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not express which is meant. This is the case with such antecedents as "one" and "all." Now "who" instead of "that" would decide at once for persons; "which" for things.


DIRECTION.-Point out and classify the adjective clauses in the following sentences, and tell what they modify. In cases where the restrictive relative "that" is not used to introduce restrictive relative clauses, state the reason why:

1. Behavior is a mirror, in which every one shows his image.

2. Books that you may carry to the fire and hold readily in your hand are the most useful after all.

3. Tall are the oaks whose acorns drop into dark Auser's rill.

4. Earnest people, who try to get a reality out of human existence, are necessarily absurd in the view of the revelers.

5. Hilda's disappearance, which took place the day before, was known to them through a secret channel.

6. We paint such qualities as we do not possess.

7. The evil that men do lives after them.

8. The sorrows that wring our hearts often leave them better fitted for life's realities.

9. Cats that wear gloves catch no mice.

10. I have something that will suit you.

11. There are times when every active mind feels itself above any and all human books.

12. Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just.

13. Congress, which was in session since last December, has adjourned.

14. They remind me of that portion of Aladdin's palace which he left unfinished.

15. Kenyon saw that she was in one of those moods of elevated feeling which is really more passionate than emotions far exceeding it in violence.

16. This is the mark beyond which I jumped.

2. An adverbial clause is a clause equivalent to an adverb. It modifies a verb, an adjective, an adverb, or a

participle, and denotes the various circumstances of place, time, cause, manner, degree, consequence, etc. It is joined to the principal statement by a subordinate conjunction or by a conjunctive adverb.

The subordinate conjunctions most frequently used to introduce adverbial clauses are:









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provided that

The conjunctive adverbs used to introduce adverbial

clauses are:

supposing that inasmuch as

in order that






If all be well, we shall leave home in a week.

"If all be well" is an adverbial clause, expressing condition, introduced by the subordinate conjunction "if," and modifying the principal predicate "shall leave home in a week."

Expect nothing, lest you be disappointed.

"Lest you be disappointed" is an adverbial clause expressing result, introduced by the subordinate conjunction "lest."

Corruption wins not more than honesty receives.

"Than honesty receives" is an adverbial clause of comparison, introduced by the subordinate conjunction "than."

We listened while he played.

"While he played" is an adverbial clause of time, intro


duced by the conjunctive adverb "while," and modifying the principal predicate "listened.”

Where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.

"Where your treasure is" is an adverbial clause of place, introduced by the conjunctive adverb "where."


DIRECTION.-Classify the adverbial clauses in the following sentences, and tell what they modify:

1. Though they fell, they fell like stars.

2. Halt, where thou art.

3. We only did as we were politely requested.

4. Had he thy reason, would he skip and play?

5. We set out early in the morning, that we might reach the summit of the mountain by sunset.

6. Stay a little, that we may make an end the sooner.

7. The colorless substance known in ancient times as bird-lime, is the gluten remaining after the starch in flour has been washed away. 8. When love begins to sicken and decay, it useth an enforced ceremony.

9. It is turning out a fine day, notwithstanding the morning was


10. Long and curious speeches are as fit for despatch as a robe or a mantle, with a long train, is for a race.

II. He died as he had lived.

12. He then treated me with such unaffected kindness, that I was moved to copious tears.

13.. When you run into debt, you give another power over your own liberty.

14. She saw not the bird, though it whirled untroubled by fear in wanton circles about her head.

15. This law is short, in order that it may be more easily understood by the ignorant.

3. A substantive, or noun, clause is a clause equivalent to a noun. A noun clause may be:

(1) The subject of a verb; as, "That you have wronged me doth appear in this.'


(2) An attribute complement, or predicate clause; as, "Plato's definition of man is, 'Man is a two-legged animal without feathers.""

(3) An explanatory modifier-in apposition; as, "Dr. Watts' statement, that 'Birds in their little nests agree,' is very far from being true."

(4) An object complement—the direct object of a verb or participle; as, "Then the maiden clasped her hands and prayed that saved she might be"; "Having learned that it was best to visit the ruins at midnig..t, we set out just after dark."

(5) The object of a preposition, the preposition being either expressed or understood; as, "Bonaparte thought little about what he should do in case of success."

The noun clause is generally introduced by an interrogative or relative adverb, by a subordinate conjunction, or by the interrogative pronouns "who" or "what." Thus:

Who had handled the gun, perplexed the good hunter no little.

"Who had handled the gun" is a noun clause, subject of "perplexed," and is introduced by the interrogative pronoun "who."

Some said that she had not been seen for six days.

“That she had not been," etc., is a noun clause, object of "said," and is introduced by the subordinate conjunction "that."

When he will come, is hidden from us.

"When he will come" is a noun clause, subject of "is hidden," and is introduced by the interrogative adverb "when."


DIRECTION.-Point out the noun clauses in the following sentences, and tell what functions they perform:

I. The whole force of conversation depends on how much you can take for granted.

2. That fortune favors the brave is a cheering maxim.

3. I heard that a battle had been fought.

4. How far I have succeeded is for you to judge.

5. I will find out whence you derive that idea.

6. We could never understand why he left so suddenly.

7. Mark, now, how a plain tale shall put you down.

8. Tell me not in mournful numbers,
Life is but an empty dream.

9. Charles Lamb, reading the epitaphs in the church-yard, inquired, “Where be all the bad people buried?”

10. A sober melancholy was spread over my mind by the idea, that I had taken everlasting leave of an old and agreeable companion.

11. We listened attentively to them relating what they had seen in their travels.

12. I attempt to impress nothing upon you except, "Be careful still of the main chance."


13. What man dare, I dare.

14. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump?

15. What has chiefly perplexed us, however, among our friend's adventures, is the mode of her release.*


DIRECTION.-Complete the following complex sentences by supplying adjective

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*TO THE TEACHER.-The pupil should here be taught those rules that apply specially to the punctuation of complex sentences. See Chapter XVI.

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