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11. This was said sub voce.
13. The Templar, who was now hors de combat, was borne within the castle walls.
14. The enterprise did not pan out as we had hoped. 15. They have the matter sub judice.
16. He lost not one minute in picking and choosing—no shilly shally in John.
17. During the night the army skedaddled.
DIRECTION.- Bring into the class as many such expressions, and give good English equivalents for them.
Propriety.- Propriety consists in using words in their proper sense.
Here, as in the case of purity, good usage is the principal test. It matters little what the primary elements of a word signify, or what the meaning of a word has been; we must either use the words as others understand them, or violate propriety. Improprieties arise chiefly from a seeming analogy between words, or from ignorance of their authorized meaning,
Many words have acquired in actual use a meaning very different from what they once possessed. The word “let” once meant to hinder; but now it is used as equivalent to “allow." “Edify”. originally signified to build up, as a house is built, but now it is applied only to mental improvement. “Station" was used for the manner of standing, posture; now it means place. “Admire” once
meant to wonder at, but now it means only to regard with esteem and reverence.
To attain propriety we must be guided by the following rules:
1. Avoid confounding Words from the Same Radical.—They do not always mean the same thing. Thus, “observation" signifies the act or habit of noticing; as, “An observation of the habits of the lower animals furnishes many interesting facts.” “Observance" means the celebration of anything, or holding it sacred; as, “They require a strict observance of truth and justice.” We should not say, “observation of the Sabbath.” Yet we may say, the man observes [notices] an action, or observes [celebrates) the Sabbath.
“Contemptible” and “contemptuous" differ in this: Contemptible means that which deserves contempt, as a contemptible act; contemptuous means filled with contempt, as a contemptuous reply.
“Respectfully” and “respectively" are sometimes confounded. Respectfully means in a respectful manner; respectively, relating to each; as, “Let each man respectively perform his duty."
“Predict” and “predicate” mean respectively foretell and assert.
“Construe" and "construct." Writers construct; readers construe. We construct a sentence when we form or make one; we construe when we explain its construction.
2. Use Words in their Accepted Sense.—This requires that we attach to every word only such a meaning as will be generally understood to belong to it. Thus, the proper meaning of “aggravate" is to add weight to, or to make
It is sometimes incorrectly used to signify the same as “irritate.” It is correct to say, “The offense was aggravated by the motive.” It is incorrect to say, "He aggravates me by his impudence."
The following are given as examples of words commonly misused:
1. But, for that, or if; as, “I have no doubt but he will come”; “I shall not wonder but that was the cause."
2. Plenty, for plentiful; as, “That measure will make money plenty in every man's pocket.”
3. I have got, for I have. Possession is completely expressed by have; get expresses attainment by voluntary exertion. A man may say, “I have got more money than my neighbor has, because I have been more industrious''; but he can not with propriety say, “I have got a long nose,” unless it be an artificial one; nor can he properly speak of “getting a cold,” “getting left by the train," "getting crazy," etc. The idea that get expresses “to come into possession of,” as, “He got the estate through his mother," is common, but it has not the sanction of good writers. Herbert is quoted as authority for using “got' in this sense: “He has got the face of a man,” but even here we note not so much the expression of simple possession as the effect of voluntary exertion, since the impress of manliness upon the face is due less to growth, or physical development, than to the formation of manly character by means of noble purpose and high endeavor.
4. Differ with, for differ from. Writers differ from one another in opinion with regard to the particle we should use with this verb. Some say they differ with, others that they differ from, their neighbors in opinion. The weight of authority is on the side of always using from. “I differ, as to this matter, from Bishop Lowth."-Cobbett.
5. Wearies, for is wearied; as, “One wearies of such
nonsense." Weary is a transitive verb, having either an active or a passive form; thus, “I weary thee," or, “The soldier is wearied with long marching."
6. Anyhow is exceeding vulgar; it should be in any manner. “If the damage can be anyhow repaired" should be, “If the damage can be in any manner repaired.”
7. It were, for it would be; as, “ It were an intolerable spectacle should they behold one of their fellows in the agonies of death."
8. Like I did, for as I did. Like should not be used as a conjunction; with it a verb is neither expressed nor understood. As, on the contrary, requires a verb either expressed or understood.
9. Less, for fewer; as, “Not less than fifty persons." Less relates to quantity; fewer, to number.
10. I doubt, for I doubt whether; as, “I doubt such is the true meaning of the constitution.” Whether implies “which of two”; hence, in cases where hesitation exists between two opinions, two meanings, two courses, etc., we may doubt whether our choice is the wise one.
11. Likewise, for also. Likewise means in like manner. It couples actions or states of being; while also classes together things or qualities. “He did it likewise
means, "He did it in like manner.”
12. Avocation, for vocation. Avocations engage a man's attention when he is “called away from” his regular business or vocation.
Avocations may be music, visits, games, hunting, fishing, etc.
13. But that, for that; as, “He never doubts but that he knows their intentions."
14. Had have is a very low vulgarism. “Had I have seen him
should be, “ Had I seen him.” 15. Party, for person. An English witness once testi
fied that he saw “a short party” (meaning person) “go over the bridge. It is hardly necessary to say that it takes several persons to make a party.
16. Try, for make; as, “Try the experiment.”
17. Deceiving, for trying to deceive. For example, a person says to another, “You are deceiving me, means exactly the opposite; namely, “You are trying to deceive me.
18. Either, neither, and both are applicable only to two objects. “Either of the three" should be, “Any one of the three.”
19. Seldom or ever is a common vulgarism. Say, “Seldom, if ever.
20. Banister, for baluster or balustrade. Banister is a corruption of baluster.
21. Illy, for ill. There is no such word as illy. Ill is the noun, adjective, and adverb.
22. Least, for less; as, “Of two evils, choose the least." Less is the comparative degree of little ; least, the superlative. When two things are compared, the comparative is used; when more than two, the superlative.
23. From thence, from whence, for thence or whence. As the adverbs thence and whence literally supply the place of a noun and preposition, there is a solecism in employing a preposition in conjunction with them.
24. No, for not; as, Whether I am there or no. As an adjective “no” is an abbreviation of “none”; as an adverb, of “not.” Hence the phrase "whether or no" is appropriate only when there is a suppressed noun; “whether
* While there is authority for “seldom or never," we find the terms inconsistent: seldom means happening rarely, never occurring at no time, either past or present. Hence, "Seldom or never has an English word two full accents," would doubtless be better rendered, “Seldom, if ever," etc.