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horn himself, and by Rosenmüller, who has abandoned the application of the passage to the prophetic order, which he formerly adopted. To these might be added many others. Upon the whole, this hypothesis is just the same as we have seen it to be among the Jews. The only difference is, that these interpreters understand by the sufferings of the servant of God, the sufferings of the Jewish people in the Babylonish exile ; while the Jewish expositors understand by the same, the sufferings of the Jewish people in their present exile.

The former too suppose the heathen to be introduced in verses 1-10, as speaking, and making a penitent confession, that hitherto they had misapprehended the character of the Israelites, and now perceive that their sufferings are not a punishment for their own sins, but have been endured as a vicarious sacrifice for the sins of the heathen.

III. The hypothesis of the abstract of the Jewish people, in opposition to the individual members, is a thing of which one can properly form no conception. For the whole consists only of all its parts, and hence the abstract cannot be innocent, while all its members are guilty. Much less can the former undergo vicarious sufferings for the latter. This hypothesis has continued to be peculiar to its own author ;c for as yet it has found no other supporter.

a In his work, Die hebräischen Propheten. b In the second edition of his Commentary.

Eckermann, Theol. Beiträge Bd. i. H. 1, p. 192 sq.Compare, on the other hand, Briefe über Jesais 53, l. c. p.


192, sq.

IV. The supposition of the pious part of the Jewish people, in opposition to the wicked, is more especially defended by Paulus. The main features of this view are as follows: “ The pious part of the people were not carried into exile and punished with the wicked for their own sins, but for the sins of the latter, who knew how to secure to themselves a better lot in exile by apostatizing from the religion of Jehovah. Hence the wicked drew the conclusion, that the hope of the pious for aid from Jehovah, was vain. But when the exile had terminated and the pious had returned, the former saw that they had been in an error, and that this hope was well founded. Hence they lament with deep penitence, that they too have not long ago done penance through suffering."

V. The hypothesis of the priestly order is defended by the author of the work of which the title is given below ;b but has found no other adherents.

VI. The hypothesis of the prophetic order collectively, was first introduced by Rosenmüller. Aban


Memorabilien, Bd. iii. p. 175–192. Clavis zum Jesaias. — With him agrees Ammon in his Christologie, p. 108, sq.

Ausführliche Erklärung der sämmtlichen Weissagungen des A. T. 1801. (A detailed exposition of the whole Prophecies of the Old Testament.)

• In the essay : Leiden und Hoffnungen der Propheten Jehovahs. (The Sufferings and Hopes of the Prophets of Jehovah.) In Gablers neuestem theol. Journal, vol. ii. p. 4, p. 333, sq. (Compare above under ii. p. 326.) ---Gabler himself also assents to this hypothesis, l. c. p. 365.

doned by him, it has descended to De Wettea and Gesenius.

VII. Among the various interpretations which refer the prediction to some single individual other than the Messiah, scarcely one has found any advocate besides its own author. We exhibit them very briefly here, just to show by examples, how sagacity will wander when once it abandons the truth. Augusti makes king Uzziah the subject ; although now, since he has changed his theological views, he has probably given up this opinion; and even before, he admitted that if the prediction did not refer to Uzziah, it could refer to no one but Jesus. Konynenburg and Bahrdt apply the passage to king Hezekiah ; Stäudlin, to the prophet Isaiah himself;b an anonymous writer in Henke's Magazine, to an unknown prophet killed by the Jews in exile; Bolten,d to the royal race of David who suffered unjustly, as the children of the unfortunate king Zedekiah were put to the sword by order of Nebuchadnezzar. Finally, it is referred by an anonymous writere to the Macabees.

Yet the true interpretation has not been without numerous and able defenders, who have not suffered themselves to be carried away by the perverse spirit of the times. Among the modern commentators on the whole of Isaiah, the following have remained

a De Morte J. Chr. expiatoria, p. 28, sq.

b See, on the other side, Spohn in a Programm, Wittemb. 1794, 4. c Bd. I. H. 2.

d On Acts viii. 33. e In den Theologischen Nachrichten, Jahrg. 1821, p. 79, sq.

true to the Messianic exposition: Cube, Dathe, Döderlein,a Hensler, Hezel, Kocher, Koppe, Lowth, Michaelis, Van der Palm, Rieger, and Vaupel. Its principal advocates, besides these, are b Hess, M. F. Roos, Storr, J. I. Hansi, Martini, C. F. A. Werner, Spohn, an anonymous writer (Schleusner?) in the Göttingen Bibliothek, Olaus Sunden, Lindemann, an anonymous writer in the Dutch Bibliotheek, etc. Kruiger, Jahn, Zöllich, Keller, and Steudel.

a In the last edition of his translation, however, he is doubtful.

6 To some extent Bertholdt may also be reckoned among the defenders of the Messianic interpretation ; since he supposes that the passage treats of an ideal Messiah, who is represented as struggling with the severest toil and suffering. Compare his Dissertatio de ortu theol. vet. Heb. I. p. 135, sq. and his Einl. p. 1383.

c Hess in his Gesch. d. Könige von Juda ; (History of the Kings of Judah;) and in the work vom Reiche Gottes ;(Kingdom of God.)--M. F. Roos, Jesus der Erlöser der Menschen ; (Jesus the Redeemer of Mankind,) Jes. 53. Tüb. 1788. 8. Storr, Dissertatio, qua insigne de Christo oraculum Jes. 53, illustr. Tüb. 1790, 4. very thorough, but tedious on account of the useless accumulation of quotations, and marred by many forced interpretations : compare his Erklärung des Briefes an die Hebräer, p. 475. sqq. ; (Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews.)-Jo. Imm. Hansi, Commentatio phil. theol. in vat. Jes. 53, Lips. 1791. 8. a thoroughly wrought treatise.. Martini, Commentatio philo. logica-critica in locum Jesaiæ c. 53. Rostochii 1791. 8. This work belongs, in a philological point of view, to the most distinguished commentaries that have been written on the Old Testament. Yet the theological sentiments of the author, who is rather inclined to neology, have exerted a prejudicial influence upon his exposition. Thus e. g. he denies that the doctrine of a vicarious satisfaction exists in the passage ; although Gesenius himself is compelled to admit it. Nova We assume, for the present, the Messianic interpretation as the correct one; since the confutation of the interpretations, which are opposed to it, can best be given after the exposition of the passage. We shall now proceed to this, after a few preliminary remarks; and, in conclusion, shall endeavour to prove, that the Messianic interpretation is the true one.

We have already seen, in the general introductory remarks, that the deliverance of God's people forms commentatio in locum Jes. 53, quam preside Dresdio....C. F. A. Werner, Wittemb. 1793, not very important, and too accommodating.--Spohn in the Programm against Stäudlin already quoted above.--An anonymous writer (Schleusner ?) in der Göttingischen Bibliothek für theologische Litteratur, Bd. I. p. 118, sqq.-Disputatio polemico-theologica in cap. Jesaia 53, quam præs. A. Hylander-auctor Olaus Sunden, Lundæ 1803, not important; directed chiefly against the hypothesis of Paulus.--Lindemann in an article in Henke's Museum, ii. 4.An anonymous writer in the Bibliothek van Theologische Letterkunde voor het Jaar 1805, p. 485_531.-Kruiger, Commentatio de verisimillima orac. Jes. 53 interpretandi ratione, Lips. 1809. 4. It contains many very good general remarks, especially upon the natural causes which gave rise to the idea of a suffering Messiah.-Jahn, Appendix ad Hermeneuticam, fasc. ii. p. 1–66.-Zöllich, Das Orakel von Christo vom Geiste der Weissagung ausgesprochen durch den Propheten Jesaias. (The Oracle of Christ from the Spirit of Prophecy, delivered by the Prophet Isaiah.) Cap. 52, 53, in Zimmermanns und Heidenreichs Monatsschrift für Prediger-Wissensch. Bd. iv. p. 121, sqq.-Keller, in an article in Bengel's Neues Archiv für die Theol. Bd. II.p. 151, sqq. and p. 253, sqq. Worthy of commendation, though the author has gone too deeply into the refutation of the self-refuted perversions of Eckermann and Eichhorn.Steudel, Observationes ad Jes. 53, in two Academische Abhandlungen, Tüb. 1825–26, an excellent treatise, though its manner is somewhat tedious.

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