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PRINTERS' MARKS.

The following are the most important of the remaining marks used in printed discourse. Some of them are used wholly by printers, and the others are mostly so used:

1. Accents are used to mark the stress of voice on vowels. The Acute [] denotes a rising tone of voice, or sometimes a simple stress; the Grave ['] a falling tone, or that the final vowel over which it is placed, as in French words and words ending in èd, is sounded; the Circumflex [^] that the vowel over which it is placed is sounded with both a rising and a falling tone, as âh in sarcasm.

2. Braces.-These are used to show that two or more terms are connected with another term; as,

Aids to History {Philology,

Anthropology.

3. Brackets. When a parenthetical expression is too little connected with the text for inclusion in marks of parenthesis, Brackets [] are used. Such cases are: (1) to inclose some word or words necessary to correct an error or afford an explanation; (2) in dictionaries, to inclose the pronunciation or etymology of a word; (3) in dramas, etc., to inclose directions to the players.

4. The Cedilla.-This mark is placed under the letter c [c] to show that it has the sound of s; as, façade.

5. The Diæresis [] is sometimes placed over the second of two vowels to show that they are pronounced separately; as, zoölogy, coöperation.

6. Marks of Ellipsis [****. omission of letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs.

Rhet.-35.

-] denote the

7. Marks of Emphasis call attention to some statement. They are, (1) the Index [], and (2) the Asterism [***].

8. Reference-marks are generally used to refer to marginal notes. They are, (1) the Asterisk [*], (2) the Obelisk, or Dagger [+], (3) the Double Dagger [‡], (4) the Section [§], (5) Parallel lines [||], and (6) the Paragraph [¶]. When a greater number is required, these marks are either doubled, or letters and numbers are employed.

9. The Section [§] indicates a subdivision of a chapter. 10. The Tilde [Ñ] is a character written above the letter n in Spanish words, to show that the letter should be sounded as if spelled with a y; as, cañon (canyon).

II. Quantity-marks serve to indicate the quantity of a vowel. The Macron [-], placed over a vowel, shows that it has the long sound, as a in age. The breve [-], placed over a vowel, shows that it has the short sound, as a in răn.

12. The Ditto Mark [] is used to indicate that the words above are to be repeated; as,

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This mark should not be used in repeating the names of persons. Every name should be written in full.

13. Leaders are dots used to carry the eye from words at the beginning of the line to something at the end of it, usually the number of the page; as,

Invention........

..page 40.

14. Italics are letters inclined to the right. They (1) mark an emphatic word; and (2) in the English Bible show that the words so printed are not in the original.

In writing, Italics are indicated by drawing one line under the word to be italicized.

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INDEX.

Annals, defined..

Anti-climax, defined.

Antithesis.

"Anyhow," vulgar use of.
Apostrophe....

rules for the point......
Arrangement, variety of.
Article, omission of the...
"At least," position of....
Autobiography, defined...

140

146

324

354
106-108

...

B

"Balance," misuse of....
"Banister," criticised..

Allegory..

Alliteration, beauty of expression pro-
moted by

"All of them," criticised...

"Allude," misuse of..
"Almost," misuse of..

PAGE Barbarism, defined...
344 Bathos, defined......

409

310
.183, 184

Anapest, defined.........

Ancient and modern forms, union of..

Anglo-Saxon derivatives.

........230-232

146

180

340
..17, 30
339

....

25
181

Auxiliary with simple forms..........
"Avocation," misuse of...
Awfulness, relation to sublimity

320
207

.238, 239

142
235

382

.....

277

144

"Calculate," misuse of
148 Capitals, rules for..
value of....

Caret, rule for

30
186

182

Beautifully," misuse of
Beauty of expression....
Biography, defined.

Both," misuse of
Braces, explained..
Brackets, explained..
Burlesque, defined
"But," misuse of..
"But that," criticised.

321

85
142
279

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148

143

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Catalectic verse...
Cedilla, explained..
Chronicle, defined...

85 Circumlocution, defined..
Clauses, adjective.....
adverbial...

154

с

.........

148

376

375

405

344

409

320

.120, 197
..21, 32
.....24, 32

193
32

..54, 55-63
31
191
22

26

words introducing.......21, 22, 23, 25, 27
Clearness of construction.. 180-189, 213, 324
omissions that destroy.

186

Climax.......

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PAGE

135

207

147

.275-7

321

143

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bad effect of supplementary........

conditional..

contraction of...

Colon, rules for..

Comedy, defined..
Comma, rules for

Complex sentence, analysis of..

defined
example of...

position of......

relative, when to avoid........
restrictive, and non-restrictive.....
substantive.

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.....

206

396

374

.382-396

30
21

ΤΟ

PAGE

Complex sentence, punctuation of... 392 Contraction of phrases, clauses, and
synthesis of.......

sentences......

Composition, defined...

..29-34
9

subjects for...

255

Compound sentence, adversative ....35, 38

alternative......

complex form of..

contracted....

copulative..

defined

illative....

punctuation of....................

structure of members of..

synthesis of..

Conciseness, defined..

sublimity promoted by..
violations of..

Concord......

used in poetry

Contrasted members, construction of.

Couple," misuse of..

.......................36, 38 | Couplet, defined...

................... 37
........ 39

...35, 37

....

copulative.

illative.....

omission of.

..36, 38
396

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subordinate..

Connectives, proper use of..

noun complement of a passive verb.
noun or pronoun following the in-
finitive of "be".

noun or pronoun in apposition...
objective case.....

past tense and perfect participle of
irregular verbs.....

pronouns must agree with their an-

tecedents.....

subject of infinitive complement....
subject of participial noun.......
verb must agree with its subject....
Condensation, illustrated

of news items...............
"Condign," misuse of.....

"Confirmed," misuse of.
Conjunctions, adversative..

alternative..

co-ordinate..

143
148

41

"Deceiving," misuse of..
"Demean," misuse of..
41 Denying the contrary.
195 Development, explained..
281 Diæresis, explained....
196 Diction

...120, 122
....... 75
409
133-178
371

Didactic poetry...........

.76-85
84

Direct form of discourse, explained. 112, 113
"Directly," misuse of...

81

82 Discourse...

144
.309-311
390

142

374

35 Dactyl, defined..
Dash, rules for...

...

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Distich, defined..

85 "Doubt," incompleteness of.
82 Dramatic poetry......................

83

76

78

78

79

77

D

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.54-63
338

.......

PAGE

...

202

148

350

....

339

402

143

354

370

52

85

338

409

148

.220, 238

36"Equally as," corrected.
35 Equivocal terms..

372
373
..240, 241
144
152
318

35 Essays, defined.

36 Euphemism...

....120, 123

.36, 187 Exclamation, energy promoted by.... 205
in varying expression..
point, rules for..

110

25
199

400

410

198

195

182

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