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way. Brass was reminded of some mission. The mission called Mr. Swiveller to some place. It might be to Peckham Rye again. It would surely be to some distant place. From this distant place he could not be expected to return for two or three hours. It might be for a much longer period. This longer stay was altogether probable.

14. The water sports with its freight. The water is resistless. The freight is ghastly. The water bruises its freight against the slimy piles. It hides it in mud. It hides it in long grass. The grass is rank. The water drags its freight heavily. It drags it over rough stones. It drags it over gravel. It feigns to yield it to its own element. It lures it away. It Alings it at last on a swamp. The swamp is a dismal place. The water flings its freight to remain there forever.

15. Miriam bade farewell to this nest. It was a dove's nest. She bade farewell from the threshold. She did this with a long regard. She turned from this one little nook. It was a nook of pure thoughts. It was a nook of innocent enthusiasms. She had now stained it with her dark trouble.

16. The Niobe of Nations is made to bewail. She is made to bewail anew. She bewails with sincerity. This is doubtless. She is made to bewail the loss of part of her population. It is a large part. She derives this part from other lands. This part affords her prosperity. It is a remnant of prosperity. She still enjoys this remnant. She is made to bewail this loss o the approach of summer.

17. The Indian wife sailed with her husband for England. She sailed in 1616. She had been instructed in the English language. She bore an English name. She was “the first Christian of her nation."

18. The first band of emigrants sailed from England, November, 1633. This band consisted of about two hundred gentlemen. They possessed considerable rank and fortune. They professed the Roman Catholic faith. They had with them a number of inferior adherents. They sailed in a vessel called The Ark and the Dove. The band was under the command of Leonard Calvert.

19. Patrick Henry electrified the minds of his colleagues. He did this by his brilliant displays of argument and eloquence. This was in March, 1775. He had electrified them before. His colleagues were hesitating and reluctant. They hesitated to enter upon a contest with the mother-country. This occurred in the Virginia Convention. Patrick Henry was styled by his contemporaries the “Orator of Nature."

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20. Edward Plantagenet was the eldest son of King Edward III. He was born at Woodstock, in 1330. He was commonly called the Black Prince. He was called the Black Prince from the color of his

The color of the armor was specially chosen. It set off the fairness of his skin and hair.

armor.

EXERCISE IV.

DIRECTION.--Analyze the following simple sentences:

1. Indian Territory is a large tract originally set apart for Indian tribes removed from their homes east of the Mississippi.

2. The South Atlantic States were the scene of stirring events in the Revolutionary War, being at one time the chief battle-ground.

3. Its mountain-ranges, clad in forests, contain great mineral wealth, to some extent developed.

4. Indigo is a blue dye obtained from the leaves of several species of plants largely cultivated throughout the warm regions of Asia.

5. In 1520, Magellan entered the Pacific by passing through the strait since called by his name.

6. At the dawn of day, on the 12th of October, 1492, Columbus saw before him a level island, several leagues in extent, and covered with trees like a continuous orchard.

7. The Spaniards found the native tribes, everywhere on the route, in a state of cultivation beyond that of nomadic hordes, with fixed places of abode and a liberal subsistence from the tillage of their lands.

8. The national vanity of the English, highly stimulated by the victory of Agincourt, and the short-lived conquest of French territory, was now exasperated by the reverses of the war in France.

9. According to a tradition in our family, Henry Hudson, the great navigator, on being blessed with a view of the enchanting island of Manhattan, exhibited, for the first and only time in his life, strong symptoms of astonishment and admiration.

10. At daybreak the next morning, the red ensign, the well-known signal for battle, was seen flying over Varro's headquarters, just in front of the main army then forming in order of battle on the right bank of the river.

CHAPTER II.

THE COMPLEX SENTENCE.

A Complex Sentence consists of one independent, or principal, proposition, and one or more subordinate propositions, or clauses.

Every clause contains a subject and a predicate, and every proposition contains a subject and a predicate, hence, independent propositions are likewise clauses; but, as subordinate propositions perform merely the functions of adjectives, or adverbs, or nouns, we shall use the word “clause" with special reference to those dependent, or subordinate, propositions, introduced by connectives.

CLAUSES.

There are three kinds of clauses: (1) The adjective clause; (2) The adverbial clause; (3) The substantive, or noun, clause.

1. An adjective clause performs the office of an adjective. It may modify any noun or pronoun in the principal proposition. It is generally joined to the principal statement by a relative pronoun or by a conjunctive adverb, as "where,” “when,” “why"; thus,

He prayed for those whose love had been his shield.

“Whose love had been his shield” is an adjective clause, connected with the principal statement, “he prayed for those,” by means of the relative “whose.” The clause modifies the pronoun “those.”

He came to a garden where rich roses bloomed.

“Where rich roses bloomed” is an adjective clause, introduced by the conjunctive adverb “where,” and modifying the noun "garden."

This was a time when brave hearts trembled.

“When brave hearts trembled” is an adjective clause, introduced by the conjunctive adverb “when," and modifying the noun “time.”

The hate which we all bear with the most Christian patience, is the hate of those who envy us.

“Which we all bear," etc., is an adjective clause modifying the noun “hate. “Who envy us" is an adjective clause modifying the pronoun “those.”

Adjective clauses may be classified as restrictive and nonrestrictive. A restrictive clause limits the application, or the meaning, of the word it modifies; as, “The person who stole my money is in this company.” A non-restrictive clause does not so limit, or restrict, the application of the word it modifies; thus, “Their dark faces were set off by cloth caps, which were drawn down aslant over their brows."'*

The relative pronoun introducing an adjective clause not restrictive, should be “who” or “which.” Example: “I heard this from the commander, who (and he) heard it from the aid that carried the message.'

The relative introducing a restrictive clause should be “that," if euphony allows.

Abbott says, “Who,' 'which,' etc., introduce a new

*NOTE.- For fuller explanation of restrictive and non-restrictive clauses, the pupil is referred to “Adjective Clauses" under the rules for the punctuation of complex sentences, Chapter XVI.

fact about the antecedent, whereas 'that' introduces something without which the antecedent is incomplete or undefined.

The principal cases where “who” and “which” are used, instead of "that,” to introduce restrictive clauses are:

1. If the antecedent is qualified by the adjective “that," the relative pronoun must not be “that.”

Notice how disagreeable the repetition of "that" in the sentence, That cloak that I wore to-day is not that that you admire."

2. Near “that” used as a conjunction it is sometimes unadvisable to use "that" as a relative. Example: “There is the horse that I said that I regretted that I had bought.”

3. To avoid ending a sentence with a preposition, it is often necessary to place the preposition before the relative; now, since “that" can not be preceded by a preposition, “whom or “which ” must in such cases be used instead. Example: “This is the fence that I fell over." This would be more agreeably expressed thus: “This is the fence over which I fell."

4. After pronominal adjectives used as personal pronouns, "who" is preferred to "that." Thus: “There are some,

, others, several, many who hold,” etc.

5. When “that” is separated from its antecedent and from its verb, and made emphatic by its separation, "who" or “which” should be used instead. Abbott illustrates this objectionable use of “that” by the sentence, “There are many persons that, though unscrupulous, are commonly good-tempered, and that, if not strongly incited by selfinterest, are ready for the most part to think of the interest of their neighbors.”

6. Since “that” applies to both persons and things, its use may be somewhat ambiguous when the antecedent does

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