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19. The only hope of courage dwells in native swords and native ranks.

20. I do not grieve for past pleasures nor for perils gathering near.
21. Flows there a tear of pity for the dead?
22. Sudden he stops; his eye is fixed.
23. Here giant weeds a passage scarce allow,

To halls deserted, portals gaping wide.
24. Hark! heard you not those hoofs of dreadful note ?

Sounds not the clang of conflict on the heath ?
25. Who wickedly is wise, or madly brave,

Is but the more a fool, the more a knave. 26. He falls slowly, and, amidst triumphant cries, he dies without a groan, without a struggle.

27. The swallows sang wild and high from their nests beneath the rafters; and the world, sleeping beneath me, seemed more distant than the sky.

28. The golden sun poured in a dusty beam through the closed blinds.

29. Long at the scene, bewildered and amazed,

The trembling clerks in speechless wonder gazed.
30. Golden and red above it

The clouds float gorgeously.
31. Then stirs the feeling infinite, so felt

In solitude, when we are least alone. 32. Brunswick's fated chieftain sat within a niche of that high wall.

33. I feel within me a peace above all earthly dignities, a still and quiet conscience.

34. I obtained this freedom with a great sum.
35. And every soul, it passed me by.
36. Him serve with mirth, his praise forth tell.

37. Headlong themselves they threw down from the verge of heaven.

38. That divine messenger comes with a slow and noiseless step.

39. The ancient splendor is vanished, and these mingled shapes and figures wave like a faded tapestry, before my dreamy eyes.

40. Life's goblet is filled to the brim; and though my eyes are dim with tears, I see its sparkling bubbles swim, and chant with slow and solemn voice a melancholy hymn.


Change of phraseology may be secured: (1) By using words of similar meaning.

Thus, “We rejoice in his fidelityand, “We rejoice in his faithfulness express substantially the same idea. "He giveth grace to the humbleand, “He giveth grace to the lowly " do not differ materially in meaning.

(2) By denying the contrary of a proposition.

Thus, “It is easy to manage the matter" is equivalent to, “It is not difficult to manage the matter.”

(3) By euphemism.

This change is similar to "denying the contrary,” but its special use is to avoid the harshness of a direct statement. Euphemism means “soft-speaking.” Thus:

DirectHe is cowardly.
EuphemismHe could hardly be called a brave man.
(4) By circumlocution.

This is effected by saying indirectly what might be said directly, or by using several words to express the sense of one; as, "the terrestrial sphere” for “the earth,” “night's gentle radiance” for “the moon,” and similar expressions. In general, this mode of variation is not advisable, as the statement is likely to lose in force.

(5) By recasting the sentence.

Frequently, this is the only manner in which variety can be secured. No rule can be given for such recasting; practice alone will enable the writer to express the idea in different forms.

The following illustration exemplifies this method of variation:

Statement: Youth is hopeful.

The young look not anxiously upon the future.
The young are full of eager trust.
In life's morning we think not of its clouds.
Bright-eyed youth sees nothing to dread.
Hope is the birthright of the young.
'Tis as natural for young hearts to hope as for roses to

blossom in June.
Variations. Doubt and fear can not daunt the youthful spirit.

Though life's pathway is rugged and steep, the feet of

the young press bravely on. Keen-edged despair seldom pierces a youthful breast. To the spring-time of life belong the radiant buds of

promise. Youth sees no darkness ahead; its open, trustful eyes look

upon the future as a realm of glorious beauty.*


DIRECTION. — Vary the phraseology of the following sentences by substituting words of similar meaning for those in italics:

1. The lamb has a gentle disposition.
2. He continued the work without resting.
3. He is free from care.
4. I found that he was an enemy.
5. Law and order are not observed.
6. A pile of dust is all that remains of thee.
7. I began to think the whole thing a gross deception.
8. The boy carried the book to my lodgings.
9. I will attend the conference, if I can do it conveniently.

* NOTE.— Each of these eleven sentences conveys the meaning of the orig. inal statement, yet how different are the forms obtained by aid of the art of varying expression. Readiness in changing the form of a statement is of practical importance; we can never be sure that we have used the best mode of wording a sentence until we have thought of the various ways in which it may be worded. By practice we learn to think promptly of many forms of expression, and to select the best.


10. Among all our bad passions there is a strong and close connection.

11. James deserved reproof far more than John did.

12. This quiet sail is as a noiseless wing to waft me from distraction.

13. She pined in thought. 14. There is no malice in this burning coal. 15. Socrates was one of the greatest sages the world has ever seen. 16. To confess the truth, I was wrong. 17. Make me a cottage in the vale, where I may mourn and pray. 18. See how the morning opes her golden gates. 19. This is the beginning of civility. 20. 'Tis hard to find the right Homer.. 21. My traveling companions were very disagreeable individuals.

22. A person who looked on the waters only for a moment might fancy that they were retiring.*


DIRECTION. – Vary the following by denying the contrary of each proposition:t

1. Men laugh at the infirmities of others. 2. He that

wise may be profitable unto himself. 3. Cold is Cadwallo's tongue. 4. The robin visits us frequently. 5. They were satisfied with the result. 6. He is without wit. 7. Chastening for the present seems grievous. 8. I shall ever remember the waking next morning. 9. The evil that men do lives after them. 10. He favors our project. 11. This seems probable.

* TO THE TEACHER.— The object of the foregoing exercise is not to exact strict verbal accuracy, but merely to assist the pupil in acquiring a command of language.

† Note. — This change may often be effected by the use of a word of opposite meaning in the predicate. Thus, "Mary is diligent" is equivalent to,

Mary is not idle."

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12. The flowers smell sweet. 13. Her step was light. 14. Only a small part of Arabia is fertile. 15. I will remain with you. 16. She is disposed to help you. 17. Time is as precious as gold. 18. She is more beautiful than her sister. 19. He is a brave man. 20. A large part of the company were pleased with his remarks.

21. The character of the Patriarch Joseph is the most remarkable and instructive exhibited by the records of Scripture.

22. She who studies her glass neglects her heart. 23. The elegance of her manners is as conspicuous as the beauty

of her person.

24. Strong expressions suit only strong feelings.


DIRECTION. – Vary the following by substituting euphemisms for the direct statements:

1. He is a very dirty fellow.

2. Major André was hanged, although he earnestly requested that he might be shot.

3. I consider him an impudent puppy. 4. The man was drunk when he uttered the indecent words. 5. He thought the man a scoundrel, and therefore would not pay

him the money.

6. A genteel man never uses low language.
7. He eats like a pig.
8. His conceit and incessant gabble render him a great bore.
9. John is too lazy to succeed in


undertaking. 10. It is thought that he came into possession of his great wealth by means of fraud and theft.

11. He was inclined to drink too much. 12. His greediness and stinginess made him an object of contempt.

13. Disaster stared them in the face, for they were led by a hotheaded dolt.

14. He is a vagrant-a disgrace to himself and to his friends.

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