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Punctuate the following examples, and give reasons:

1. Occupation being absent, there is not necessarily rest.

2. People are seldom ungrateful to us, we continuing in condition to assist them.


3. These matters having been arranged, the company separated. 4. They creep to bed the tales done and sleep lulled by whispering winds.

5. The passions having been subdued a man's worst enemies are subdued.

6. These truths being known what honest triumph flushed their breasts.

7. They having made gestures of authority, he severed the thongs of the captive with a knife.

8. Hope lost, all faith is lost.

9. His promise secured, we rested in confident expectation.

RULE IV.-Three or more words used in a series in the same construction are generally set off by commas; as, “The South produces sugar, cotton, and corn"; "The lofty, rugged, snow-capped Andes traverse South America."*


*NOTE. - When all the words are connected by conjunctions, the commas may be omitted; as, "The South produces sugar and cotton and corn." When no conjunction is placed between the last two words in the series, the words should be separated from each other and from what follows, by a comma; as, 'The sun, the moon, the planets, the stars, are all in motion." An element indicating a common reference or dependence upon each word of the series is separated by a comma; as, "Charity beareth, believeth, hopeth, all things." To this rule, however, adjectives and adverbs form an exception; as, "He was a brave, pious, patriotic prince"; "The duty was strictly, bravely, cheerfully performed."

Care should be taken to avoid regarding words as in the same grammatical construction because they happen to be the same part of speech. In the expression, "A large white owl," the first adjective qualifies the second adjective and the noun taken together, and not simply the noun. It would be wrong to write the expression, "A large, white owl."



Punctuate the following examples, and give reasons:

1. Punish, guide, instruct the boy.

2. For all was blank bleak and gray.

3. Holly, mistletoe red berries ivy turkeys all vanished instantly.

4. All was deep and dark and cold.

5. The earth the air the water teem with life.

6. Our friend was a wise prudent and influential citizen.

7. Trees vines hedges, shrubs encircle the house.

8. There are pictures telling stories of mercy hope courage faith and charity.

9. He was wise, prudent cautious in all his actions.

10. Kings rose, reigned and fell.

11. Days and months and years have passed since we saw him.

RULE V.-Two words used in the same construction should not be separated by a comma, unless the connective is omitted; as, "The South produces sugar and cotton"; "The lofty and rugged Andes traverse South America"; "Slowly, sadly we laid him down.”*


DIRECTION.-Punctuate the following examples, and give the reasons:

1. Truth, virtue are the wealth of all men.

2. Rash fruitless war is only splendid murder.

3. They flew to the better country the upper day.

4. The times made Brutus an assassin and traitor. 5. The bed, or channel,of the river is wide.

*NOTE. To this rule there are two exceptions: (1) When two words connected by "or" mean the same thing, they may be separated by commas; as, "The sky, or firmament, is above us." (2) In the case of two words or phrases joined by way of contrast, a comma is placed after the first; as, "It is not John, but William"; "He is poor, but honest."


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6. The Puritans gave the world not thought but action.

7. Yeast is added to dough to convert, or to change, some of the starch into sugar.

8. The world saw Marie Antoinette decorating, cheering her elevated sphere.

9. The Saxon words in English are short, chiefly monosyllabic. 10. Virtuous and wise he was, but not severe.

RULE VI.-Words used in pairs take a comma after each pair; as, "Truth is fair and artless, simple and sincere, uniform and consistent"; "Eating or drinking, laboring or sleeping, let us do all in moderation."


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Punctuate the following sentences, and give reasons:

1. The poor and the rich, the weak and the strong the young and

the old, have one common Father.

2. Earth and sky, land and water, mountain and valley bear traces of divine workmanship.

3. Anarchy and confusion, poverty and distress, desolation and ruin, are the consequences of civil war.

4. Hope and despondency, joy and sorrow, pleasure and pain, diversify life with their sudden contrasts.

5. I inquired and rejected, consulted and deliberated, for ten years. 6. Houses and lands, offices and honors, gold and bonds, are nothing to the man at Death's door.

RULE VII.-Participial and adjective phrases not restrictive must be set off by commas; as, "The Indian monarch, stunned and bewildered, saw his faithful subjects falling around him."*

*NOTE.-If the phrase is restrictive it limits the meaning of the noun it modifies to a particular sense, which would be wholly changed by the omission of the phrase. Thus: "A eity set on a hill can not be hid"; "Walls built of stone are durable."

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DIRECTION. Punctuate the following sentences, and give reasons:

1. The Nile,rising to a certain height makes Egypt fruitful. 2. Then comes the infant, riding his father's walking-stick. 3. 'Twas but the car, rattling o'er the stony street.

4. I threw open the shutters, admitting a flood of brilliant moonlight. 5. Seated on the old mail-coach we needed no evidence out of ourselves to indicate the velocity.

6. The laws, relating to the preservation of game are in every country uncommonly rigorous.

7. Ores are natural compounds, being produced by nature.

8. Our troops, putting themselves in order of battle, calmly waited the charge of the enemy.

9. They lived in a cottage,thatched with straw.

RULE VIII.-Inverted phrases, and phrases standing parenthetically between the main parts of the sentence, are generally set off by commas; as, "To illustrate the matter, let me tell you a story"; "The richest of men may, from want of proper culture, fail to grace society."


DIRECTION.-Punctuate the following examples, and give reasons:

1. Man, even in his lower state, is a noble work.

2. Of all the senses, sight is the most perfect.

3. To confess the truth, I never could understand his position.

4. Truth like gold, shines brighter by collision.

5. To the wise and good old age presents a scene of tranquil enjoyment.

6. In order to succeed in study the cultivation of attention is necessary.

7. A spiritual nature to grow in power demands spiritual liberty.

8. To the wise and prudent misfortune seldom comes.

9. Nature, through all her works delights in variety.

RULE IX.-Adverbs and short phrases when used nearly or quite independently, are set off by commas; as, “Away, then, they dashed through thick and thin"; "In truth, I have little hope of his doing well."

The following words and phrases are commonly used as independent:

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DIRECTION.-Punctuate the following examples, and give reasons:

1. Finally, let us announce our conclusion.

2. Well, what shall we say in reply?

3. The work was, however, very poorly done.
4. Again, there are some points to be overlooked.
5. On the contrary, there is great danger in delay.
6. There are after all several of us in the secret.
7. Every man, therefore, should be at his post.
8. Besides this may be useful to you in after life.

9. On the other hand, continue to preserve a calm demeanor.

10. Feudalism is, in fact, the embodiment of pride.

II. Roland's death, too is supernatural.

12. It is then a mark of wisdom to live virtuously.

13. We must however pay some respect to the opinions of one who has had so large an experience.

14. I have shown how just and equitable the arrangement is and now, what is the fair conclusion?

15. The nation in the meantime is free from danger.

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