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The following are the most important of the remaining marks used in printed discourse. Some of them are used wholly by printers, and the others are mostly so used:
1. Accents are used to mark the stress of voice on vowels. The Acute  denotes a rising tone of voice, or sometimes a simple stress; the Grave ['] a falling tone, or that the final vowel over which it is placed, as in French words and words ending in èd, is sounded; the Circumflex [^] that the vowel over which it is placed is sounded with both a rising and a falling tone, as âh in sarcasm.
2. Braces.—These are used to show that two or more terms are connected with another term; as,
3. Brackets. When a parenthetical expression is too little connected with the text for inclusion in marks of parenthesis, Brackets  are used. Such cases are: (1) to inclose some word or words necessary to correct an error or afford an explanation; (2) in dictionaries, to inclose the pronunciation or etymology of a word; (3) in dramas, etc., to inclose directions to the players.
4. The Cedilla.-This mark is placed under the letter c [c] to show that it has the sound of s; as, façade.
5. The Diæresis  is sometimes placed over the second of two vowels to show that they are pronounced separately; as, zoology, coöperation.
6. Marks of Ellipsis [****
-] denote the
omission of letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs.
7. Marks of Emphasis call attention to some statement. They are, (1) the Index , and (2) the Asterism [***].
8. Reference-marks are generally used to refer to marginal notes. They are, (1) the Asterisk [*], (2) the Obelisk, or Dagger [+], (3) the Double Dagger [‡], (4) the Section , (5) Parallel lines [||], and (6) the Paragraph [¶]. When a greater number is required, these marks are either doubled, or letters and numbers are employed.
9. The Section [§] indicates a subdivision of a chapter. 10. The Tilde [Ñ] is a character written above the letter n in Spanish words, to show that the letter should be sounded as if spelled with a y; as, cañon (canyon).
II. Quantity-marks serve to indicate the quantity of a vowel. The Macron [-], placed over a vowel, shows that it has the long sound, as a in age. The breve [-], placed over a vowel, shows that it has the short sound, as a in răn. 12. The Ditto Mark  is used to indicate that the words above are to be repeated; as,
This mark should not be used in repeating the names of persons. Every name should be written in full.
13. Leaders are dots used to carry the eye from words at the beginning of the line to something at the end of it, usually the number of the page; as,
14. Italics are letters inclined to the right. They (1) mark an emphatic word; and (2) in the English Bible show that the words so printed are not in the original.
In writing, Italics are indicated by drawing one line under the word to be italicized.
Complex sentence, punctuation of... 392 Contraction of phrases, clauses, and
used in poetry