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4. A metal .

is said to be ductile. 5. The house.

has been burnt. 6. Botany is the science . 7. Offices of trust should be conferred only on those. 8. John Wycliffe .

. died in 1384.

DIRECTION.-Complete the following complex sentences by supplying adverb ial clauses:


1. Be ready

the temperature of the ground seldom falls be low the freezing point.

3. The chase did not end till .
4. Are friends as numerous in adversity
5. When .

. . be not terrified.
6. The Romans took Cincinnatus from the plow, that .
7. Foul deeds will rise . .
8. He calls pleasure the bait of evil, because


DIRECTION.—Complete the following complex sentences by supplying noun clauses:

requires no demonstration. 2. His excuse for not being present was 3. The King could not understand 4. We believe . 5.

is right. 6.

is a traitor. 7. When the trial is concluded, we shall know . 8. His courage and success illustrate the proverb . 9. I am more willing to give .

than to ask.

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Statements may be combined into a complex sentence by making one statement the principal proposition, and the other statement, or statements, dependent upon it. The dependent statements may be embodied in the sentence by means of modifying words, phrases, or clauses. Thus:

Egypt has recently annexed large territory on the south, Separate

By this annexation, it now extends to the equator.

Egypt was once the most powerful country in the world.
Egypt was once the most civilized country in the world.

Egypt is still the most important division of Africa. Combined.--Egypt, once the most powerful and civilized country in the world, and still the most important division of Africa, has recently annexed large territory on the south, so that it now extends to the equator.

The rhetorical analysis of a complex sentence is effected by separating the sentence into the statements implied in it. Thus:

A caliph, who once reigned in Bagdad, built a palace renowned for beauty and magnificence."

A caliph built a palace.

The caliph reigned in Bagdad. Analysis.

The palace was renowned for beauty.

The palace was renowned for magnificence. Variety of Arrangement.-As in the simple sentence variety of arrangement is obtained by changing the position of phrases, so in the complex sentence variety is effected by changing the position of phrases and clauses. Thus the sentence, “Into the lock of the wicket which opened into the castle garden, at the dead hour of midnight, the page put the key, when all was silent in the garden,” may be varied thus:

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At the dead hour of midnight, when all was silent in the garden, the page put the key into the lock of the wicket which opened into the castle garden.

When all was silent in the garden, at the dead hour of midnight, the page put the key into the lock of the wicket which opened into the castle garden.

At the dead hour of midnight, the page, when all was silent in the garden, put the key into the lock of the wicket which opened into the castle garden.


DIRECTION.—Change the position of the clauses and phrases in the following sentences in at least three ways, without altering the construction or destroying the sense.

In making the changes, bear in mind the directions given for the proper placing of the clauses :

1. Last night, as I lay fettered in my dungeon, I heard a strange, ominous sound.

2. In prayer you will find that a state of mind is generated which will shed a holy influence over the whole character.

3. In days long ago, when birds and flowers and trees could talk, in a country far over the sea, there was a beautiful fountain.

4. If I were a prince, I would hire or buy a private literary teapot, in which I would steep all the leaves of new books that promised well.

5. In the meantime, I talked on with our boarders, much as usual, as you may see by what I have reported.

6. As I rode along the pleasant way, watching eagerly for the object of my journey, the rounded tops of the elms rose from time to time at the roadside.

7. However, before their astonished eyes, a little flower rose from the water's edge, just where their friend had died.

8. His ear, though he did not seem to listen, caught every word of the boastful talk.

9. When, at last, the White Ship shot out of the harbor of Barfleur, there was not a sober seaman on board.

10. Soon after, the royal family, perceiving, too late, that they were mere prisoners in the Tuileries, undertook to escape to Coblentz, where the great body of emigrants resided.

Directions for the Synthesis of Complex Sentences.-In combining a number of given statements into a complex sentence, be guided by the following directions:

1. Consider carefully the nature of the assertion in each of the given statements so as to select the leading thought for the principal proposition, and to determine what connection the remaining statements have with the leading thought.

2. A clause should be placed beside the statement containing the word it modifies, or to which it is grammatically related.

3. An adjective clause must follow the noun it modifies; an adverbial clause usually follows the word it modifies, but a clause denoting time, place, cause,"condition, concession, may precede it.

4. Words, phrases, and clauses should be placed as near as possible to the words with which they are grammatically connected.

5. In a long conditional sentence, where the condition is introduced by “if” or “though,” place the antecedent, or “if-clause," first. Never, except when the “if-clause" is very emphatic, should it be placed after the consequent.


DIRECTION.-Combine each of the following groups into one complex sentence:

1. The portrait of Parris is one of the best things in Mr. Upham's book. Parris was the minister of Salem village. In the household of Parris three children began their tricks. These children became accusers and witnesses. They became such under the assumed possession of evil spirits.

2. Benvenuto Cellini saw a salamander come out of the fire. He saw it in his boyhood. On seeing the salamander, his grandfather gave him a sound beating. He gave him the beating forth with. By means of the beating Cellini might better remember the unique prodigy. Cellini tells us this.

3. A youthful angel comes to us. At his coming, we are as yet small children. At his coming, those two grown ladies have not offered us the choice of Hercules. He holds in his right hand cubes like dice. In his left hand, he holds spheres like marbles.

4. William Pitt entered public life at a very early age. He was the second son of the first Earl of Chatham. William Pitt was the prime minister of George III. He held this office at an early period of life. At such period, most men are just completing a professional education.

5. The battle of Bunker Hill was fought on the 17th of June. It was fought in the year 1775. It proved the bravery of the Americans. It was followed by great moral results.

6. Some persons seem to be preparing themselves for eternity. They seem to be preparing even in this life. They prepare for a smileless eternity. They look hopefully forward to this eternity. They prepare for it by banishing all gayety from their hearts. They prepare for it by banishing all joyousness from their countenances.

7. The natives of Virginia seized on a quantity of gunpowder. It was their first seizure of gunpowder. They sowed it for grain. They expected to reap a plentiful crop of combustion. They expected to reap this by the next harvest. They expected a crop so plentiful as to blow away the whole colony. The gunpowder seized by the natives belonged to the English colony.

8. Again and again, the frigate appeared to be rushing on shoals. It appeared to be rushing blindly. The sea was covered with foam. Destruction would have been certain. It would likewise have been sudden. Then the clear voice of the stranger was heard. The voice warned them of their danger. The voice incited them to their duty.

9. To behold the peasantry is a pleasing sight. To behold them in their best finery is a pleasing sight. Their ruddy faces are pleasing. Their modest cheerfulness is delightful. To see them on a Sunday morning is a pleasing sight. To see them thronging tranquilly along the green lanes to church is most pleasant. At the time of their going the bell is sending its sober melody across the quiet fields.

10. A clear river ran at the foot of this hill. The river was deepbanked. It was bounded on one side by a slip of rich level meadow. On the other side it was bounded by a kind of common. The common was for the village geese. The white feathers of the geese lay scattered over its green surface. They were scattered there in the

summer season.

II. It is a sad thing to be born a sneaking fellow. It is much worse than to inherit a hump-back. It is worse than to inherit a couple of club-feet. Looking upon such a fellow causes me sometimes a peculiar feeling. The feeling tells of the necessity of our loving the crippled souls. May I be allowed to use the expression “crippled souls"? We should love them with a certain tenderness. This tenderness we need not waste on noble natures.

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