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Scottish Queene, his mistresse, with certaine infamous libelles against her Maiestie, printed and published beyond the seas; which being found in the hands of a man so evil affected, comparing the same with his doings and practises against her Maiestie, you wil iudge the purpose wherefore he kept them.

Shortly after his apprehension, bee was examined by some of her Maiesties priuie-counsell, how he came by the said two papers of the hauens, and he most impudently denied, with many protestations, that he ever sawe them, affirming they were none of his, but were foisted in (as he termed it) among his papers, by the gentleman, that searched his house : notwithstanding being more earnestly pressed to confesse the trueth, he sayd they had been left (he knew not how) in his chamber by a man of his, who long before was departed out of the realme, named Edward Rogers, alias Nuttebie, by whome they were written. And, to make this deuice to carie some colour of trueth, after his committing to the Tower, he found the meanes to get three cards, on the backside of which cardes he wrote to his brother George Throckmorton, to this effect: 'I have bene examined, by whom the two papers, conteining the names of certaine noblemen and gentlemen, and of hauens, fc. were written ; and I haue alleage ed them to haue bene written by Edward Nuttebie my man, of whose hand-writing you knowe them to be: Meaning by this deuice to have had his brother confirme his falsehode. These cardes were intercepted, and thereby the suspition before conceiued of his practises increased, whereupon, as vpon other iust cause and matter against him, hauing bin sundrie times brought before some of the principall personages of her Maiesties most honorable privie-counsell, and by them with all industrie examined, and perswaded in very milde and charitable maner, to confesse the trueth, promising to procure pardon for him, in case he would bewray the depth of his practises; but, no persuasion preuailing, her Maiestie thought it agreeable with good pollicie, and the safetie of her royal person and state, to commit him ouer to the hands of some of her learned counsel, and others her faithfull seruants and ministers, with commission to them, to assay by torture to drawe from him the trueth of the matters appearing so waightie as to concerne the inuading of the realme, &c. These men, by vertue of that commission, proceeded with him, first as the counseli had formerly done, by way of persuasion, to induce him to confesse; but, finding that course not to preuaile, they were constrained to commit him to such as are vsually appointed in the Towre to handle the racke, by whom he was layd vpon the same, and somewhat pinched, although not much; for, at the end of three doys following, he bad recouered himselfe, and was in as good plight as before the time of his racking, which if it had then or any other time bene ministred vnto him with that violence, that hec and his favourers haue indeuoured slaunderously to giue out, the signes thereof would have appeared vpon bis limmes for many yeeres. At this first time of torture, he would confesse nothing, but continued in his former obstinacie and deniall of the trueth. The second time that he was put to the racke, before hee was strayned vp to any purpose, hee yeelded to confesse any thing, be knewe, in the matters obiected against him ; whereupon he was loosed, and then the commissioners proceeded with him according to such interrogatories as had bene deliuered vnto them, which for the more breuitie shall here bee omitted, the intent of this declaration tending onely to discover vnto you the treasons, and treacherous dealings of the said Francis Throckmorton, aswell before as sithens his imprisonment, for your better knowledge of the man, and manifestation of the due and iust proceedings held with him by her Maiesties commissioners, appointed to that seruice. And here you are to note, that when bee was first pressed to discouer by whome the plottes of the hauens were sette downe, and to what purpose, he began (without any further interrogation ministred) by way of an historicall narration, to declare that, at his being at Spaw in the countrie of Leige certaine yeres past, he entred into conference with one lenney, a notorious knowen traitor, touching the altering of the state of the realme here, and how the same might be attempted by forraine inuasion, and to the like effect had sundrie conferences with Sir Francis Englefield", in the Low-Countreys, who daily solicited the Spanish King in Spaine, and his gouernours in the said countreyes, to attempt the inuading of the realme, continued a course of practising against her Maiestie and the state, by letters betweene Sir Francis Englefield and himselfe, vntil within these two yeres last past, and that he did, from time to time, acquaint Sir John Throckmorton t, his late father, with his traiterous practises, who, as he said, seeing no probabilitie of successe in them, dissuaded him from any further medling with those practises.

He hath further confessed, that he vsed his fathers aduise and opnion in setting downe the names of the Catholique noblemen and gen tlemen, and did acquaint him with the description of the hauens for the landing of forces, which he conceiued, and put in writing, onely by view of the mappe, and not by particular sight or suruey of the said hauens.

Item, he hath also confessed, that vpon the intermission of writing of letters, and the accustomed intelligences passed betweene Sir Francis Englefield and him, he was made acquainted by his brother Thomas Throckmorton, by letters and conference, and by Tliomas Morgan, by letters (two of the principall confederates and workers of these treasons residing in France) with a resolute determination agreed on by the Scottish Queene and her confederates in France, and in other forreine partes, and also in Englande, for the inuading of the realme.

That the Duke of Guyse should be the principal leader and executer of that inuasion.

That the pretention, which shoulde be publiquely notified, should be to deliuer the Scottish Queenc to libertie, and to procure, euen by force, from the Queenes Maiestie a tolerance in religion, for the pretended Catholiques : but the intention, the bottomne whereof should nut at the first be made kilowen to all men, shoulde be, vpon the Queenies Maiesties resistance, to remooue her Maiestie from her crowne and state.

• Who had been of Queen Mary's privy-copnci).

Chief jotsice of Chester i but lately put out of the fomniission; Camden. p. 497

That the Duke of Guyse had prepared the forces, but there wanted two things, money, and the assistance of a conuenient partie in England, to ioyne with the forraine forces, and a third thing, how to set the Scot. tish Queene at libertie without perill of her person.

For, the first thing wanting, viz. money, messengers were sent from forraine parts both to Rome and Spaine, and their returne daily expected to their liking : and the Spanish ambassador *, to encourage the English to joyne both in purse and person, did giue out, that the King his master would not onely make some notable attempt against Englande, but also would bear halfe the charge of the enterprise. For the se conde thing, viz. the preparing of a sufficient partie in England, to receiue and to ioyne with the forraine forces, one especiall messenger was sent ouer into England in August last, vnder a counterfaite name, from the confederates in France, to signifie the plotte and preparation there, and to sollicite the same here.

That Thomas Throckmorton, his brother, made him priuie to his negotiation, at his last being here in England, and that thereupon Frauncis Throckmorton tooke vpon him to be a follower, and meane for the effectuating thereof among the confederates in England, with the help of the Spanish ambassadour, whom he instructed howe, and with whome to deale, for the preparing of a conuenient partie heere within the realme, for that himselfe woulde not be seene to be a sounder of men, lest hec might be discouered, and so endanger himselfe and the enterprise, knowing that the ambassadour, being a publique person, might safelie deale therein without perill.

That the Duke of Guyse, and other heads of the enterprise, had refused some landing places, and made speciall choice of Sussex, and about Arindel in Sussex, both for the necre cutte from the partcs of Fraunce, where the duke did, or best could assemble his force, and for the opportunitie of assured persons to giue assistance, &c.

That hee, taking vpon him the pursuite of this course, shewed the whole plotte and deuise of the hauens for landing to the Spanish ambassadour, who did incourage him therein, he promising, that, if hee might haue respite vntill the next spring, the same should be done more exactly.

That, at the time of Thomas Throckmortons being bere, lest the negotiation of the enterprise, by some casualtie, might taile in the only hand of one man, Thomas Throckmorton, there was also, from the confederates, sent ouer into Sussex, Charles Paget, vnder the name of Mope, alias Spring; and thereof an aduertisement couertly sent to Thomas Throckmorton, both that Thomas might understande it, and not be offended that another was ioined with him in his la bour.

That the Spanish ambassadour, by aduertisements from the confederates, was made priuie to this coming of Charles Paget, vnder the name of Mope, and yet knowen to him to be Charles Paget.

That the sayde ambassadour did, according to his sayde aduertisements, knowe and affirme, that Charles Paget was come ouer to view

• Mendoza, who upoo this information was desired to come to the council, where, not being able to gainsay what Throgmorton had deposed, he behaved very insolently by way of recrimiRation, and was in a few days after ordered to depart the kingdom. Camden.

the hauens and countrey for landing of such forraine forces about Arundell, and specially to sound and conferre with certaine principall persons for assistance.

The same ambassadour also knewe and affirmed, that Charles Paget' had accordingly done his message, and had spoken with some principale persons heere, according to his commission, and was returned.

Hee moreouer confessed, that there was a deuice betweene the Spa nish ambassadour and him; howe such principall recusants here within the realme, as were in the commission of the peace in sundrie counties, might, vpon the first bruite of the landing of forraine forces, vnder colour and pretext of their authoritie, and the defence of her Maiestie, leuie men, whome they might after ioyne to the forraine forces, and conuert them against her Maiestie.

In these fewe articles is briefly comprised the whole effect of his confession, made at large, without any interrogatorie particularly ministred, other then vpon the two papers before mencioned, contayning the names of men and hauens. And heere you are to note, that, at the time of his apprehension, there was no knowledge or doubt had of these treasons, or of his priuitie vnto them, but onely an information and suspition deliuered and conceived of some practise betweene him and the Scottish Queene, as is before mentioned; for the discouering whereof, aster he had bene sundrie times, vpon his alleagaunce, commanded to declare his doings, in conueying and receyuing of letters to and from her, he did voluntarily confesse, that he had written diuers letters vnto her, and had conueyed many to and fro, betweene her and Thomas Morgan in Fraunce, by whuse meanes he was first made knowne vnto her, and that he had received as many letters from her. Hee also declared the effect of his letters to her, and of hers to him: which letters betweene them were always written in cipher, and the cipher, with the nullities and markes for nam:s of princes and counsailors, hee sent vnto the Queenes Maiestie, written with his own hand. He also deliuered the names of some, by whome hee conueyed his letters to the Scottish Queene, as by one Godfrey Fulgeam, who fled the realme immediately vpon Throckinorton's apprehension, and one other person, whom he described by his stature, shape, and apparell, and the man, sithens apprehended and examined, hath confessed the same: the man's name is William Ardington.

The summe and effect of the most part of these confessions, although they were, at the time of his arraignement, opened and dilated by her Maiesties sergeant, atturney, and solicitor-generall, at the barre, and therefore seeme not needful to be repeated heere; yet, because the purpose, of this discourse is to shew sufficient proofe, that the matters, contained in his sayde confessions, are neither false nor fayned (as Frauncis Throckmorton most impudently affirmed at his triall, alleadging, that they weere mere inuentions of himselfe, by policie to auoyde the torture) they haue bene here inserted, to the ende you may the better judge of the proofes, presumptions, and circumstances for Jowing, by comparing the matters with their accidents, and consequently see the falsehoode of the traitory, the just and honourable proceedings

of her Maicstie, and the honest and loyall endeuours of her ministers imployed in the discouering of the treasons.

First, it is true, and not denied by himselfe, that he was at Spaw, about the time by him mencioned, and had conference with lenney in that place, and with Sir Francis Englefield in Flaunders, and that be hath written letters to Sir Frauncis, and receiued letters from him : for, if he should denie the same, he were to be conuinced by good proofe; for it hath bin noted in him, by many of his countrey-men English subiects, that both in thosc parts and in Fraunce, he did continually associate himselfe with English rebels and fugitiuics. If then you consider with whome he hath conuersed beyond the seas, and compare his religion with theirs, you will iudge of his conuersation accordingly; and it is to be supposed, that those men, knowen to be continuall practisers against the Queenes Maiestie and this realme, from whence, for their treasons and vnnaturall demeanures, they are worthily banished, will not, in their conuenticles and meetings, forget to bethinke them of their banishment, and howe they might be restored to their countrey, whereunto no desert in her Maiesties life time, which God long continue, can wel, without her Maiesties great mercie, restore them. Then, I pray you, what conferences might M. Throckmorton have with Sir Francis Englefield, with lenney, with Liggons, with Owen, and with such like, who were his daily companions in Fraunce, and in the Lowe Countries? He hath written letters to Sir Frauncis Englefield: to what purposes : He haunted continually two ambassadours in London, by whose meanes he sent and received letters to and from beyond the seas daily. To whom, and from whom? Euen to and from Thomas Morgan and Thomas Throckmorton, at Paris, men knowen to her Maiestie and her counsell, to be notorious practisers, very inward with the Duke of Guyse, and contriuers of the treasons and deuises for the inuasion intended : and, for very certaine knowledge thereof, we neede not be beholding to Frauncis Throckmorton onely, although he hath said much of them, but to others of better credite then himselfe.

That the Duke of Guyse did vndertake the enterprise to inuade the realme with a forraine power, to be defrayed by the Pope and King of Spaine a part of M. Throckmortuns confession' and he, in trueth, the first discouerer thereof to her Maiestie : If he will say that it was but inuention, it will approve false. For, sithens he discouered the same, there haue bene diuers aduertisements thereof sent to her Maiesty from forraine princes, her highnesse louing neighbours and allies, as also by other good meanes and intelligences from her ambassadours and seruants, residing in other countries.

If he denie, as he hath done, that he never had knowledge of any such matter, when he confessed the same, it bath no likelihood of trueth ; for Throckmorton was neuer knowne to be a prophet to foretell things de futuro*.

He resorted often to the Spanish ambassadour, at least twice in a week, when he was in London: this often repayre could not be to conferre with the ambassadour for the exchange of money for his bro

i. e. to come.

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