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acre allow animals appear applied barley bean become better breed carried characters chiefly common consists convenient corn covered crop cultivated drain drills dung early earth effect employed Europe fall farm farmer feeding feet fertility field fixed frequently furrow give given grain grasses greater ground grow growth hand harrow horses important improved inches Italy kinds labour laid land larger leaves less lime lower machine manner manure matter means method milk mixed month nature necessary oats operation pass pastures performed period plants plough practice prepared principle produce properties proportion quantity raised receive regarded remain ridges roots rows seeds sheep side soil sometimes sowing sown species spring stems stones straw substances sufficient suited supply surface taken termed tillage tion trees turned turnips various vegetable weeds winter yards yield
Seite 144 - In this operation, the left-hand or near-side horse walks on the ground not yet ploughed, the right-hand or off,side horse walks in the furrow last made, and the workman follows, holding the handles of the plough. By means of these handles he guides the plough, and he directs the animals of draught by the voice and the reins. When he is to turn the plough at the end of a ridge, or when it encounters an obstacle, as a large stone, he presses down the handles, so that the heel of the plough becomes...
Seite 43 - The urine of the animals, again, is in itself a very rich manure, and contains, in certain states of combination, all the elements which enter into the composition of plants. It is necessarily mixed with, and partly absorbed by, the litter and other substances in the yards, of which it hastens, in a material degree, the fermentation.
Seite 175 - ... the soil ; but in cases in which the texture of its earthy ingredients is permanently improved, there is more than a compensation for this temporary disadvantage. And in some soils where there is an excess of inert vegetable matter, the destruction of it must be beneficial ; and the carbonaceous matter remaining in the ashes may be more useful to the crop than the vegetable fibre, from which it was produced.
Seite 20 - 1000 parts of a very fertile soil from the banks of the river Parrel, in Somersetshire, under the same circumstances, gained 16 grains. " 1000 parts of a soil from Mersea in Essex, worth 46 shillings an acre, gained 13 grains. " 1000 grains of a fine sand from Essex, worth 28 shillings an acre, gained 11 grains.
Seite 9 - Peat, it has been said, consists of vegetable matter which has undergone a peculiar change. Under a degree of temperature not sufficiently great to decompose the plants that have sprung up upon the surface, these plants accumulate ; and, aided by a certain degree of humidity, are converted into peat, which is either found in strata upon the surface of plains, or accumulated in great beds on the tops and acclivities of mountains, or in valleys, hollows, and ravines. Successive layers of plants being...
Seite 175 - The process of burning renders the soil less compact, less tenacious and retentive of moisture ; and when properly applied, may convert a matter that was stiff, damp, and in consequence cold, into one powdery, dry, and warm ; and much more proper as a bed for vegetable life.
Seite 186 - Drains formed in this manner, whether the material employed be stone or tile, will be found efficient when they are laid out in the proper direction, and when the pervious substances are reached in which the water is contained. But it is often impracticable to reach these substances with a drain of common depth. In this case, apertures may be formed at the bottom of the drain, by boring or sinking down at the proper distances, until the pervious beds in which the water is contained are reached. By...
Seite 145 - ... adverted to, where deep ploughing is from any cause expedient. In the moist climate of this country, and indeed in most others of Europe, it is necessary to form the ground into what are termed ridges, so as to admit of the water which falls upon the surface finding a ready egress. And even in lands so dry that little injury will result from stagnating water, such ridges are generally formed on account of their convenience in the different works of tillage. The first operation in the forming...
Seite 45 - It arises from the want of moisture, and, when it happens, it is often very difficult to renew the fermentation. The best remedy is to turn over the heap, soak it with water, and mix it with horsedung or any animal offal that can be obtained. With these exceptions, the management of the farmyard is not attended with any difficulty. We have seen that the mass consists of a collection of the excrements of the animals kept upon the farm, of the straw and other substances employed for litter, and, generally,...