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When the name of the author is not in the same paragraph, but on a line by itself, no dash is needed; as,

"There is a great deal of unmapped country within us. which would have to be taken into account in explanation of our gusts and storms.

"George Eliot."

RULE X.-The parts of a conversation or a dialogue, if run into a paragraph instead of beginning separate lines, are separated by dashes when quotation marks are not used; as, "Do you give your time to this matter?—Yes, sir. — Do you enjoy the work?-I find it a pleasant occupation."


DIRECTION.-Punctuate, and explain:

1. Children dear was it yesterday call yet once that she went


2. I ahem I forget

3. Perhaps he did see Nora Heaven only knows and so died

4. What do you mean what is it

5. Then too at sea to use a homely but expressive phrase you miss a man so much

6. Take her said the mother take her I am glad to be rid of her 7. A third and he is the master's favorite shall be a worthy successor to the old Puritan ministers now in their graves

8. He knew not that a phantom of wealth had thrown a golden hue upon its waters nor that one of love had sighed softly to their murmur nor that one of death had threatened to crimson them with his blood all in the brief hour since he lay down to sleep

9. Conceit may puff a man up but never prop him up Ruskin 10. Greece Rome Carthage where are they

11. He suffered but his pangs are o'er

Enjoyed but his delights are fled

Had friends his friends are now no more
And foes his foes are dead

12. Life is trod under foot Life the one block

Of marble that's vouchsafed wherefrom to carve

Our great thoughts white and godlike to shine down
The future Life the irredeemable block

Which one o'erhasty chisel-dint oft mars

13. Friends neighbors my own kindred were all against the project

14. He has a weakness a weakness of the head as well as of the heart


RULE I.-The hyphen is used to connect the parts of a compound word; as, "Rose-tree"; "Fellow-student.”

RULE II.-The hyphen is placed at the end of a line to show that a part of the last word has been carried over to the next line; as, 'Cæsar now leaves Gaul, crosses the Rubicon, and enters Italy."*



RULE I.-If a letter, a word, or an expression is omitted a caret is placed where the omission occurs, and the omitted part interlined; as,


"I have revisited the of my childhood."


*NOTE.- In dividing words, syllables should never be broken, but the word should be separated by closing the line with a full syllable and a hyphen, and beginning the next line with the next syllable.

To divide words into syllables, the practice most common is to join consonants to the vowels whose sounds they modify; as, in-di-cate, ex-pla-na-tion, ge-og-ra-phy, ce-les-tial. In all cases where there is doubt as to the proper division of a word, decide the matter by referring to the dictionary.


The marks of parenthesis [()] are used to inclose some explanatory word or phrase which has little or no connection with the rest of the sentence; as, “I told him (and who would not?) just what I thought of him.”*


DIRECTION.-Punctuate, and explain:

1. The senator from South Carolina Mr. Calhoun then rose to speak 2. Our new cottage is it not a pretty one is very comfortable

3. Style Latin stylus refers to the expression of thought

4. I here give a fourth part of all my wealth three cents to this


5. The bliss of man could pride that blessing find
Is not to act or think beyond mankind


6. Seven years of scarcity I know that one of them might be called an average season were followed by two of plenty

*NOTE. The sentence containing the parenthesis, and the part within the curves, are both punctuated independently of each other; the sentence is punctuated as though it contained no parenthesis; and the part within the curves, just as if no parenthesis were used.

If a parenthesis is inserted at a place in the sentence where no point is required, no point should be put either before or after the marks of parenthesis. Should the sentence require other marks, they must precede or follow the marks of parenthesis, according to the character of the parenthetical expression. When the words in parenthesis have a point of their own after them, the point which would be used if there were no parenthesis is placed before the first curve, and the point belonging to the parenthesis is placed before the last curve; as, "While we all desire fame, (and why should we not desire it?) we should do nothing unfair to gain it." When a point is necessary at the place where the parenthesis is thrown in, and none is required in the parenthesis, the point should follow the parenthesis; as, "If we exercise right principles (and we can not have them unless we exercise them), they must be perpetually on the increase."


Quotation marks are two inverted commas at the beginning of the part quoted, and two apostrophes at its close; thus, ("").

RULE I.-A direct quotation should be inclosed by quotation marks; as, "Daily, with souls that cringe and plot, we Sinais climb and know it not."-Lowell.*

RULE II.—A quotation within a quotation is inclosed in single quotation marks; as, "The bullet-headed man has outstripped the broad-browed man in everything he undertook; and people say, 'Where is your phrenology?' In reply, I say, 'Look at that bullet-headed man, and see what he has to drive his bullet-head with!' His stomach gives evidence that he has natural forces to carry forward his purposes." -Henry Ward Beecher, Lecture on Preaching.

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RULE III.—In a succession of quoted paragraphs the inverted commas are used at the beginning of each paragraph, but the apostrophes are used at the close of the last paragraph only.

RULE IV.-The quotation retains its own punctuation. An exclamation or an interrogation point belonging to the quotation must stand within the quotation marks; as, He asked me, "Why do you weep?"

When the exclamation or the interrogation belongs to the entire sentence, it should be placed outside the quotation marks; as, Why did he not say at once, "I will come"?

*NOTE.- A direct quotation is one in which the exact language is reported. When we make no pretension to use the exact language, but give merely the substance in our own words, the marks of quotation are unnecessary.

RULE V. When the parts of a direct quotation are separated by anything parenthetical, quotation marks should be used to inclose each part of the quotation so separated; as, “I will take that office on myself," said the captain; “pass a light into the weather main-chains."

RULE VI.-A direct quotation is generally preceded by a colon; but if the quotation is merely some short saying, a comma is sufficient.

When the quotation is formally introduced-introduced by the words following, as follows, thus, first, secondly, etc.— it should be preceded by the colon; when it is informal— arising naturally from the sentence in which it stands-it should be preceded by a comma; thus, Governor Dix made the following statement: “Our finances are in a sound condition." Here the quotation is formally introduced. The wounded hero said, "Now, God be praised, I die happy.' Here the quotation is informal.


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DIRECTION.-Justify the punctuation in the following examples:

1. Themistocles said, "I beseech you to betake yourselves to your ships."

2. These were the words of Themistocles: “I beseech you, O Athenians, to betake yourselves to your ships."

3. "Will you not listen to my entreaties, O Athenians?" inquired Themistocles.

4. Themistocles inquired whether the Athenians would not listen to his entreaties.

5. Sir Philip Francis says, "With a callous heart there can be no genius in imagination or wisdom in the mind; and therefore the prayer, with equal truth and sublimity, says, 'Incline our hearts to wisdom'." 6. "Description," he said, "is to the author of romance exactly what drawing and tinting are to a painter; words are his colors."

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