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DIRECTION.-Punctuate, and give reasons:
1. I did send to you for certain sums of gold which you denied me 2. Woe to the hands that shed innocent blood 3. Curses always recoil on the head of him who imprecates them 4. The girl forgot all about the lesson which she had to learn 5. The enthusiasm of the orator infected all who were near him 6. Walpole tells a story which is much too good to be true 7. He deserved all the praise which he has ever received
8. The bran of wheat which is the covering of the kernel is made up of several layers
9. Hampden was struck by two bullets which broke the shoulderbone
RULE III.-A noun clause when long, when ending with a verb, or when resembling a quotation in form, is set off by a
In all other cases, no comma is required. The following examples illustrate the punctuation of the noun clause: “That you have wronged me doth appear in this”; “Seneca says that there is a settled friendship between God and men"; “That this invention may be capable of great improvement, is not doubted."
DIRECTION.—Punctuate, and give reasons:
1. “I will try” has done wonders
5. That he has maintained a steady course amid all the adversities of life marks a great mind
6. You say that Edward is your brother's son
7. A law of the nature of water is that under the mean pressure of the atmosphere at the level of the sea it boils at 212° Fahrenheit
8. O say what may it be 9. What man dare I dare in. I hear the great commanding Warwick is thither gone 11. “Dust thou art to dust returnest” was not written of the soul 12. Another rule is not to let familiarity swallow up all courtesy
DIRECTION.–Fill out the blanks with adverbial clauses, and justify your punctuation:
1. He gladly returned home
there is no transgression
the faithful dog follows
be not terrified 12. Watch 13. My brother is older
DIRECTION.–Fill out the blanks with adjective clauses; justify your punctuation:
1. My children appeared transported with joy 2. Show me the room
never can be wise 4. I am satisfied with those pleasures 5. He remembered all the joyous scenes 6. They could find only one apartment 7. I love everything 8. The Nile is one of those rivers 9. The flowers have all faded
10. The clergyman died yesterday at the very hour 11. John Wycliffe
died in 1384 12. The earth
is a globe or sphere 13. Offices of trust should be conferred only on those
DIRECTION.–Fill out the blanks with noun clauses; describe the use of each clause, and justify your punctuation:
1. He insisted 2.
was a mystery to all his friends 3. Nobody will ever know 4. A raven observed 5. The ancient Greeks believed 6. There was no such expectation 7. How shall I know 8. is perfectly true 9. I perceive 10. I was taught in my youth 11. The king could not understand
doth appear in this 13.
is a traitor 14. I promise to do
PUNCTUATION OF THE COMPOUND SENTENCE.
COMMA, SEMICOLON, AND COLON.
RULE I. — The parts of a compound predicate, each simple co-ordinate expression, especially if long and differently modified, must be separated from each other by the comma; as, “Israel shall blossom, and bud, and fill the face of the world with fruit"; "She looked so young and merry, and used such simple but expressive gestures, and spoke in such a clear, soft voice that the children sat as if spell-bound”; “The kitchen was of spacious dimensions, hung round with copper and tin vessels highly polished, and decorated here and there with a Christmas green."
DIRECTION. - Punctuate, and give reasons:
1. Grief lies in my bed walks up and down with me
2. Brother and sister wound their arms around each other and fell fast asleep
3. In the best books great men talk to us give us their most precious thoughts and pour their souls into ours
4. A strong mind always hopes and has always cause to hope 5. Miss Celia rose as she spoke and led the way to the dressing
6. The creature rolled ecstatically at her feet licked her hands and gazed into her face
RULE II.-If the members of the compound sentence are short, or if they are closely connected, only the comma should be placed between them; as, “The leader died, and the enterprise was a failure”; “Pride hardens the heart, but humility softens it.”
RULE III.-If the members of the compound sentence are long, or if they are not closely connected, the semicolon should be used to separate them. Sometimes the connection is so slight that the colon is placed between the members. The following are examples:
“It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion; it is easy in solitude to live after our own; but the great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude"; "In every work of genius we recognize our own rejected thoughts: they come back to us with a certain alienated majesty”; “These little words are called particles merely in reference to the diminutive space they occupy; but this quantitative term is far wide of their spiritual significance.
Rule IV.-The members of a compound sentence, which are themselves subdivided by commas, are separated by semicolons; if the members contain semicolons, they are commonly separated from each other by colons; as, “Young frogs in thousands are issuing from the waters, and traversing the roads; and birds, having terminated their spring cares, are out enjoying their families in the sunny and plentiful fields”; “The feeblest and most far-away torrent among the high hills has its companions: the goats browse beside it; and the traveler drinks from it, and passes over it with his staff; and the peasant traces a new channel for it down to his mill-wheel.”
RULE V.-A comma is used to denote the omission of a noun or verb within the propositions; as, “To err is human; to forgive, divine”; “To suffer is the lot of all; to bear, the glory of a few”; “I bought good butter at 30 cents per pound; better, at 50 cents."
DIRECTION. — Explain the punctuation:
1. Economy is no disgrace; it is better to live on a little than to outlive a great deal.
2. It is not sorrow; it is not despondency; it is not gloom.
3. Besides, Mrs. Sparrowgrass had bought a rattle when she was in Philadelphia; such a rattle as watchmen carry there.
4. His knife is still in his hand, and strength in his sinews, and a new created aspiration in his heart.
5. A wise man seeks to outshine himself; a fool, to outshine others.
6. The hurricane had come by night, and with one fell swash had made an irretrievable sop of everything.
7. Argument, as usually managed, is the worst sort of conversation; as it is generally, in books, the worst sort of reading.