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CONTRACTED COMPOUND SENTENCES.

The members of a compound sentence may have a common part in either the subject or the predicate; in which case the sentence is said to be contracted. Thus:

1. “The king must reach Italy, or forfeit his crown forever,” is equivalent to, “The king must reach Italy, or the king must forfeit his crown forever ”—(contracted in the subject; partly, also, in the predicate).

2. “A man of real information becomes a center of opinion, and therefore of action"=A man of real information becomes a center of opinion, and therefore a man of real information becomes a center of action”—(contraction in the subject and adjunct, and in the predicate).

3. “I come to bury Cæsar, not to praise him "="I come to bury Cæsar; I come not to praise him ”—(contraction in the subject and in the predicate).

4. “Stone walls do not a prison make, nor iron bars a cage"=“Stone walls do not a prison make, nor do iron bars make a cage"—(contraction in the predicate).

5. “Religious controversy sharpens the understanding by the subtlety and remoteness of the topics it discusses, and embraces the will by their infinite importance “Religious controversy sharpens the understanding by the subtlety and remoteness of the topics it discusses, and religious controversy embraces the will by the infinite importance of the topics it discusses "-(contraction in the subject, and in adjuncts).

When the predicate relates to two or more subjects in combination, the sentence is not contracted but simple; as, “(Four and three) make seven”; “ (Tennyson and Swinburne) are the only great living poets.”

EXERCISE XIII.

DIRECTION.—Contract the following compound sentences, and state the nature of the contraction:

1. How France was saved from this humiliation will now be seen. and how the great alliance was preserved will now be seen.

2. The apple-trees slope with the hill, and in the spring the appletrees are covered with a profusion of the most beautiful blossoms, and in the autumn the apple-trees are generally weighed down with their load of red fruit.

3. In a few years, perhaps next year, the fine gentleman will shut up his umbrella, and the fine gentleman will give it to his sister, and the fine gentleman will fill his hand with a crab-tree cudgel instead of the umbrella.

4. In the strength and ardor of youth, Rome sustained the storms of war; in the strength and ardor of youth, Rome carried her victorious arms beyond the seas and mountains; in the strength and ardor of youth, Rome brought home triumphant laurels from every country of the globe.

5. I was buried for a thousand years; I was buried in stone coffins; I was buried with mummies and sphinxes; I was buried in narrow chambers at the heart of the eternal pyramids.

6. The island does not abound in grand prospects; the island does not abound in sublime prospects; but the island abounds rather in little home-scenes of rural repose and sheltered quiet.

7. My Uncle Toby went to his bureau, and my uncle Toby put his purse into his breeches pocket, and, having ordered the corporal to go early in the morning for a physician, my Uncle Toby went to bed and fell asleep.

8. The fowls of the air furnish sustenance to man, and the beasts of the field furnish sustenance to man, and the dwellers of the deep furnish sustenance to man.*

*NOTE.—The members of a compound sentence are subject to the rules of punctuation that have been given for the simple and for the complex sentence; but the pupil should here be taught the rules that apply specially to the punctuation of the compound sentence, See Chapter XVI.

SYNTHESIS OF COMPOUND SENTENCES.

In combining detached statements into compound sentences, the nature of the separate statements should be carefully considered, so as to connect in construction the members that are connected in sense; the closest attention should be given to the selection of the proper conjunction when one is required. Remember that conjunctions mark every turn, every change of relation; therefore, it is of the highest importance that the writer be able to estimate closely, in every instance, the nature and extent of their influence.

In the synthesis of compound sentences, much use is made of contraction; the participial phrase is very useful, and it is often advantageous to express certain ideas by means of dependent clauses. The members of a compound sentence may be: (1) Simple; as,

“Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight,

And all the air a solemn stillness holds." (2) Simple and Complex; as, “My uncle is a tall, hardfaced man;

I fear him when he calls me 'child.' (3) Complex; as, “To be content with what is sufficient, is the greatest wisdom; he who increases his riches, increases his cares.”

(4) Compound sentences are sometimes made up of two or more members used in pairs; as, “Homer was the greater genius; Virgil, the better artist; in the one we most admire the man; in the other, the work."

The following examples illustrate the combination of detached statements into a compound sentence:

Rhet.-4

The Royal George went down with all her crew.

Cowper wrote an exquisitely simple poem about it.
Separate
Statements.

The leaf holding this poem is smooth.
The leaf bearing the lines on his mother's portrait is

blistered with tears. Combined.—When the Royal George went down with all her crew, Cowper wrote an exquisitely simple poem about it; but the leaf which holds it is smooth, while that which bears the lines on his mother's portrait is blistered with tears.

1. Sir Roger went out fully satisfied with his entertain.

ment. 2. We guarded him to his lodging. 3. We guarded him in a certain manner. 4. In this same manner we brought him to the play

house. Separate

5. We were highly pleased. Statements. 6. I, for my own part, was highly pleased with the per

formance of the piece. 7. I was pleased not only with this. 8. The piece was excellent. 9. I was highly pleased by the satisfaction given by the

piece.

10. This satisfaction it had given to the good old man. Combined.Sir Roger went out fully satisfied with his entertainment, and we guarded him to his lodging in the same manner that we brought him to the playhouse, being highly pleased, for my own part, not only with the performance of the excellent piece, but with the satisfaction which it had given to the good old man.-Addison.*

*NOTE.-In combining the statements embraced in the second group of the examples given above, statement i forms the first member.

Statement 2 forms the second member.
Statement 3 is changed to a prepositional phrase, used adverbially.
Statement 4 forms a dependent clause of comparison.
Statement's becomes a participial phrase.
Statements 6 and 9 are expressed as co-ordinate phrases.
Statement 7 is given in the words "not only."
Statement 8 is expressed by the word "excellent."
Statement 10 appears as a relative clause.

EXERCISE XIV.

DIRECTION.-Combine the statements in each of the following groups into a compound sentence:

1. The slow, regular swells of the great Pacific may be heard through the day. One, listening, may hear them. They may be heard like a solemn undertone. It is like a solemn undertone to all the noises of the town. At midnight those successive shocks fall upon the ear. They produce a sensation of inexpressible solemnity. All else is still at midnight.

2. Only one sound fell upon the ear. That sound was the steady step of the camel. Its feet were crunching through the hard crust. We passed through long stretches of soft sand. Then even the sound of the steady step seemed muffled. The broad foot sank under us almost without a sound. This foot equals the tiger's in being soft and springy.

3. The merchant was impressed with awe. This awe the humblest sleeper usually sheds around him. The merchant trod lightly. The gout would not allow him to tread more lightly. His spouse took good heed not to rustle her silk gown. By reason of the rustling, David might possibly start up all of a sudden.

4. In spite of her fatness, Fraulein Hahlreiner's step was elastic and light. Her hands and feet were delicately shaped. Her broken English was the most deliciously comic and effectively eloquent language. I have never heard spoken a language exceeding it in eloquence. She cooked our dinner for us at two. She went shopping for or with us at five. She threw us into fits of laughter at eight. She threw us into laughter by some unexpected bit of mimicry or droll story. She tucked us up at bedtime with an affectionate “Good night. Sleep well!” All these things, I can say for her.

5. The first introduction of tea into Europe is not known. It came into England from Holland, in 1666. According to common accounts it came thus. At this time Lord Arlington and Lord Ossory brought over a small quantity. A pound of tea then sold for sixty shillings. The custom of drinking tea became fashionable.

6. Ten years afterwards coffee as a beverage became highly fashionable in France. It was made fashionable by the Turkish embassador. He was in Paris. The elegance of the equipage recommended

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