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Not God alone in the still calm we find, The monk's humility, the hero's pride ;
Passions, like elements, tho' born to fight, TH'Eternal Art, educing good from ill,
Pleasures are crer in our hands and eyes ; See anger, zeal and fortitude supply :
As man, perhaps, the moment of his breath, Reason the bias turns to good from ill,
Tho' each by turns the other's bounds invade,
We, wretched subjects tho' 10 lawful way, If white and black blend, softon, and unite
Yes, nature's road must ever be preferr’d; No creature owns it in the first degree,
Er'n those who dwell berdeath its very zone, And treat this passion more as friend than fve; Or never feel the rage, or never own; A mightier Pow'r 'the strong direction sends, What happier natures shrink at with affright, And sev'ral men impels to sev'ral ends : The bard inhabitant contends is right. Like varying winds, by other passions tost, Virtuous and vicious ev'ry nian must be ; This drives them coristant to a certain const. Few in th'extreine, but all in the degree: Let pow'r or knowledge, gold or glory please, The rogue and fool, by fits, 'is fair and wise; Or (oft more strong than all) the love of ease, And ev'n the best, by fits, what they despise: Thro' life ’ris followed, even at life's expence; "T'is but by parts we follow good or ill! The merchant's teil, the sage's indolence, Por, Vice or Virtue, Self directs it still ;
Fach individual seeks a sev'ral goal; (Whole: another. The happiness of Animals mutual. But Heaven's great view is One, and that the - Reason w Instiuci operates alike to the Thal connterworks each folly and caprice; good of each Iridividual. - Reason or Instinct That disappoints th' etiect of ev'ry rice ;
operates also to Society in all animals.-- How Thai, happy frailties to all rankis applied - far Society is carried by Instinct.-Hlou much Shame to the virgin, to the mairun pride, farther by Reason. Of that which is called Fear to the statesman, rashness to the chief, the State of Nature. Reason instructed ly To kings presumption, and to crowds belief: Instinct in the Invention of Arts, and in the That, Virtue's ends from vanity can raise, Forms of Society. Origin of Political SoWhich seeks no int'rest, no reward but praise ; cieties. ---Origin of Monarchy.- Patriarchal And builris on wants, and on defects of mind, Government. - Origin of true Religion and The joy, the peace, the glory of Mankind. Government, from the same principle of
Heaven, forming each on other to depend, Love. - Origin of Superstition and Tyranny, A master, or a serrant, or a friend,
from the same principle of fear. – The inBids each on other for assistance call,
fluence of Self-love operating to the social and Till one Man's weakness grows the strength of public Good. - Restoration of true Religion Wants, frailties, passions, closer still ally and Government on their first Principle."The common int’rest, or endear the tje:
Mixed Gorernment.larious Forms oj rack, To these we owe true friendship, love sincere, and the true End of all. Each home-fele joy wiat life inherits here; ILERE then we rest : . The Universal Caase Vet froin the same we learn, in its decline, ' Acts to one end, but acts by various laws.' Those jovs, those love', those int'rests to resign ; In all the madness of superfluous health, Toughi half by Reason, half by mere decay, The train of pride, the impudence of wealth, To welcome death, and calmly pass away. Let this great truth be present night and day;
Whate or the Passion,kinowkdge, fame.or pell, But most be present, if we preach or pray. Not one will change his neighbour with himself. Look round our World; behold the chain of The learn’d is happy nature to explore, Combining all below and all above. [Love The food is happy that he knows no more ; See plastic Nature working to this end; The rich is happy in the plenty given, The single atoms each to other tend; The poor contents him with the care of Heaven. Attract, attracted to the next in place, Sve the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing, Form d and impell'd its neighbour to embrace. The sot a hero, lunatic a king;
Sec Matter nexi, with various life endued, The starving chemist in his golden views Press to one centre sull, the gen'ral Goud. Supreinely blest; the poet in his Muse. See sving Vegetables lise sustain, See some strange comfort ev'ry state attend, Sce life dissolving vegetate again: Ind pride, bestow'd on all, a common friend : All forms that perish other formis supply See some fit passion ev'ry age supply:
(By turns we caich the vital breath, and die); Hope travels through, nor quits us when we die. Like bubbles on the sea of Natter bornic,
Beltold the child, by nature's kindly law, They rise, thiv Isreak, ard to that sea return. Pleas'd with a rattle, lickled with a straw ; Nothing is foreign ; Paris relate to Whule; Some livelier plaything gives his youth delight, One all-exiending, all-preserving Soul A little louder, but as empty quite ;
(onnerts each being, greatest with the least; Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, Made Beast in aid of Man, and Man of Beast; And beads and pray'r-books are the joys of age : All servd, all serving : nothing stands alone; P'leasd with this bauble still, as that before; The chain holdson, and where it ends unknown. Till tir'd be sleeps, and Life's poor play is o'er. Has God, thou fool! workd solely for thy Micanwhile Opinion gilds with varying rays
good, Those painted clouds that beautify our days; Thy joy, thy pastime, the attire, the food ? Fach want of happiness by Hope supplied, Who for thy table feeds ihe wanton fawn, And each vacuity of sense by Pride :
For him as kindly spreads the flow'ry lawn. 'These build as fast as knowledge can destroy ; Is it for thee the lark ascends and sings? In folly's cup still laughs the bubble, Joy : Joy tunes his voice, joy elerates his wings. One prospect lost, another still we gain; Is it for tliee the linnei pours his ihroat? And not a vanity is given in vain.
Lores of his own and raptures swell the note. Evi'n mean Self-love becomes, by force divine, The bounding steed you pompously bestride The scale to nieasure others' wants by thine. Shares with his lord ihe pleasure and the pride. See! and confess, one comfort still must rise; Is thine alone the seed that strews the plain? 'Tis this--tho Man 's a fool, vet God is wise. The birds of heaven shall vindicate their grain. EPISTLE III.
Thine the full harvest of the golden year?
Part pays, and justly, the deserving steer. of the Nature and State of Man with respect The hog that plonghs not, nor obeys thy call, to Society,
Lives on the labors of this lord of all. The whole l’nirerse one System of Society-No- Now, Nature's children shall divide her care, thing mode wholly for itsell," nam wholly for The sur that warms a monarch warını da bear.
While Man exclaims, See all things for my use! God, in the nature of each being, founds
Grant that the po-x'rful still the weak control, So, from the first, eternal order ran,
The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend. That very life his learned hunger craves, The young dismiss’d to wander earth or air, He saves from famine, froin the savage saves ; There stops the Instinct, and there ends the care; Nay, feasts the animal he dooms his fcast, The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace ; And till he ends the being, makes it blest; Another love succeeds another race. Which sees no more the stroke, or feels the pain, A longer care Mau's helpless kind demands ; Than favor'd Man by touch ethereal.slain. That longer care contracts more lasting bands : The creature had biš feast of life before; Reflection, Reason, still the ties improve, Thou too must perish wheụ thy feast is o'er! At once extend the int'rest and the love: To each unthinking being, Heaven a friend, With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Gives not the useless knowledge of its end ! Each Virtue in each Passion takes its turn; To Man imparts it; but with such a view And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise, As, while he dreads it, makes him hope it too: That graft benevolence on charities. The hour conceald, and so remote the fear, Still as one brood, and as another rose, Death still draws nearer, never seeming near. These nat'ral love maintain, habitual those : Great standing miracle ! that Heaven assign'd The last scarce ripen’d into perfect Man, lis only thinking thing this turn of mind. Saw helpless him from whom their life began:
Whether with Reason or with Instinct blest, Mem'ry and forecast just returns engage; Know, all enjoy that pow'r which suits them That pointed back to youth, this on to age : To bliss alıke by that direction tend, (best; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope combin'd, And find the means proportion'd to their end. Still spread the int'rest, and preserv'd the kind. Say, where ful Instinct
' is th' unerring guide, Nor think, in Nature's state they blindly trod; What Pope or Council can they need beside ? The State of Nalure was the reign of God: Reason, however able, cool at best,
Self-love and Social at her birth began ; Cares not for service, or but serves when prest, Unicu the bond of all things, and of Man. Stays till we call, and then not often near; Pride then was not; nor Arts, that Pride to aid; But honest Instinct comes a volunteer, Man walk'd with bcast, joint tenant of the shade; Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit; The same his table, and the same his bed ; While still 100 wide or short is human Wit; No murier cloth'd him, and no murder fed. Sure by quick Nature happiness to gain, In the same temple, the resounding wood, Which heavier Reason labors at in vain. All vocal beings hymn'd their equal God: This too serves always, Reason never long; The shrine with gore unstain'd, with gold un'One must go right, ilic other may go wrong,
drest; See ihen the acting and comparing pow'rs Unbrib’d, unbloody, stood the blanieless priest: One in their nature, which are two in ours; Heaven's attribute was Universal Care; And Reason raise o'er Instinct as you can, And Man's prerogative to rule, but spare. In this 'tis God directs, in that 'tis Man. Ah! how unlike the man of times to coine !
Who taught the nations of the field and wood Of half that live the butcher and the tomb; To shun their poison, and to choose their food? Who, foe to Nature, bears the gen'ral groan, Prescient, the tides or tempests to withstand, Murders their species, and betrays his own. Build on the wave, or arch beneath the sand? But just disease to luxury succeeds, Who made the spider parallels design, And ev'ry death its own avenger breeds ; Sure as De Moivre, without rule or line? The fury passions from that blood began, Who bid the stork, Columbus like, explore And turn'd on Man a fiercer savage, Man. Ilcar'ns, not his own, and worlds unknown Sce him from Nature rising slow to Art! before?
To copy Instinct then was Reason's part : Who calls the council, states the certain day? Thus then to Man the voice of Nature spake Who furins the phalanx,and who points the way:l« Go, from the Creatures thy instructions take:
:: Learn each small People's genuing policies
. The superstitine taughe the Tyrant ave;[Law
“ Learnfromthebirdswhatfond the thickets yield: No ill could fear in God; and understood “ Learn from the beasts the physic of the field; A Sovereign Being but a sov’reign good. “Thy arts of building from the bee receive ; True faitli, true policy, united ran; “ Learn of the moleto plough, the wormto weave; That was but love of God, and this of Man. “ Learn of the little Nautilus to sail,
Who tirst taught souls enslar'd, and realms un“ Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale. Th'enormous faith of many made for one; done, “ Here too all forms of social muion find, That proud exception to all Nature's laws, " And bence let Reason, late, instruct mankind: T: invert the world, and counterwork its Cause! • Here subterranean works and cities sce; Force first made Conquest, and that Conquest
waving tree. Till
shar'd the it aid, The Ani's republic, and the realin of Bees; AndGods of Conqu'rors, Slaves of Subjects made: • How those in common alltheir wealth bestow, She, 'anidst the lightnings hlaze, and thunder's “ And Anarchy without confusion know;
sound, " And theme for ever, tho'a Monarch reizi), When rock'u the mountains, and when groan'd " Tlreir sep'rate cells and properties maintain. the ground, ** Mark what unvariedliw's preserve earl skate, She taugin the weak to bend, the proud to pras,
Laws wise as Nature, and as fix'd as Fate. To Pow'r unseen, and mightier far than they:
In vain thy Reason finer webs shall draw, She from the ronding earth, and bursting skics, • Entangle Jusrice in her net of Law; Saw gods descend, and fiends infernal rise : “ And right, two rigid, harden into wrong, Here fix'd the dreadful, there the blest abodes; “ Still for the strongtoo weak,theweaktoostrong. Fear made her Devils, and weak Hope herGods; " Yet go! and thus o'er all tlre creatures sway, Gods partial, changeful, passionate, unjust, « Thus let the wiser make the rest obey: Whose attributes were Rage, Revenge, or Lust; * And for those asts incre Instinct could afford, Such as the souls of cowards inight conceive,
Be crown'd as Monarchs, or as Gods ador'd." And, form'd like tyrants, tyrants woull believe, Great Nature spoke ; observant Man obey'd; Zeal then, not charity, became the guide ! Cities were built, Societies were made: And hell was built on spite, and heavenon pride. Here Tose one little state ; another near Then sacred scem'd th'ethereal vault no more; Grew by like means, and jom'd thro' love or feor. Ahars grew marble then, and reck'd with gore: Did here the trees with ruddier burdens bend, Then first the Flainen tastal living food, And there the streams in purer rills descond! Next his grim idol smear'd with human blood; WhatWarcould ravish, Commerce could bestow, With heaven's own thunders shook the world And he return'd a friend who came a foe. And play'd the god an engine on his fue.(below, Converse and Love mankind might strongly draw, So drives Self-love, thro' just, and thronnjust; When Love was Liberty, and Nature Law. To one man's pow'r, ambition, lucre, lust: Thus states were formid; the name of King un- The same Self-love in all, becomes the cause known,
Of what restrains bim, Government and Laws. Till cominon intrest plac'd the sway in one. For, what one likes, if others like as well;
Twas Virtue only (or in arts or arms, What serves one will, when many wills rebel?
Till then, iby Nature crown'd, each Patriarch All join'd to guard vrhat each desires to gain.
The worker from the work distinct was known, That touching one must strike the other too ;
made For Nature knew no right divine in.Men, To serve, not suffer : strengthen, not invade ;
More pow'rful each as needful to the rest, That something still which prompts the eternal And, in proportion as it blesses, blest :
For which we bear to live, or dare to die; (sighi, Draw to one point, and to one centre bring. Which still so dear us, yet beyond us lies; Beast, Mar, or Angel, Servant, Lord, or King. O'erlook'd, seen double, by the foot and vise.
For fornis of Government let fools contest; Mant of celestial seed! if dropt below, Whate'er is best administer'd is best : Say, in what morial soil thou deign'st to grow? For Modes of Faith let graceless zealots fight : Fair quining to some Court's propitious shine, His can't be wrong whose life is in the right : Or deep with diamonds in the Haining mine ? In Faith and Hope the world will disagree, Twin'd with the wreathsParnassian laurels yield, But all Mankind's concern is Charity: Or reap'd in iron harvests to the field ? Etoil, All must be false that thwart this One greatEnd: Where grows? where grows it nor? if rain our And all of God, that bless Mankind, or niend. We ought to blame the culture, not the soil. Man, like the yen'routs vine, supported lives! Fix'd to no spot is happiness sincere, The Strength he gains is fronı ihe einbrace he "Tis no where to be found, or ev'ry where: gives.
"Tis never to be bought, but always free; (thee. On their own Axis as the Planets run, And Aed from monarchs, St. Johin, dwells with Yet make at once their circle round the Sun; Ask of the Learn'd the way: The Learn'd are So two consistent motioris act the Soul,
bliad: And ope regards Itself, and one the Whole. This bids to serve, and that to shun mankind;
Thus God and Nature link'd the gen'ral frame, Some place the bliss in action, some in ease; And bade Self-love and Social be the same. Those call it pleasure, and contentment these: EPISTLE IV.
Some sunk to beasts, find pleasure end in pain; ARGUMENT,
Some swelld to gods, confess ev’n virtue vain! Of the Nature and State of Man, with respect Or indolent to each extreme they fall, to Happiness.
To trust in ev'ry thing, or doubt of all. Fal« Notions of happiness, Philosophical and Who thus define it, say they more or less
Popular - It is the End of all Men, and at-Than this, thai happiness is happiness? tainable ly all. - God intends Happiness to Take Nature's path, and mad opinions leave ; be equal; and to be so, it must le social, since All states can reach it, and all heads conceive; all particular Happiness depends on general, Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell; and since he governs ly general not particular There nécds but thinking right, and meaning Laws. As it is necessary for Order, and the
well; peuće and welfare of Society, that external and mourn our various portions as we please, goods should le unequal, Happiness is not Equal is common sense and common ease. made tu consist in these. But, notwith- Remember, Man, “ the Universal Cause standing that inequality, the balance of " Acts not by partial, but by genral laws ;" Happiness among mankind is kept even by And makes what Happiness we justly call Prezidence, by the twv Passions of Hope and Subsist not in the good of one, but all. feat.-- What the Happiness of Individuals There 's not a blessing individuals find, is, as far as is consistent with the con- But some way leans and hearkens to the kind. stitution of this world; and that the Good No bandit fierce, no tyrant mad with pride, Man has here the advantage. The error No cavernd hermit rests self-satisfied: of imputing to Virtue what are only the cala- Who most to shun or hate mankind pretend, mities of Nature or of Fortune. The folly Seek an admirer, or would fix a friend: of expecting that God should alter his general Abstmct what others feel, what others think, laws in fuvor of purticulars. That we are all pleasures sicken, and all glories sink ; not judges who are good; but that, whoever Each has his share; and who would more obtain, they are, they must be happiest. That er- Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain. ternal goods are not the proper rewards, but Order is Heaven's first law; and this confest, often inconsistent with, or destructive of, Some are, and must be, greater than the rest, Virtue. - That even these can make no Man More rich, more wise; but whoinfers from hence kappy without Virtue: Instanced in Riches - That such are happier, shocks all coninnn sepse. Honors — Nobility - Greatness - Fame Heaven to mankind iinpartial we confess, Superior Talents With pictures of human If all are equal in their happiness : infelicity in Men possessed of them all.-That But mutual wants this happiness increase ; Virtue only constitutes a Happiness whose ot. All nature's diff'rence keeps all nature's peace, ject is universal, and whose prospect eternal. Condition, circulpstance, is not the thing; That the perfection of Virtue and Happiness Bliss is the same in subject or in king: consists in a conformity to the Order of Pro-In who obtain defence, or who defend, vidence here, and a Resignation to it here and In him who is, of him who finds a friend': hereafter.
Heaven breathes thro'ev'ry member of the whole O HAPPINESS! out being's end and aim! One common blessing, as one coin'mon soul. Good, Pleasare, Ease, Content, whate'er thy But fortune's gifts if each alike possess'd, narue; And each were equal, must 710 ull contest?