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monastery in the city of Grenada, where he caused himself to be buried. Cosmo de Medicis was noble, if we only take into account his bounty to religion. He built at Florence the convent and church of St. Marc, also that of St. Lawrence, aud the cloister of St. Verdiane. He built in the mountains of Fiesole the church of St. Jerom, in the Mugello, the church of the Friar Minors, besides adorning the churches of St. Croix, of Servites, of Angelo, and of San-Miniato. The monuments of the Dukes of Burgundy, in the abbey of Cisteaux, were an evidence of the zeal which prompted so many princes of that illustrious house to support the institutions which their ancestors had founded *. On one occasion, when Philip Duke of Burgundy was travelling, he visited the monastery of Saint Seine, placed his spurs on the altar, and then ransomed them at a great price. It was in the collegiate church of our Lady at Bruges, that Philip instituted the order of the Toison d'Or. The arms of the first knights were painted round the choir. The tombs of his bold father, and of the good Mary were before the high altar. In 1S49, Sir Walter Mauny purchased thirteen acres and one rod of ground, and caused it to be consecrated for burials: he built a chapel in the cemetery; and, in 1371, he founded a house of Carthusian monks, of the salutation of the Mother of God, to advance charity, and administer the consolations of religion •(." Even the Emperor Frederick II. was a great benefactor to the abbey of St. Gall. He founded the order of the Bear of St. Gall, giving to the abbots the privilege of conferring it upon whom they would on the festival of St. Gall. O what a sight it was to go into the ducal vaults at Nancy, to behold the tombs of those princes whose characteristic was goodness. It was John Duke of Lorraine, in the 14th century, who ordered that his charger should be presented to the church at his funeral, "en signe que tout doit retourner a Dieu." The moderns leave orders to have them shot, according to the heathen practice. The first notice which occurs of a Coucy is in a charter of Alberic, Seigneur de Coucy, in 1059, which conveys his intention of founding a monastery

• Vide Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscriptions, IX. 193. 8vo.
t Mill's Hist, of Chivalry, II. 48.

at Noyent, at the foot of the mountain of Coucy *. It was a religious baron, Conrad von Seldenburen, who built the convent of Engelberg, in a savage valley of Unterwalden, at the foot of mount Titlis, which is covered with eternal snow. To this day, the convent of Engelberg is a blessing to that country. The chartreuse of Montrieux was founded by an illustrious knight and baron, Guillaume de Valbelle. In the church of St. Paul, at Lyons, was a piece of sculpture, as old as the ninth century, representing Count Richard, who had built the monastery, on his knees, saying, as indicated by a scroll in Carlovingian letters,

Christe, rei miserere mei, medicina reorum.

The history of the Counts of Champagne furnishes an astonishing series of religious endowments t• The monastery of St. Florent in Aquitaine having been destroyed by the Normans, Count Thibaud of Champagne built another in the year 937, which he protected by the Castle of Saumur, built expressly for the purpose {. This spirit did not even forsake them in time of war. When Charles the Bold directed his artillery against Amiens, he gave particular orders to avoid striking the Cathedral §. As a specimen of the deeds of endowment, I give the following, by which my worthy ancestor bequeathes a portion of his land to the brethren of St. Lazarus. "Carta Johannis de Diggeby militis de dimidia acra terrae in Billesdon.

"Sciant (&c.) quod ego Johannesde Diggeby miles, dedi (&c.) fratri Roberto de Danby, magistro de Burton S. Lazari et fratribus ibidem Deo et S. Lazaro servientibus unam dimid. acram terrae arabilis in territorio de Billesdon in puram et perpetuam elemosinam, pro salute animae meae et antecessorum meorum, &c. ||."

This shews that it was not from human motives, worldly policy, or even "public spirit," that these magnificent and beneficial institutions were founded and supported; but out of love to God and the desire of benefitting men for His sake, out of a penitential spirit, to give proof of sincerity, and to propitiate the divine favour. Thus Ardi'duke Gottfried der Bartige of Lothringa changed a gamepark into a convent, probably as a penance for his having pursued the chace with too much ardor *. In the reign of King Edward I. three most valiant knights, Sir Everard, Sir John,;and Sir Philip Digby, accompanied Prince Edward to the holy war before he became king. It is recorded of them, that "they were the most powerful and noble knights in Leicestershire, who did much for the glory of God and the honour of the holy Church." Their arms are in a Church in Leicester, of which they were benefactors. I have delayed too long upon this subject. I confess that these records move and deeply interest me.

• Hist, de la ville et des Seigneurs de Coucy, par Dom. Toussainn du Plessis, p. 15.

+ Hist, des Comptes de Champagne et de Brie.

j Ibid, tome i. p. 16. § Olivier de la Marche.

|| Dugdale Mon. II. 399.

When I behold the Tower of Exeter Cathedral, built by the Courtenays, and when I hear the deep-toned bells, which were the gift of that once illustrious family, and when at another time I beheld the pompous villa of sorne modern lord, raising its haughty staring front as if in disdain of the humble fabric raised out of the pittance of the poor, dedicated to the ancient and unchanging religion of Christ, then I confess my spirits and my heart fail, and I fly for refuge to the images of the past, to adore and venerate the piety of our ancestors.

VII.—Let us now proceed to take examples from romance and history of the religious spirit in general which distinguished chivalry. The first I shall select is_from the celebrated Romance of Huon de Bourdeaux, peer of France. The emperor Thierry, enraged at the death of his nephews and attendants, who had been killed by Huon, had seized upon his noble wife Esclarmonde, whom he kept in a dungeon, with a number of attendants, intending at a future time to put them all to death. Huon had intelligence of this fatal event, and hastened to Mayence, the place of the emperor's residence. He arrived on Maunday Thursday, in the disguise of a pilgrim returning from the Holy Land, and besought the maitre d'hotel, whom he first met, to give him food; this good man was greatly interested by his appearance, and in reply to his demand, if upon the morrow, Good Friday, it was not the custom to give liberal alms, he replied, "Amy, bien pouvez croire

* Miraei op. dip]. I. 81.

certainement que l'empereur fera demain de grandes aumones, il departira de ses biens tant et si largement que tous pauvres qui la seront venus seront assouvis, car de plus preud'homme ne de plus grand aumonier on ne pour* roit trouver; mais bien vous veux advenir que l'empereur a une coutume qu'à celui jour le premier pauvre qui vient au devant de lui est bien heureux; car il n'est aujourd'huy chose au monde ne si chere qu'il demande à l'empereur qui s'en voise esconduit et y convient estre à l'heure qu'il va en sa chapelle faire ses oraisons." Upon this informa'tion Huon greatly rejoiced, and resolved to attend carefully the following day. That night, the history relates, he slept not, but only thought upon delivering his wife and her fellow-prisoners. "Et fut toute la nuit en oraison en priant Dieu qu'il le voulut conseiller et aider, par quelque maniere il pourra sa femme ravoir." When the morning came he dressed, took his pilgrim's staff, and hastened to the palace, where there were already many poor people expecting the emperor, and each-wishing that he might be seen the first, but Huon by his cunning contrived to place himself in so secret a corner, that the rest could not see him, and where the emperor assuredly would. The emperor came and entered the chapel, and now the crowd was in anxious expectation till the office should be over. The crisis at length arrived, and Huon, by an artifice which is not worth repeating, attracted at"tention the first. He then began by informing the emperor, that he came there upon the account of his custom to grant the petition of those who first presented themselves after the office upon that day. "Ami," said the emperor, "bien veux que sçachiez que si vous me demandez quatorze de mes meilleures citez que j'aye je le vous donneray puis que le vous ai promis, ja ne plaise à notre seigneur Jesus Christ, que à l'encontre de ma promisse le vueille aller car mieux aimerois que l'un de mes poings fut coupé tout jusque je fisse une faute, ne qu'à l'encontre de mon serment voulisse aller, et pour ce demandez seurement et aurez votre demande que ja ne serez refusé.-" Then Huon demanded, first, pardon for himself and for all his who might have offended. "Sire, autre chose je ne vous demande." The emperor replied, " pelerin, n'en faites doute quelconque n'avoir ce que vous ay promis des maintenant je le vous octroye: mais je vous suplie tres» humblement que dire me vueillez quel homme vous etes et de quel pais et de quel lignages que tel don m'avez requis à avoir." "Sire," said Huon, "je suis celui qui souloit estre le Duc de Bordeaux, que tant avez hay, maintenant je viens d'outre mer ou j'ay mainte peine soufferte et grande pauvrete, la merci de nostre Seigneur Jesus Christ, j'ay tant fait que je suis revenu et que vers vous suis accordé, et si j'auray ma femme et mes nommes que vous tenez prisoniers et toutes mes terres si votre promesse me voulez tenir." When the emperor heard Huon of Bordeaux, his colour instantly changed, .and for a long time he was deprived of utterance; at length he spoke. "Ha Huon de Bordeaux, estes vous celui par qui j'ay tant souffert de maux et de dommages, qui mes neveux et mes hommes avez occis; pas je ne sçay penser Comment avez este si hardi de vous avoir montré devant moi, ne estre venu en ma presence, bien m'avez surpris et enchante: car mieux aimasse avoir perdu quatre de mes meilleures citez, et que tout mon pays fut ars et bruslé, et avec ce du tout mon pays je fusse banny trois ans, qu'icy devant moi vous fussiez trouvé: mais puisque ainsi est que je suis surpris de vous, sçachez de verité que ce que je vous ay promis et juré je le vous tiendray et des .maintenant pour l'honneur de la passion de Jesus Christ et du bon jour ou à present sommes par lequel il fut crucifié et mis à mort vous pardonne toute rancune et mal talent, j'a à Dieu ne plaise qu'en soye tenu parjure vostre femme, vos terres, et vos hommes des maintenant je vous rends et mets en vostre main, et en parle qui en voudra parler, ja autre chose n'en sera faite, ne jamais au contraire ne voudray aller." Then the duke Huon threw himself on his knees before the emperor, and besought him to forgive the injury which he had done to him. "Huon," said the emperor, "Dieu le vous vueille pardonner, quant à moi de bon cœur je le vous pardonne." Then the emperor took him by the hand, and gave him the kiss of peace. "Sire," said Huon of Bourdeaux, "grandement ai trouvé en vous grande grace quand de promesse ne m'avez failly: mais s'il plaist à notre seigneur Jesus Christ le guerdon vous en sera rendu au double." The history then relates, how the prisoners

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