Processe of Thomas Arundell, the Archbisshop of Caunterbury,

and of the Papisticall Clergye with him, agaynst the most noble Knight, Sir Iohan Oldcastell, the Lord Cobham, in the Yere of our Lord, a, M. cccc. and xiii. wherin is conteyned hys Examinación, Imprisonnement, and Excommunication.

The Processe before his Examinacion.

AFTER that the true seruaunt of lesus Chryst, lohan Wicleue, Hla man of very excellent lyfe, and learning, had, for the space of more than xxvi. years, moost valeauntly battelled with the great antichryst of Europa, or pope of Rome, and his dyuersly disgysed host of anointed hypocrites, to restore the church again to the pure estate that Chryst left her in at hys ascensyon, he departed hens most christenly into the handes of God, the yere of our Lord 1387, and was buried in his own parish-church of Lutterworth, in Lincolnshere**. No small nombre of godly disciples left that good man behynd hym to defende the lowlynesse of the gospell agaynst the exceading pryde, ambition, symony, auarice, ipocrysye, whoredom, sacrylege, tyrannye, ydolatrouse worshipinges, and other fylthy frutes of those stifnecked pharysees. Agaynst whome Thomas Arundell, than Archbisshop of Caunterbury, so ferce as euer was Pharao, Antiochus, Herodes, or Cayphas, collected, in Pauls church at London, an vniversall sinodett

• losue vi. + Having thrown off the supremacy and impositions of the Pope and See of
Rome, and declared himself Supreme Head over all persons as well ecclesiastical, as civil, in
bis dominions.
Matth. XXvi. John xvii.

Walden in Sermone.
Ex Operibus & Scriptis Thome Waldeni.

Priests and friars, who dressed

ald be Leicestershire. # Thomas Arnudell in magno processos

ons as well ecclesia

Thoms in various sorts of home Waldeni.ohn xvii.

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