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dastardly surrender to an enemy, whom, within these twelve years, our countrymen have defeated jo every quarter of the world ? No; we are not so miserably fallen-we cannot, in so short a space of time, have become so detestably degenerate : we have the strength and the will to repel the hostility, to chastise the insolence of the foe. Mighty, indeed, must be our efforts, but mighty also is the meed. Singly engaged against the tyrants of the earth, Britain now attracts the eyes and the hearts of mankind ; groaning nations look to her for deliverance-justice, liberty, and religion are inscribed on her banners-her success will be hailed with the shouts of the universe, while tears of admiration and gratitude will bedew the heads of ber sons who fall in the glorious contest." - Pp. 159-161.
The subject of this memoir had already introduced the word “statistical" into the English language, and in his “Codean” system introduced a second. The object of this system was the condensation of human knowledge. He designed to complete, with his own hand, codes upon the four great subjects of Health, Agriculture, Political Economy, and Religion. The two former he published (both after his retirement from public life in 1811); the two latter he left unfinished. The Code of Religion was an undertaking which suggested itself to Sir John's mind in his latter years, when his reflections were drawn more forcibly to that topic. Although he had, during his whole life, expressed much respect for religion, yet the hurry of a political career, and the distraction of numerous employments, had rendered him " parcus déorum cultor, et infrequens.” It is, in fact, difficult to bring the truths of Christianity to bear well upon minds similar to that of Sir John, if the piety of youth is early worn away. Such minds are continually theorizing upon insufficient knowledge, and are, in the end, either chilled by scepticism, or led to faith by the way of the evidences. The subjeet of this memoir was brought to serious thought by the beaten way of sorrow. When clouds overcast all without, he looked for some sunshine within.
At a later period, however, after he had entered upon public life, and had becoine immersed in those absorbing pursuits, which, without habitual watchfulness and prayer, are so apt to weaken, and even paralyze religious feelings, he liad reason to lament, as he himself acknowledged, that spiritual interests were in a great degree forgotten. His moral character continued irreproachable, but his piety had declined. On one occasion, his friend Arthur Young, with a fidelity not common in the world, ventured to remoustrate with him on his spiritual lukewarmness. “Your conduct,” said Mr. Young, “surprises me beyond measure. You are a moral man. You do all the good in your power; you full with great strictness all your relative duties; but you are not a Christian. You hardly ever attend the public ordinances of religion. You rarely, if ever, read the Bible, and you probably neglect private prayer. How can you, who know that you ought to act differently, expect to prosper? Think of These things before it is too late."- Pp. 377—378.
The earnest exhortations of another valued correspondent, Mr. Wilberforce, appear also to have made a salutary impression upon my father's mind. The following may be given as an example: « My dear Sir John,
“ Brighton, 4th Dec. 1815. “I do admire your indefatigable and inexhaustible energy; and I must say I respect that versatility in the direction of your powers, which entitles you VOL. XX. NO. IV.
in another way to the praise which Dr. Johnson, with all his disaffection towards Dissenters, lavished on Dr. Watts; for that he, the same man, could at one time enter the lists with Locke and Leibnitz, and at another write hymns for children of seven years old.
“But, my dear Sir John), suffer me, and that with real seriousness, and real good-will, to express a wish, that as, whatever may be your success in the extension of longevity, your period and mine for going bence must soon arrive, you would expend some of your attention on what will follow after we sball have stript off this mortal coil; the rather because we are assured in that book, which, after close inquiry, I believe to be of divine authority, that in order to secure for ourselves the happiness offered to us hereafter, there must be great labour and much diligence. But then we know that labour and diligence in that effort only, if exerted with simplicity of intention, can never fail. But I will trespass on your time no longer, but will hasten to subscribe myself, my dear Sir John, yours sincerely,
The death of my eldest sister, and the publication of her work on the Principles of the Christian Faith, had also a great influence in drawing her father's mind to considerations of a strictly religious character.
The difficulties, indeed, to which I have referred, passed away—but meantime the sufferer had profited by the painful but instructive lesson. He had learnt to look upon the trials and vicissitudes of human life with the serene eye of christian wisdom, and to refer prosperity and adversity alike to the allmerciful Disposer of both. “I began once more," he says, “ to appreciate the value of devotion, and to profit by the Scriptures as the only source of present, but more especially of future happiness."
From papers written after this period, it appears that christian principles, christian hopes and consolations gradually acquired ascendency over his mind. I am gratified to find among his papers, various evidences of religious feeling. Several forms of prayer occur, adapted to his own private exigencies, as well as to the political aspect of the times.
In 1821, he drew up, with his own hand, a testamentary document, in which, after solemn profession of his faith in the Jewish and Christian Scriptures as declarations of the Divine will, he acknowledges his unfitness as a fallen creature to abide the scrutiny of Omniscient Justice, and humbly prays forgiveness through the mediation of his Redeemer.- Pp. 379-381.
The satisfaction he derived from joining in the communion made him lament the practice of the Scottish national establishment, which withholds a privilege so consolatory from the sick and the dying. It seemed anomalous that one sacrament, by the regulations of the Church, might be administered in a private room, while the other was restricted to the usual places of public worship; for which, after all, no peculiar sanctity was claimed. He endeavoured to prevail on soine of his clerical friends to bring the subject before the General Assembly; and a paper is still extant, containing the regulations, under which, as he conceived, the privilege inight be conceded.
For some years before bis death, he assembled every day his family for divine worship, and was anxious, on such occasions, that the prayers offered should recognise the great leading doctrines of the Gospel, and express, in the fullest manner, feelings of humility, confidence, and thankfulness. Like Dr. Johnson, he sometimes commenced the new year with an appropriate prayer. That wbich he wrote for the last new year of his life, and which he intended as an addition to the usual family devotions, may be here inserted as a specimen of these compositions.
“ Almighty and most inerciful Father, thou only giver of every true and perfect gift, we bow down before Thee, arkuowledging our many past transgressions, and entreating thy favour, thy mercy, and protection for the time to come. More especially, we implore thy gracious acceptance of our humble thanksgivings for thy goodness towards us during the year that has just closed; during which, no calainity has befallen any member of the family, while the · whole of it has been distinguished by unceasing marks of thy providential care. We humbly pray, most gracious Father, for the contiouance of thy goodness during the year that has now commenced. May it be marked, equally with the last, by the tokens of thy mercy, and call forth the gratitude which thy beneficence so justly claims. With that firm reliance on the mediation of our blessed Saviour, which this season of the year so peculiarly calls forth, we conclude "these bumble petitions in the words which he himself hath taught us. Our Father," &c.
It was among his maxims, that the diseases of old age, and the calamities of life, are not to be lamented ; being necessary to wean our hearts from the world, and lead us to prepare for another. The “loss of parents," he added, “ of children, of near relatives, and intimate friends, all unite in rendering it desirable to quit this temporary abode. In fact, we aged persons become strangers upon earth, and can be hardly otherwise than willing to withdraw from it."
The influence of religion appeared from the increasing placidity and cheerfulness of his temper amidst increasing infirmities.-Pp. 382—384.
We beg to recommend to our readers the perusal of two of the principal transactions of Sir John's last years,--the Bullion Controversy, and the Letters upon the Roman-catholic Question. His views upon the former point comprise a lucid and admirable statement (introduced by some ingenious remarks of his biographer). In the latter, the sophistical double-meanings of the papist soi-disant Bishops appear to have deceived the ingenuous and generous mind of their correspondent.
This excellent person died, in the peace and hope of the Gospel, Dec. 21st, 1835, leaving a deep claim upon public and private gratitude.* Whether the latter fulfilled its duty we know not; but we are sure that the former did not bestow upon Sir John Sinclair all the honour and distinction he deserved. His fame, however, will shine brighter every year. And, in the mean while, we believe, that not one of his countrymen will be unwilling to agree with his friend Dr. Gillies, in classing him with those " enlightened and patriotic individuals,
• Inventas aut qui vitam excoluere per artes
Utopia ; or the Happy Republic. A
Philosophical Romance. By Sir Thomas More. To which is added, The New Atlantis, by LORD BACON. With a Preliminury Discourse, containing an Analysis of
Plato's Republic, 8c. ; and copious
London: J. Rickerby. Pp. lvii. 271. This forms the fourth volume of the (so called) masterpieces of English prose literature; but the subjects have
* About two hundred persons are said to have owed to Sir John Sinclair the means of their success in life.
evidently been selected by the editor, solely for the opportunity they afforded bim of grossly attacking the Church, and broaching offensive doctrines of republican equality and resolution. At page 24, for instance, he writes, “It used to be the policy of kings to goad the people into rebellion, that they might have an excuse for thinning them. In modern times they are sacrificed-to tithes, that a wealthy Clergy inay be maintained.” At page 33, “ Our Saviour found the temple of Jerusalem converted into a marketplace and den of thieves, by the Jewish priesthood. The spirit of the Clergy has ever been the same.” At page 50, « One meets a tolerable sprinkling of them, wherever there is sin or pleasure to be found, from the fox's tail to the Parisian salon.” And at page 218, we have a sneer at the Episcopal bench, of a most satanic nature. Fie! Mr. St. John. As members of that priesthood, which you dare to vility, we hope you may live to see the error of your ways, and repent in sackcloth and ashes ;-and, in a temporal matter, we advise you to procure good and sound critical translations of classics, you pretend to understand, before you further misinterpret and mislead your readers, if such should be found, when acquainted with your heartless and disgusting slanders, and utter want of judgment in whatever relates to religion, literature, or politics !
at one view, the succession of many kingdoms, and as many ages. And, therefore, as it cannot be denied that history bringeth an inconceivable benefit to succeeding times, as well for use as delight, so cannot the profit and pleasure be less, but much more, which cometh by chronology; especially if we consider, that by it many histories of forepassed ages, or, at least, the quintessence and substance of them, are at once represented unto us." The little volume under notice is arranged with great taste and judgment; and, we predict, will become a permanent favourite with young people. The tables are clear and easily comprehended. The only trifling corrections we would suggest, are the definition of “era" at page 32, which word certainly does not mean a point of time, as the very next explanation shows; and at page 36, we would substitute "epoch of these Mahometans" for “era," which, in our judgment, would more properly convey The meaning of the fair authoress, whom we earnestly hope will shortly favour the rising generation with other works of equally intrinsic value.
Conversations on Chronology, with a
Set of Chronological Tables for the
ondon: Picker ing. Pp. vi. 100. This little book is introduced to the public by the well-known and highlyesteemed author of « Gleanings in Natural History," and is the work of a favourite niece. The value and importance of this study was ably set forth, above two centuries ago, by Henry Isaacson, in his great chronological work, fle says, “ The chief light and eye of history is chronology; which is, indeed, the very loadstar which directeth a man out of the sea of history into the wished-for haven of his reading, and causeth him to behold,
Practical Reflections on the Second
Advent. By the Rev. HUGH WHITE,
and Co. Pp. xvi. 266. This really useful and practical work is divided into fourteen chapters. It opeus with the scriptural testimony and probable reasons for the prominence given to this subject in Scripture; and, after some sound practical reflections, proceeds to address the Millenarians, whose fanciful and unscriptural speculations are completely demolished. The language sometimes, perhaps, reminds us, by its warinth, of the country whence it emanated; for the Clergy, no less than the statesmen and authors of Ireland, have a somewhat redundant style, and revel too much in the fields of imagination ;but of the zeal and ability with which the undertaking has been coinmenced and finished, no difference of opinion can exist.
Studies of the Apoculypse ; or, an
Altempt to elucidate the Revelation of si. John. London: Hatchard and Son, 1838. 12mo. Pp. XX, 320.
long since shown that there does not appear to be sufficient evidence for this opinion. The sentiments, to which we have felt it our duty thus to advert, are not obtruded offensively upon the reader ; who, we think, cannot arise from the attentive perusal of this volume without deriving an interesting addition to his previous knowledge of the Apocalypse.
So numerous are the interpretations of the Apocalypse, that it really becomes a matter of no small difficulty to pronounce which is the best. By a judicious collation and condensation of the united labours of the various commentators and expositors of this prophetic book, we have no doubt that posterity will eventually be much benefited. The present volume, which is modestlytermed Studies," is piously and soberly written. The following is an outline of the author's items : “ The SEVEN SEALS relate to the ecclesiastical state of Christendom : they embrace a period from the promulgation of the Gospel to the rapture of the saints. The seveN TRUMPETS have reference to the political state of Christendom, as regards the changes in the universal goveromeut. They occupy a period from the overthrow of the imperial government by the Goths, &c., to the establishment of Messiah's kingdom. The Seven VIALS correspond with the sitting of the judgment, (Dan. vii. 10,) upon antichrist. Their outpouring commenced A.D. 1793, and will continue unto his final destruction.” In the course of his work, the author has made judicious use of the previous labours of Bishop Newton; and in the application of modern history to recent events, Mr. Alison's admirable History of Europe has furnished some very valuable materials. From a page or two in the Introduction, it appears that the author adopts the hypothesis of the personal reign of the Messiah : this hypothesis, however, is not brought forward poJenically. We consider the doctrine of the Anglican Church, as expressed in her Fourth Article, to be directly opposed to this opinion. Following the example of Vitringa and some other interpreters, the author also views the Epistles to the seven apoca, lyptic churches as prophetical of so many successive periods or states of the Christian Church in particular countries. But Bishop Newton has
The Genealogies recorded in the Scriptures, according to every Family and Tribe: with the Line of our Saviour Jesus Christ, observed from Adam to the Virgin Mary. By John PAYNE MORRIS, Esq. London: Groom
bridge. 1837. Folio. This volume consists of forty very neatly engraved plates, including two maps, with illustrative letter-press. It is a very considerable improvement upon the Genealogical Tables published by the historian Speed, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, as well as in the early part of the seventeenth century, and which are now very rarely to be met with. A copious catalogue of names occurring in the table, terminates the volume; the utility of which entitles it to a place in every wellselected biblical library.
A Memoir of the Life and Writings of
JOHN ALBERT BENGEL, Prelute in Würtemburg ; compiled principally from Manuscripts never before published. By John CHRISTIAN FREDERICK BURK, A.M. Translated from the German by Robert FRANcis WALKER, M.A. London: Ball.
1837. 8vo. Pp. xii. 533. BIOGRAPHIES of distinguished scholars are, too often, little more than chronological details of their literary Jabours, and sometimes of their literary disputes. The present work, however, forms a pleasing exception. This Memoir is drawn up chiefly from original manuscripts; and the translator has produced (which is by no means easy to accomplish) a readable volume,