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PRINTERS' MARKS.

The following are the most important of the remaining marks used in printed discourse. Some of them are used wholly by printers, and the others are mostly so used:

1. Accents are used to mark the stress of voice on vowels. The Acute [] denotes a rising tone of voice, or sometimes a simple stress; the Grave [] a falling tone, or that the final vowel over which it is placed, as in French words and words ending in èd, is sounded; the Circumflex [^] that the vowel over which it is placed is sounded with both a rising and a falling tone, as âh in sarcasm.

2. Braces.—These are used to show that two or more terms are connected with another term; as,

Philology,

Aids to History (Anthropology

3. Brackets.—When a parenthetical expression is too little connected with the text for inclusion in marks of parenthesis, Brackets [] are used. Such cases are: (1) to inclose some word or words necessary to correct an error or afford an explanation; (2) in dictionaries, to inclose the pronunciation or etymology of a word; (3) in dramas, etc., to inclose directions to the players.

4. The Cedilla.—This mark is placed under the letter c [s] to show that it has the sound of s; as, façade.

5. The Diæresis [.] is sometimes placed over the second of two vowels to show that they are pronounced separately; as, zoology, coöperation. 6. Marks of Ellipsis [****

-] denote the omission of letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs.

Rhet.-35.

7. Marks of Emphasis call attention to some statement. They are, (1) the Index [Bo], and (2) the Asterism [***].

8. Reference-marks are generally used to refer to marginal notes. They are, (1) the Asterisk [*], (2) the Obelisk, or Dagger [+], (3) the Double Dagger (1), (4) the Section [S], (5) Parallel lines [ll], and (6) the Paragraph [7]. When a greater number is required, these marks are either doubled, or letters and numbers are employed.

9. The Section [S] indicates a subdivision of a chapter. 10. The Tilde [N] is a character written above the letter n in Spanish words, to show that the letter should be sounded as if spelled with a y; as, cañon (canyon).

II. Quantity-marks serve to indicate the quantity of a vowel. The Macron (-), placed over a vowel, shows that it has the long sound, as a in äge. The breve [-], placed over a vowel, shows that it has the short sound, as a in răn.

12. The Ditto Mark [6] is used to indicate that the words above are to be repeated; as, 10 lbs. Butter @ 50c.

.$5.00 бос. .

5.40 This mark should not be used in repeating the names of persons. Every name should be written in full.

13. Leaders are dots used to carry the eye from words at the beginning of the line to something at the end of it, usually the number of the page; as, Invention.........

•page 40. 14. Italics are letters inclined to the right. They (1) mark an emphatic word; and (2) in the English Bible show that the words so printed are not in the original.

In writing, Italics are indicated by drawing one line under the word to be italicized.

9

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INDEX.

A

PAGE
PAGE | Barbarism, defined.....

135
Acatalectic verse...
344 Bathos, defined.....

207
Accents, explained

409
Beautifully,” misuse of

147
Accepted sense, words in their.......
140 Beauty of expression...

.275-7
“Accord," misuse of......
146 Biography, defined.

321
Accuracy of news items..
324 “ Both,” misuse of

143
Acrostic, defined..
354 Braces, explained..

409
Active voice varies expression.....106-108 Brackets, explained.

409
Address, defined......
310 | Burlesque, defined

268
Adjuncts, the placing of.. 183, 184

“ But,” misuse of.

141
Adverbs, conjunctive....

25
“But that," criticised.

142
single-word....

181
Allegory.

..230-232

с
Alliteration, beauty of expression pro-
moted by

277
“All of them,” criticised...

144
“Calculate," misuse of

148
“Allude," misuse of..
148 Capitals, rules for..

376
“Almost," misuse of..
146 value of....

375
Ambiguity, defined..
180 Caret, rule for

405
Catalectic verse...

340
Amphibrach, defined.

344
Analysis......

..17, 30
Cedilla, explained..

409
Anapest, defined.........

339
Chronicle, defined...

320
Ancient and modern forms, union of.. 85

Circumlocution, defined..

.120, 197
Anglo-Saxon derivatives .

154
Clauses, adjective.....

...21, 32
Annals, defined.

adverbial...
320

...24, 32
Anti-climax, defined.

bad effect of supplementary........
207

193
Antithesis.

.238, 239
conditional...

32

contraction of ......
“Anyhow," vulgar use of.
142

. 54, 55-63
Apostrophe.

position of.....

31
235
rules for the point.....

382
relative, when to avoid.....

191
Arrangement, variety of.

restrictive, and non-restrictive.....

30
Article, omission of the...

186
substantive ..

26
“At least," position of..

182

words introducing.......21, 22, 23, 25, 27
Autobiography, defined...

Clearness of construction.. 180-189, 213, 324

321
Auxiliary with simple forms..

186
omissions that destroy..

85
“Avocation," misuse of...

Climax.......

206
142
Awfulness, relation to sublimity

Colon, rules for.....
279

396
Comedy, defined..

374
Comma, rules for

-382–396
B
Complex sentence, analysis of..

30
Balance," misuse of....

148 defined
Banister," criticised..

example of.

IO

22

21

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143

PAGE

PAGE
Complex sentence, punctuation of... 392 Contraction of phrases, clauses, and
synthesis of.......

..29-34
sentences.

-54-63
Composition, defined..

9
used in poetry

338
subjects for....

255 Contrasted members, construction of. 202
Compound sentence, adversative ....

....35, 38
“Couple,” misuse of........

148
alternative.......
.36, 38 Couplet, defined..

350
complex form of..

37
contracted....

39

D
copulative..

...35, 37
defined
35 Dactyl, defined..

339
illative.....
.36, 38 Dash, rules for...

402
punctuation of....
396 “Deceiving," misuse of.

143
structure of members of..
41 | “Demean,” misuse of.

148
synthesis of......
41 | Denying the contrary.

120, 122
Conciseness, defined..
195 | Development, explained.

75
sublimity promoted by.
281 Diæresis, explained..

409
violations of......
196 Diction

133-178
Concord.....
:76-85 Didactic poetry...

371
adjectives and adverbs.

84 Direct form of discourse, explained. 112, 113
agreement of tenses..
81 “Directly," misuse of...

144
auxiliaries should harmonize, etc... 82 Discourse...

309-311
correspondent parts of a sentence Distich, defined....

350
constructed alike
85 “ Doubt," incompleteness of.

142
existing facts require present tense
82 Dramatic poetry......

374
indicative and subjunctive forms... 83
nominative case.....

E
noun complement of a passive verb.
noun or pronoun following the in- “Either," misuse of...
finitive of “be”.
78 Elegiac stanza ...

354
noun or pronoun in apposition...... 79 Elegy, defined....

370
objective case....
77 | Elements, transformation of.

52
past tense and perfect participle of

union of dissimilar.

85
irregular verbs.....
80 Elision, defined.

338
pronouns must agree with their an. Ellipsis, marks of...

409
tecedents .....
79 “ Emblem," misuse of..

148
subject of infinitive complement.... 77 Emphasis, figures of..

..220, 238
subject of participial noun....... 78

marks of......

410
verb must agree with its subject.... 80 Emphatic words, position of..

198
Condensation, illustrated
197. Energy of discourse, defined.

195
of news items.......
324 “Enough," position of...

182
Condign,"misuse of...
145 Epic poetry.

372
“Confirmed," misuse of.

144
forms of..

373
Conjunctions, adversative.

35 Epigram.

.240, 241
alternative..
36 / “Equally as," corrected.

144
co-ordinate..
35 Equivocal terms....

152
copulative.
35 Essays, defined.

318
illative......

36 Euphemism ....

....120, 123
omission of.

:36, 187 Exclamation, energy promoted by.... 205
subordinate..

25 in varying expression..
Connectives, proper use of..
199 point, rules for.

400

76
78

143

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III

II2

I10

212

122

ΙΙο

220

PAGE

PAGE
Exercises in Allegory.
232 Exordium, defined...

311
Analysis...
.20, 34 Expansion...

..64, 66
Antithesis..
239 “ Expect," misuse of..

149
Apostrophe..
236 | Expression, to vary..

106
Changing the Voice of a Verb..... 108 by anticipative subject...
Circumlocution
124 by contraction

107
Clearness of Construction

..188, 213

by direct discourse..
Climax.

212 by exclamation...
Composition. .......45, 66, 88, 98, 125, 250 by expansion....

107
Concord
.86, 87 by interrogation

109
Construction of Contrasted Mem-

by substitution.

107
bers...

by transposition.

115
Contraction..
. 56-63 by voice of the verb.

108
Denying the Contrary....
Diction

178

F
Direct forms of Discourse......... 113
Epigram.....

241
Fable...

231
Euphemism.

123
Farce, defined.

374
Exclamatory form of Sentences....

Fiction.....

322
Expansion....

...64, 65
Figures of Speech.

..218-244
Expression, variety of. 108-113,118,121–124.

Classification of..
Figures of Speech..222, 226, 227, 232, 233,

Allegory...

230
235, 236, 239, 241, 242, 244–249.
Antithesis....

238
Harmony

217
Apostrophe.

235
Hyperbole.....

244

Epigram..
Indirect forms of Discourse.

240
113
Interrogation

Hyperbole

243
Irony...

Irony.
242

241

Litotes...
“It” as an anticipative subject... 112

244

Metaphor..
Litotes...

224

Metonymy..
Metaphor.

232
Personification..

228
Metonymy.

233

Simile....
Order of Words.
118

220
Paragraph...

Synecdoche..
....95, 96, 260

234

Vision...
Paraphrase..

237
299, 304, 325
Pathos......

“ Folks,” criticised..

145
.272-275
Personification ...

Foot, poetical, defined.

337
229

Foreign words...
Propriety of Diction.

136
251
Purity of Diction

“From thence," etc., criticised....
138

143
Repetition

229
Simile

.222-224
Simplicity of Diction..
Specific Words.

“Got,” misuse of.

141
Strength of Construction.. . 208–213
Sublimity of Expression.. .281-284

H
Synecdoche.

235
Synonyms..

.169, 170
Had have," criticised.

142
Unity of Construction
193 Harmony, defined..

...214-217
Wit.....

...272-275 Historical, composition, varieties of .. 320
Words of Similar Meaning.... 121 poem ...

373

109

244
.226, 227

.176, 177

210

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